Health Promotion In Minority Population Free Essay


I have chosen Native Americans to deeply explain their race and ethnicity, health disparities and barriers to the advanced health system, health promotional concepts practiced by the Indian Americans, and the cultural aspects to be considered when developing a care plan in society.

Native Americans are indigenous individuals living in North America within the boundaries of contemporary continental United States, Alaska, and the islands of Hawaii State. They comprise various tribes, ethnic teams, States where several live as entire government communities (Oxendine, 2022).

In addition, they have a close association with the United States since they are participants of nations and tribes who have liberty from the administration of the United States. The society and culture of Indian Americans flourish within the extensive population of descendants of immigrants from Africa, Asia, Middle Eastern, and European individuals.

The Ethnic Minority, Race and Ethnicity and The Health Status of Native Americans

Indian Americans belong to various States with varying linguistic, social, cultural, and financial features in terms of ethnicity. For instance, based on religion, the group believes in Christianity methods of worshipping, where most of them communicate in English and other native dialects such as Navajo, Pueblo, and Apache (Minority Rights Group International., 2022).

Race and ethnicity are socially designed forms that have tangible impacts on the life of people who are well-defined by how one observes oneself and how others perceive one in society (Baciu, 2022). Therefore, racial and ethnic inequalities in the health condition of American Indians have extensively contributed to chronic disorders, premature deaths, and injuries that are broadly recognized as the priority national health ad civil rights consequences. Therefore, the effectiveness of this problem can be improved by advancing the data obtained from medical settings that assist in addressing and understanding the health differences.

The health care condition of Native Americans lags compared to other ethnic groups in America despite all the allowed obligations and efforts to promote and support health care facilities to them (Smith, 2022). The group experiences significant disparities based on health care conditions resulting from insufficient access to comprehensive health services. Recently, the America Indians were born with a life expectancy of 4.4 years less than the entire United States population group. Additionally, they consistently pass away at increased rates than other Americans due to curable and preventable infections such as chronic liver disorder and cirrhosis, diabetes, and chronic decreased respiratory diseases.

Health Disparities and Nutritional Challenges Facing American Indians

Native Americans have diverse chronic and mental health inequalities compared to other groups. Due to the poor health conditions of the group, there are increased infection levels of HIV/AIDS, two types of diabetes, obesity, and respiratory cancer diseases due to extreme cigarette smoking by both youths and adults (Baciu, 2022).

In terms of mental health status, the individuals have reported high cases of severe psychological distresses and increased medical prescription about cognitive health services. Moreover, this group’s leading causes of death were heart infections, lung cancer, and fatal accidents.

American Indians have been experiencing poor nutritional diets due to the increased poverty rate since they are located in food deserts. Generally, it is challenging to access nutritious meals such as fresh fruits, vegetables, and total grain carbohydrates for low investments and income (Goetz, 2022). Therefore, this has led to many adults and infants suffering from obesity, heart infections, type 2 diabetes, and overweight women.

The Health Barriers of Native Americans Resulting from Culture, Socioeconomics, Education and Sociopolitical Factors

American Indian communities’ various obstacles in receiving both mental and physical healthcare. The barriers primarily negatively impact the individuals facing homelessness challenge where this community makes the largest percentage of homelessness countrywide.

Therefore, the major health care obstacles among people in this society include discrimination and stigmatization, poor transportation and health care facilities, restrictive policies and regulations from the government, limited clinic hours, cold and bureaucratic customs of health care structure (Wille et al., 2017). In addition, varying conversation forms between the Native Americans and the healthcare providers have been considered another vital barrier since the doctors and nurses cannot understand the information shared by the patient about their illness symptoms.

Health Promotion Activities Practiced by America Indian Communities and The Most Effective Strategy That Is Likely to Be Applied in Care Plan

The invention of various strategies is required to mitigate health inequalities, thus improving the health status of Native Americans. Therefore, some of the approaches employed to focus on disorders prevention, health advancement, and national health include; community-based interventions, tribal control, and management of the health plans, and improved understanding of the role of American Indian’s cultural aspects in modifying health (Geana, 2019).

Since a care plan is a document that highlights the assessed health and social care requirements of the patient and the ways to be supported, the most effective and efficient approach to apply is the conduction of health communication campaigns (Geana, 2019). This concept plays a vital role by installing knowledge and skills among the Native communities about the health issues such as preventive and curative practices and informing them about the directional mechanisms of health structures. In addition, health communication campaigns have also led to developing culturally accurate data and designing the information to the targeted groups’ demands, attitudes, and habits.

Cultural Beliefs to Be Considered When Creating Care Plan and Cultural Theory That Can Support Health Promotion for American Indians

Some of the essential values to be considered while providing nursing and palliative care include patients’ welfare, patient choice, religious difference, language obstacles, unfamiliarity with the hospice settings, personal trauma, unfamiliarity with the and the distrust of the clinicians. Thus, doctors and nurses should enhance their capability of offering patient-centered care by reflecting patients’ customs, values, and cultural backgrounds interrelated to healthcare demands.

The cultural competence model is significant in the health care setting as it builds compassion. However, when a team of individuals reports a particular trend concerning an issue, it becomes a responsibility of each person to get involved and have a united move towards resolving the issues such as patients experiencing chronic diseases to visit healthcare facilities regularly, racial and ethnic minorities and also lack of cultural competence (Nahian & Natasha 2021).


Native Americans should improve healthcare facilities and conditions by reducing the risk behaviors leading to chronic and respiratory diseases, strengthening the tribal States’ health capacity, and improving tribal wellness.

This will lead to reduced mortality rates, increased life expectancies, and improved healthcare and transportation facilities, improving the health standard among American Indian societies.


Oxendine, J. (2022). “What Is a Native American?”.

Minority Rights Group International. (2022). “Native Americans – Minority Rights Group.”

Smith, M. (2022). “Native Americans: A Crisis in Health Equity.”,cirrhosisdiabetesandchroniclower.

Goetz, G. (2022). “Nutrition a Pressing Concern for American Indians. Food Safety News”.,commonamongAIANpeople.

Wille, S. M., Kemp, K. A., Greenfield, B. L., & Walls, M. L. (2017). Barriers to healthcare for American Indians experiencing homelessness. Journal of social distress and the homeless, 26(1), 1-8.

Nahian, A., & Natasha, J. (2021). “Cultural Competence In Caring For American Indians and Alaska Natives.”

Baciu, A., Division, H., Practice, B., States, C., & Negussie, Y. et al. (2022). “The State of Health Disparities in the United States.”

Geana, M. V., Greiner, K. A., Cully, A., Talawyma, M., & Daley, C. M. (2019). Improving health promotion to American Indians in the Midwest United States: Preferred sources of health information and its use for the medical encounter. Journal of community health, 37(6), 1253-1263.

Healthcare Apps And Global Healthcare Essay Sample For College

Advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have allowed the creation of systems and apps targeted at aiding rehabilitation treatment and, therefore, contributing to the enrichment of patients’ life quality in recent years. To preserve a competitive edge and improve the quality of health services, web-enabled communication, patient services, and other e-Health projects have been extensively developed. Thus, health care has become much better as a result of this. Health care providers have always relied on technology to provide tools, diagnoses, and various therapy options (Char et al., 2020). In addition, the use of information and communication technology in the administration and planning of health sectors has grown significantly in recent years. Thus, healthcare providers must broaden their capacities to include patients and the public to create powerful, efficient, user-friendly telemedicine platforms. Doctors and nurses utilize the Internet in two primary ways: via email and a vast repository of clinical knowledge. Aside from their excellent computer abilities and favorable outlook on the Internet, it is also said that they have a strong desire to utilize both methods regularly. Although some health professionals still have difficulty accepting new technology, several health sectors incorporate ICT into some of their disciplines.

Major healthcare applications

They include Telehealth, Electronic Health Records, and an Application Service Provider (ASP).

Types of payers

One who pays for medical services provided by a healthcare professional is called a payer. Private insurance firms are most often associated with this phrase since they provide their clients with health plans that cover the costs of medical treatment and care services and pay consumers for those expenses. Commercial, private, and government are the three sorts of payers selected.

Impact of apps on global healthcare

The adoption of healthcare apps has had a profound impact on the dynamics of global healthcare. Most significantly, they’ve simplified and streamlined the process of receiving treatment and care. Healthcare apps have enhanced patient care throughout the globe. Virtual appointments allow patients to visit with their doctor virtually. Virtual appointments may be available at certain clinics, allowing you to meet with a doctor or nurse through a webcam. When an in-person visit is not needed or practicable, these appointments allow you to continue receiving treatment from your usual doctor (Char et al., 2020). Other virtual appointments include doctor or nurse practitioner “visits” that take place over the Internet. These services are similar to those offered in a walk-in clinic in most cases. Certain big corporations offer virtual physicians’ offices as part of their health care services. To use a web-based service, you must answer a series of questions before proceeding. When the doctor or nurse practitioner decides to prescribe medicine or offer home health care options, they might also recommend extra medical treatment. Additionally, nurses at a nursing call center employ a question-and-answer style to assist patients in their own homes with their health care needs. Diagnosis of drug prescription is not the responsibility of a nurse call center. Furthermore, remote monitoring has been made possible thanks to the applications. The doctor can monitor your health from afar thanks to various technologies. Included among these tools are:

  • Using a web-based or mobile app to upload data to your doctor or health care team, such as blood glucose measurements, is possible.
  • Blood pressure, glucose, and lung function monitoring devices that wirelessly communicate data
  • These gadgets automatically record and send heart rate, blood glucose levels, gait and posture patterns, tremors, and physical activity or sleep schedules.
  • Detecting changes in daily activities, such as falls, among the elderly or those with dementia at home.

Additionally, physicians can communicate with doctors throughout the globe. Doctors may also use technology to improve patient care. For instance, primary care practitioners may consult with experts through virtual consultation when they have doubts regarding their diagnosis or therapy. Exam notes, history, test results, and X-rays or other pictures are sent by primary care doctors to specialists. There are a number of options available to the expert, including electronic responses, virtual appointments at your doctor’s office, or even a personal encounter. As a result of these virtual consultations, there may be no need for unneeded in-person referrals to specialists, reduced wait periods for professional input, and no wasteful travel. Patients and doctors can access each other’s health records through tools like telehealth and the Electronic Health Record (Char et al., 2020). It is an electronic personal health record system or PHR system that you manage and maintain. Your computer, laptop, tablet, or smartphone can be used to access a PHR app at any time. Patients’ medical histories, including current diagnoses, medications, drug allergies, and contact information for their doctors, can be quickly made available to emergency personnel in an emergency. Personal health applications have also been developed. Apps that assist customers in better managing several developers have developed their medical information. One may find these digital tools useful in a number of ways:

  • Keep a record of the medical history.
  • Keep track of the vitals.
  • Determine how many calories one consumes and keep track of it.
  • One will get medication reminders on a regular basis.

Also noteworthy is that technological advancements still hold promise for increasing access to and improving the quality of health care for everyone. Telehealth has the potential to improve the quality, accessibility, and cost-effectiveness of medical treatment by bringing it closer to patients’ homes (Vannithamby & Soong, 2020). Even though telehealth and other applications are still in their infancy, there is much interest in them. Both telephone-based assistance and telemonitoring of vital signs of persons with heart failure have been found to minimize the risk of mortality and hospitalization for heart failure and enhance the quality of life.

Are the apps standardized or customized?

Currently, they are being tailored to fulfill particular requirements. Healthcare software developers often overlook users’ features, duties, preferences, and other aspects of usability. As a result, systems may cause productivity to drop or become useless. Poor system development may be traced to a number of causes, including budget and time constraints and a dearth of programmers versed in user-centered design principles. Furthermore, 63 percent of initiatives overrun their budgets because of a lack of user analysis from the beginning (Vannithamby & Soong, 2020). Good customization principles may save both time and money by being included early on in the project and reduce the number of design modifications that have to be made later in the process, how the product is going to be used, where it will be put to use, and what characteristics are considered necessary by the target user. One of the primary uses of a UCD for designers is addressing issues related to mental representations of illness and disability for both patients and specialists.

Benefits of using these apps

Patients in rural areas without access to a local doctor or clinic can benefit from using technology to deliver health care, saving money, time, and inconvenience. Because of these reasons, the use of telemedicine has increased significantly over the past decade (Vannithamby & Soong, 2020). Telehealth is now used by 76 percent of hospitals in the United States, up from 35 percent a decade ago. Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic necessitates more telehealth services. There is a growing interest in and use of technology to provide and receive health care because of concerns about the spread of the virus (Chaet et al., 2017). Three-quarters of those polled said the pandemic had piqued their interest in trying out virtual healthcare. Virtual health care visits increased from just 4% to 14% of those over 50 in the first three months of the pandemic, a dramatic increase in those over 50 who had a remote visit last year. A user will enjoy several advantages.

  • They can keep track of weight, food consumption, blood pressure, heart rate, and blood sugar levels, and report them to the doctor through a wearable gadget.
  • A doctor’s or a nurse’s visit is entirely online or through a mobile device.
  • An online gateway that allows one to check their test results seek medication refills, message the doctor, or make an appointment with them.
  • Sharing test results, diagnoses, prescriptions, and drug allergies with all of the providers.
  • Assisting in the coordination of care between the primary care provider and any specialists the patient visits, including exchanging exam notes and test results between medical offices in different locations.
  • Get reminders via email or text when one is due for screenings like mammograms, colonoscopies, and vaccinations.
  • Ensuring that senior citizens eat, sleep, and take their medications on time at home is an important responsibility.

Benefits of App Customization

Users’ adoption and enjoyment of these apps are increased when they are tailored to meet their traits and demands. The framework’s inclusion of end-users in the design process enables crucial data collection on user demands. In addition, the initial functional layouts are more reliable and validated. Thus, this framework serves as a starting point for designing telemedicine system interfaces tailored to the users’ demands. Without lowering patient monitoring, it greatly lowers the time spent in hospitals. In addition, the use of a web application allows for more flexible communication between the patient and the doctor. Using this approach, telemedicine systems may be designed more efficiently. Because of this, researchers and system developers must collaborate in order to apply user-centered design principles to the creation of new systems that cater to the particular requirements of individual patients. Furthermore, the medical team, the design team, and the development team must work together to guarantee that telemedicine systems are properly designed and implemented.


It is projected that medical applications will become even more ubiquitous in clinical practice as their capabilities and applications develop. Medical facilities are still hesitant to employ them in clinical practice, though. Most health care professionals don’t have a full grasp of the hazards and benefits that come along with the gadgets and applications that doctors and nurses use every day. Medical applications must be thoroughly evaluated, validated, and best-practice standards developed if they are to be utilized with any degree of confidence. As a result of such metrics, the primary determinant of an app’s worth may ultimately be its capacity to supply end users with relevant and correct information and assistance, in order to serve the crucial aim of improving patient outcomes.


Chaet, D., Clearfield, R., Sabin, J. E., & Skimming, K. (2017). Ethical practice in Telehealth and Telemedicine. Journal of General Internal Medicine32(10), 1136–1140.

Char, D. S., Abràmoff, M. D., & Feudtner, C. (2020). Identifying Ethical Considerations for Machine Learning Healthcare Applications. The American Journal of Bioethics20(11), 7–17.

Vannithamby, R., & Soong, A. (2020). 5G Verticals: Customizing Applications, Technologies and Deployment Techniques. In Google Books. John Wiley & Sons.

High Cost Of Treatment In Pediatrics With Type 1 Diabetes In United States Sample Essay

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a major health concern globally. It affects people of all ages, such as infants, adolescents, adults and the elderly. T1D is considered an autoimmune condition whereby the immune system attacks the islet cells located within the pancreas, which interferes with normal insulin production (Borchers et al., 2010.). Much research has been conducted to help treat T1D in pediatrics, such as proper nutrition, body exercise and behavioral changes (Chiang et al., 2018.). However, there are existing gaps in this issue. Various databases such as PubMed Central and Science Direct have addressed the issue of T1D in pediatrics. This paper seeks to address the methods used and ongoing research in T1D and the high cost of T1D treatment and management in pediatrics in the United States.

Many studies have been conducted to come up with solutions to prevent and treat children suffering from T1D. A study conducted to show the prevalence of T1D in pediatrics and youths below 19 years showed a 21.1% rise in cases between 2001 and 2009 (Chiang et al., 2018.). The research showed that all races are at high risk, except the American Indians. The number of pediatric T1D patients continues to grow as days goes by. T1D diabetes in pediatrics can be symptomatic or asymptomatic.

Insulin therapy is vital for the survival of type 1 diabetic pediatrics. Insulin delivery systems have been developed to help mimic normal insulin patterns within the body (Chiang et al., 2018.). The insulin infusion pump therapy has been used for the treatment of type 1 diabetic patients. Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion (CSII) has a significant impact on pediatric patients with poor glucose metabolism. CSII has high efficacy in the initial treatment of T1D (Dovc et al., 2014). This mode of treatment has increased the quality of life and has reduced the following: Rates of hypoglycemia, glycated hemoglobin (HbAIc) levels and hypoglycemia phobia. Continuous glucose monitoring devices in insulin administration have significantly reduced hypoglycemia in pediatric patients.

Research is being conducted to apply telehealth to take care of children suffering from T1D in the United States (Fogel & Raymond, 2020.). Telehealth has been implemented due to an uneven distribution of diabetic endocrinologists compared to the increased number of diabetic pediatrics in The States. The number of pediatric patients who can access an endocrinologist within 20 miles in the USA is 64.1%, and this poses a significant problem to pediatrics in rural areas (Fogel & Raymond, 2020.). Telehealth is cost-effective in the improvement pediatric health. Since diabetes requires several medical appointments to monitor glucose levels, telehealth can be used to access pediatric patients in rural areas easily. The care team can form access to the local laboratories or pharmacies where the patients can be monitored with ease. The essential clinical information such as HbAIc levels and data generated from various diabetes devices such as glucose monitors and glucometers can be obtained from a local laboratory or pharmacy and downloaded and shared to the care team via the internet. Various telehealth devices to be used to conduct physical examinations virtually, such as otoscopes, are under assessment.

Research is still being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of adjunctive therapies in the treatment of pediatric T1D in the USA. Adjunctive therapies mainly aim to solve the problem of insulin resistance (Chiang et al., 2018.). They are effective in the cases of obesity and adolescents. Endocrinologists are assessing the importance of adding metformin to insulin to control the glycemic levels in overweight pediatrics suffering from T1D. In combination with insulin, Pramlintide has proved to be effective in controlling glucose levels in type 1 diabetes patients. Pramlintide plays a role in the suppression of glucagon secretion delay of stomach emptying. However, the efficacy of pramlintide in pediatric patients is still being studied.

Lifestyle management is essential in T1D pediatric patients. It plays a significant role in preventing cardiovascular disease, control of glucose levels, and maintenance of health. Proper nutrition and exercise are essential in T1D pediatric patients (Chiang et al., 2018.). The carbohydrate intake should be monitored to achieve glycemic control. The dietitian should continually assess the food preferences and eating habits of the T1D pediatric patients. Carbohydrate intake from fruits, whole grains, vegetables, legumes, and dairy products should be preferred. The amount of saturated fats consumed should be minimized (Chiang et al., 2018.). Various strategies to prevent low glycemic levels during exercise include eating snacks before a workout, increasing carbohydrate consumption, and reducing the insulin dosage. Pre and post-exercise glucose levels should always be monitored to prevent hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in T1D children.

Behavior should also be considered during the management of T1D. A good behavioral lifestyle helps maintain blood sugar at suitable levels (Chiang et al., 2018.). Family issues and psychological stress can negatively impact the management of T1D in pediatrics. Social adjustments at school and home have proved to be very helpful in managing T1D in pediatric patients. Children from the age of 8 should be assessed for diabetes-related and generic stress (Chiang et al., 2018.). Therefore, family care should be provided to T1D adolescents.

Both blood and urine have been monitored for ketone levels in severe hyperglycemia in T1D pediatric patients to check for the effectiveness of insulin therapy. Ketone levels are also tested when the pediatric patients present with symptoms such as vomiting, fever, nausea and abdominal pain (Chiang et al., 2018.). Ketone levels guide the healthcare provider on whether to change insulin therapy, or urgent hospital admission is required. However, ketones may be present in urine due to fasting, and their presence does not always indicate acute illness.

As insulin therapy has been effective in managing T1D in pediatrics, the cost of management is relatively high. The cost of treatment varies based on insulin regimen and dosage and the devices used. A study showed that the annual estimated treatment cost per person in the USA was 4730 dollars (Ying et al., 2010.). T1D pediatric patients are also at a high risk of developing complications that require hospitalization accounting for more costs. The annual cost of intensive care, which comprises an insulin regimen and varied injections, was estimated to be 5800 dollars, which was three times the conventional therapy, which comprises two injections daily. Therefore, T1D pediatric patients face a significant financial cost.

In conclusion, insulin therapy is effective in T1D treatment in pediatric patients in the USA. Research in telehealth devices and adjunctive therapies will fill the existing gaps and provide effective T1D treatment in pediatrics. Lifestyle and behavioral modifications are necessary for the management of TID in pediatrics patients. The level of ketones in blood and urine should also be checked to assess the effectiveness of insulin therapy. The cost of treatment of T1D in pediatric patients is also a major challenge, and it should also be subsidized to make it affordable.


Borchers, A. T., Uibo, R., & Gershwin, M. (2010). The geoepidemiology of type 1 diabetes. Autoimmunity Reviews, 9(5), A355-A365.

Chiang, J. L., Maahs, D. M., Garvey, K. C., Hood, K. K., Laffel, L. M., Weinzimer, S. A., Wolfsdorf, J. I., & Schatz, D. (2018). Type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents: A position statement by the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care, 41(9), 2026-2044.

Dovc, K., Telic, S., Lusa, L., Bratanic, N., Tansec, M., & Kotnic, P. et al. (2014). Improved Metabolic Control in Pediatric Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Prospective 12-Year Time Trends Analysis. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics, 6(1), 33-38.

Fogel, J. L., & Raymond, J. K. (2020). Implementing Telehealth in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 67(4), 661-664.

Ying, A. K., Lairson, D. R., Giardino, A. P., Bondy, M. L., Zaheer, I., Haymond, M. W., & Heptulla, R. A. (2010). Predictors of direct costs of diabetes care in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 12(3pt1), 177-182.