Health Systems In Low- And Middle-Income Countries Free Writing Sample

Low and middle-income countries that are still developing pay a lot of attention to their healthcare system. The well-being of the population plays a critical role in the overall development and growth that is why various steps are undertaken to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of weaker health systems. Some positive alterations can already be seen due to the implementation of disease-specific programs that are supported by foreign aid (Mills, 2014). Still, a range of improvements is required to continue this positive tendency.

First of all, it will be rather advantageous if low and middle-income countries pay more attention to health education. It can be implemented even in the framework of preschool education. For example, children can deepen their knowledge in hygiene and sanitation. Classes of sexual education tend to be very useful at school because they can help to control transmission of related diseases, especially HIV/AIDS that has the crucial influence on people’s health all over the world. Finally, healthcare professionals and social workers can educate their clients so that they get to know how to prevent the most wide-spread diseases, protect themselves, and whom to address in case of emergency.

In addition to that, education should be maintained from the perspective of healthcare professionals. For example, the management can survey to find out what skills are currently required to work in the healthcare system of low and middle-income countries, pointing out those that need some improvement. Based on this information, professionals can develop the specific training program to ensure that medical staff becomes more efficient, especially considering new treatment approaches.

The next step for improvement can be focused on the implementation of e-health. Today the majority of people have electronic devices, such as phones, computers, and tablets, even in low- and middle-income countries. Using technology in the sphere of healthcare is likely to streamline many procedures. For instance, it will be easier to get an appointment or prescription. What is more, those people who live far from healthcare establishments or have limited movement can have online appointments. In the case of emergency, they will also have an opportunity to contact a practitioner with no time, which will increase one’s chances to reach positive health outcomes (Lewis, Synowiec, Lagomarsino, & Schweitzer, 2012).

Finally, it is significant to pay attention to finances. Many representatives of low- and middle-income countries do not have access to high-quality healthcare services because they are very expensive. In this framework, it is critical to reconsider general healthcare taxation and make insurance more affordable. The financing of universal coverage can be very advantageous in this framework. In addition to that, it can spread social health insurance programs. Voluntary insurance coverage can also be rather an effective way out. What is more, private entities should be encouraged to participate in service delivery. They tend to be able to improve the situation of the shortage of staff and inadequate stocks of medicines and supplies. Collaborating with the public sector, private establishments can fulfill more goals than when targeting them separately (Mills, 2014).

Following recommended steps, low and middle-income countries are likely to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of weaker health systems. They will develop long-term strategies that will guide their work, basing them on previous experiences. Their populations will become more knowledgeable of health promotion, maintenance, and preservation, which will make them more flexible and independent in the framework of decision-making. Finally, the very access to healthcare will improve greatly so that more people will be able to afford required treatment and services.


Lewis, T., Synowiec, C., Lagomarsino, G., & Schweitzer, J. (2012). E-health in low- and middle-income countries: findings from the Center for Health Market Innovations. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 90, 332-340.

Mills, A. (2014). Health care systems in low- and middle-income countries. The New England Journal of Medicine, 370, 552-557.

Prisoners’ Human Rights Protection


Though limited in power and resources, the advocacy agency may advocate for human rights in different ways. Prisons have become centers of various law violations as the current system does not treat prisoners fairly. For the protection of human rights in prisons, it is important to examine the existing practices and incorporate the knowledge about the existing organizations and methods of promoting social justice.

Possible Ways of Advocating for Social Justice

The first way is to raise social awareness of the issue. Nowadays, social media is a powerful advocacy tool as it connects diverse voices to promote some cause or mobilize for change. Norander (2017) suggests that nongovernmental agencies rely on digital communities, utilizing action messages that “are aimed at mobilizing the audience to do something for the organization or cause and to take direct action in the advocacy campaign” (p. 4). The second way involves cooperation with policy entrepreneurs. Powerful or wealthy people have the tenacity to introduce changes during open policy windows (Cullerton et al., 2018). The correct presentation of agencies’ views to entrepreneurs may later promote the ideas of social justice and human rights. Other possible practices include meetings with legislators, board directors, or walking picket lines (Hoefer, 2019). Advocating for social changes is not a simple task for a single agency, so cooperation with other organizations and individuals is required in most cases.

The Prison Law Office

The Prison Law Office is an excellent example of a non-profit public interest law firm specializing in fair justice for prisoners. It consists of a small staff of lawyers who try to prevent unlawful treatment in California prisons. As the PLO (n.d.) claims, they “engage in class action and other impact litigation, advocate for policy and law changes, assist individuals in administrative actions and lawsuits, educate the public, create and distribute self-help information” (para. 1). The work of this agency helps to understand the correct ways of assistance by efforts of a small agency. Due to their lack of staff, they have to cooperate with other law organizations such as American Civil Liberties Union National Prison Project. The work process includes meetings with citizens at the town hall, cooperation with the governor as well as filing lawsuits. The PLO example supports the idea that agencies should work together with other entrepreneurs to reach their goals of promoting social justice.

Suicides in Prison

Suicides in prison have become a matter of concern for international human rights organizations. This phenomenon, particularly self-inflicted death, requires serious regulation. For example, to prevent this process, the European Court of Human Rights works to improve material conditions and promote rehabilitation and human dignity (Rogan, 2018). It investigates breaches of human rights and may award compensation to the victims. Special standards should be followed in prisons, and such organizations observe whether medical care is provided to prisoners with mental health needs or whether professionals are qualified to offer their services. Screening programs are implemented to examine suicide risk factors, and prevention strategies are utilized.

The System of Prisons

Educational materials may come in various forms. Mathews, who started his work as a correctional officer and later moved to community corrections, suggests that the system in prisons does not work properly and proposes a lasting impact (TEDx Talks). People are not assigned to prisons according to their needs for rehabilitation and treatment. Additional material like this serves as a great source of information and knowledge as it provides real-life experience. Situations that are usually described in these videos can be used in learning for practice as cases. The people who create podcasts raise social awareness, and their examples are well-suited for promoting policies concerning justice. The ideas of such individuals may be incorporated into human rights practices by presenting them as supporting material in speeches.


The study shows that cooperation is the best way for an advocacy agency to support human rights and protect social justice. Social awareness should be raised about the existing problems to promote the necessary changes. The system of prisons is corrupted, flawed, and requires special attention. It may be quite entertaining to look for the information in various podcasts and videos and incorporate the experience of others into practice.


Cullerton, K., Donnet, T., Lee, A., & Gallegos, D. (2018). Effective advocacy strategies for influencing government nutrition policy: A conceptual model. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15(1), 1-11. 

Hoefer, R. (2019). Advocacy practice for social justice. Oxford University Press.

Norander, S. (2017). Advocacy. The International Encyclopedia of Organizational Communication, 1-5. Web.

Prison Law Office. (n.d.). About us. 

Rogan, M. (2018). Human rights approaches to suicide in prison: implications for policy, practice and research. Health & Justice, 6(15), 1-11. 

TEDx Talks. (2017). The surprising reason our correctional system doesn’t work. [Video]. 

The Learning Process: E-Learning: Academic Achievement

It is of major importance to take advantage of children’s natural desire to study, their learning capability, curiosity, and creativity. Thus, teachers should enhance the tools that are used to encourage students to actively participate in the learning process, search for new information, and organize it in an efficient way. One of the most significant ideas mentioned in the chapter includes the proposal to promote the learning of the knowledge creation process itself. Encouraging students to actively participate in experiments helps them understand more complex issues they encounter. Combining learning theory and exploring its implementation in various types of experiments (not only in the lab) allows for greater motivation and, therefore, greater performance.

Assessment retains its prominent role in the educational process, as it provides objective results of the learning process. Assessment is vital because it helps motivate students and allows for a comprehensive understanding of the overall learning results. Thus, students can understand what subjects and areas they should pay more attention to. Moreover, grades and other types of assessments encourage parents to participate and contribute to the learning process. The experts state that knowing the core of the poor performance and certain weaknesses helps students manage their time in a more effective way (Yang et al., 2016). Therefore, they begin to emphasize learning, organizing, and explaining information in a way that improves their performance.

It has become vivid that we are to create learning communities with electronic communication, as they provide plenty of new opportunities and have certain advantages in modern learning processes. Providing students with all the materials needed for e-learning is instrumental in ensuring their high level of motivation and proper performance. Mayer (2017) points out that teachers will have to use more digital materials, stream online lectures, and high-quality scientific movies. Kong (2018) is sure that encouraging parents to understand the tools used in e-learning is essential for the complete success of this transformation. Developing tools for collecting homework, receiving feedback, and assessing files sent by students may be challenging. Nevertheless, people should not miss such opportunity to make the educational process more comprehensive and entertaining at the same time.


Kong, S. C. (2018). Parents’ perceptions of e-learning in school education: Implications for the partnership between schools and parents. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 27(1), 15-31.

Mayer, R. E. (2017). Using multimedia for e‐learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33(5), 403-423.

Yang, Y., van Aalst, J., Chan, C. K., & Tian, W. (2016). Reflective assessment in knowledge building by students with low academic achievement. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 11(3), 281-311.