Healthcare: New Treatment Methods Essay Example

At the beginning of the 21st century, the healthcare system in the USA has changed dramatically because of new technologies and new treatment methods available for millions of patients. The USA should not have a healthcare reform when citizens are working because it will be a great burden for the state and its financial health. Modern healthcare need effective technology and marketing planning in order to compete with other healthcare providers. Innovations allow healthcare professionals to improve treatment methods and help those patients who are always considered hopeless. Thesis The United States should not have health care reform when members are working, but it has to support every child and provide him/her with quality healthcare services.

The working population of the USA has enough potential to pay for medical purposes and buy medical insurance. Today, healthcare depends upon the goals and objectives of healthcare organizations and their strategic position on the market. The innovative elements used by healthcare organizations are organ transplantation and DNA analysis, cardiac potentiation therapy stimulation and new ways of birth, etc. These innovative technologies, which deal with people’s needs, provide satisfaction for these needs, and, hence, deliver utility.

These drastic changes in income have caused additional turbulence in the market place in terms of people’s needs and their satisfaction. However, the unique concept of healthcare implies that the market functions almost perfectly and to the utmost satisfaction of consumers. “Technology-driven medical care becomes very sophisticated” (Edelman and Mandle 7).

Today’s consumer has a tremendous number of choices. The economic impact of the modern corporate entity is far reaching. New treatment methods and new drugs allow many patients to avoid surgery and support wellness, if the healthcare clients are complaining more often than before about some specific aspects of the healthcare delivery, there appear to be a serious problem in the making (Sheinfeld-Gorin and Arnold 11).

The need to introduce government regulations is justified by the fact that many medical institutions have not introduced dramatic changes to their patterns of purchasing from hospitals. To some extent, decisions are influenced by the pressures exerted by established customs, but this should not conceal the fact that decisions are, none the less, being made to preserve the status quo. Patients, however, may hold that the same hospital in the highest regard. To them, its closure might be considered a disaster.

A ‘pure market’ cannot take into account how and when the adjustments should occur. For this reason, the effects of the market in healthcare should be regulated to preserve continuity and standards and to implement strategy. Additional funding is needed to plan the adjustments which market forces introduce. To maintain consistency and reliability, funds must always be reserved for the purpose of allowing services to be phased in or out over a reasonable period of time. Healthcare markets are driven by consumers, but the use of patients and doctors as ‘consumers’ presents problems. One of the most serious difficulties concerns the quantity of information needed in an effective market place (Sheinfeld-Gorin and Arnold 16).

In contrast to the working population, children need social protection and effective medical services. Some groups of American citizens cannot pay for medical insurance for their children, so the duty and responsibility of the state to support this group of citizens (namely children).

These services can range from short-term health promotion actions such as using one or another of the vast number of over-the-counter treatments, to participation in one of many procedures for the disease prevention or early detection of cancer or cardiovascular disease, to repetitive and longer-term medical preventions such as obtaining an annual check-up, adopting a low-fat diet, avoiding danger by quitting smoking, or adopting any of the wide variety of medical preventions used for months and years to minimize dysfunction and live with an incurable, chronic condition (Edelman and Mandle 65).

In the USA, health care seeking increases for vague and vague symptoms and becomes apparent when the stressor is of several weeks duration; when the stressor onset is recent, care-seeking is minimal as the symptoms are attributed to stress rather than to illness. Emotional health procedures, in the form of rules (e.g., the stress-illness rule and the upset-serious rule) alter the meaning or depiction of somatic events and the procedures generated by them. The main health promotion, though, is the unwarranted assumption that life stress will produce a simple main effect, such that high levels of stress increase decisions to seek health care promotions (Sheinfeld-Gorin and Arnold 76).

In sum, modern healthcare system requires new and innovative approaches to its improvements and development. A new system of payment for patients treated in the hospital may be distinguished by the medical unit in which treatment is given. New price structure and introduction of waiting lists make the emphasis on output, of that the parties agree to a specific requirement for an exact price. Individually agreed contracts may be used most frequently by fund-holding.

Because they inevitably carry larger financial costs, they will be less commonly used, though they will often be the basis on which extra-contractual referrals are priced, in which potential buyers are referred to hospitals with which the medical unit has no existing healthcare contract. In general, healthcare products and services may be reluctant to enter cost per case contracts on a day by day basis, for alarm of losing control over their resources.

Wors Cited

Edelman, C. l. Mandle, C. l. Health Promotion Throughout the Life Span Elsevier/Mosby; 6 edition, 2005.

Sheinfeld-Gorin, S., Arnold, J. Health Promotion in Practice. Jossey-Bass; 1 Edition, 2006.

History Of African Americans In Florida

African Americans are people who are either citizens or residents of the United States of America whose ancestors came from one of the black populations that inhabit the African continent. American history tabulates a series of atrocities and degradations committed against African Americans by their white counterparts, perpetrated under cover of one of the worst systems that have plagued human civilization: slavery. While this evil practice prevailed all over the United States before 1865, it was very less in the north but rampant all over the south, of which Florida is a part.

Arrival of First African Americans to Florida

The Spaniards were responsible for bringing the first African Americans to Florida. The Spaniards, who had earlier ejected the French from the area, founded the first permanent European settlement in North America – called St. Augustine – in Florida in 1565. The first African Americans landed in St. Augustine in 1581 (Floridamemory.com). They were largely instrumental in “enabling Spanish explorer Pedro Menendez to build St. Augustine” (McCarthy & Jones, 144). The slaves were particularly used heavily in the building of forts in the area such as the Castillo de San Marcos that was built in St. Augustine between 1672 and 1695. As news of the white Floridians’ relatively humane treatment of African American slaves {an example of this was the setting up of Fort Mose, a free black settlement} (Floridamemory.com) spread to other parts of the South, African Americans from other Southern parts, notably Georgia and South Carolina “began arriving in North Florida from 1687” onwards (McCarthy et al., 13).

African Americans in Florida After Statehood

The transfer of Florida to the U.S by Spain by the terms of the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1821 was followed by the granting of statehood to Florida by U.S Congress on March 3, 1845. This development precipitated an increase in the growth of plantations in Florida where African American slaves were extensively used (Floridamemory.com). Many white Florida farmers who held slaves “thought that slavery was essential to produce crops to prop up the Floridian economy” (McCarthy et al., 30). The official number of African Americans in Florida, as recorded by the 1860 census, was 63,000 out of which 62,000 were slaves and 1,000 were free. However, due to the suppressive laws of those days, the so-called ‘free’ African Americans had very little freedom in reality. Even though the African Americans were made to labor in cotton plantations, the modes of slavery were not standard but different in various parts of Florida. The ‘gang system’ was used in north and central Florida where slaves were required to work from sunrise to sunset. In the east and west Florida the ‘task system’ was in operation where slaves were required to do a specified daily work quota, and any spare time after that was considered the slaves’ free time. Many plantations all over Florida opted to use both systems (Florida Department of State).

African American Floridians During the Civil War

When the Civil War erupted on April 12, 1861, the majority of African Americans in Florida had no alternative but to be in favor of the Confederacy. Many were forced to join the war as personal attendants of white Confederate officers. Others were forced to work in labor projects like constructing forts and transport networks. The rest continued working in Floridian plantations. Due to the general disorganization, several African American slaves took the chance of fleeing to areas in Florida {like Fernandina and Jacksonville in the North West} that were captured by the Union. Some of them lived there as refugees while others chose to fight against the Confederacy. It is believed that about 1,000 African American Floridians enlisted in the Union army (Florida Department of State). Civil War records indicate that the Union army used African American regiments for the first time during military action in regions along the Georgia/Florida coast in 1862 (Floridamemory.com). Many African American Floridians also joined the Union navy and played a particularly significant role in Union naval military raids that targeted salt-making works along Florida’s Gulf Coast {salt was very essential to preserve vitally needed beef and pork for the Confederate army} where they served as scouts due to their expert knowledge of local areas (Florida Department of State).

As the Civil War progressed, Union control over Florida’s coastal forts and towns increased, and so did the presence of the Union army in those areas. A significant part of this army comprised African American Floridians. During 1863 and 1864, more and more African American regiments were deployed in Union military action in Florida, engaging Confederate forces at places like Marianna, Gainesville, Fort Myers and Natural Bridge (Florida Department of State). The fiercest fighting took place in the “Battle of Olustee in north Florida where Union troops, including many African American Floridians, fought Confederate troops in 1864” (McCarthy et al., 136).

African Americans in Florida During Post-civil War Years

The Civil War ended in 1865 with victory for the Union. African Americans in Florida jubilantly celebrated Emancipation Day on May 12 that year as they at last tasted freedom from slavery. A special Negro National Anthem entitled “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing” was composed by African Americans James and Rosamond Johnson (Floridamemory.com). When the slaves were freed, “many of them remained in Florida rather than go north to look for work” (McCarthy et al., 32). The post-Civil War period in Florida was marked by a series of projects aimed at benefitting African Americans. The first was the establishment of the Brown Theological Institute {later renamed Edward Waters College} in 1866 whose task was to impart education to the newly freed African American slaves. The second was the establishment of Florida A&M University as State Normal College for Colored Students in 1887. The third was the establishment of the Florida Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes in 1905 (Floridamemory.com).

The All-Black Town of Eatonville

Post-war reconstruction in favor of African Americans witnessed a unique event in 1887. On August 15 that year, 27 African American Floridians led by Joseph E. Clark {who all lived within the limits of a proposed Town of Eatonville in Orange County, Florida} held a meeting in a building donated to African Americans by Lewis Lawrence named Oddfellows Hall. They all voted to incorporate the municipality of Eatonville (Town of Eatonville). The 27 pioneers then followed up their project vigorously by “driving around from town to town, telling people about Eatonville and drumming up [African American] citizens to move there” (Hurston, 48). The response of African American Floridians was tremendous. “By five o’clock, the town was full of every kind of vehicle and swarming with people” (Hurston, 53). Today, Eatonville holds the distinction of being the oldest town in the U.S that was “all-black, run and governed by black people” (Hurston, Front Matter).

African American Floridians in Civil Rights Movement

Florida had its first taste of racial violence in January 1923 which culminated “in the total ruin of Rosewood town on the Gulf Coast of Florida” (McCarthy et al., 83) whose population was mainly African American. Three decades later African American Floridians engaged in a protest called the Tallahassee bus boycott in 1954, calling for dismantling the segregation policy practised by Florida’s public transport system; it was among the first public protests that erupted in the U.S under the banner of the Civil Rights movement. African American Floridians next participated in the St. Augustine Race Riots in 1964 that involved demonstrations by both blacks and whites. It is widely believed that “the publicity caused by civil rights protests in St. Augustine, including the arrest of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., did much to influence Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act” (McCarthy et al., 142). The Civil Rights movement ended successfully in 1968, allowing African Americans the luxury to “bask in freedom” (Hurston, 110) while enjoying full civil rights and equality in the eyes of the law.

African Americans in Floridians After 1968

African Americans in Florida as well as in other parts of the U.S have lived a normal life free from racial discrimination since 1968. Many of them have flourished all over the country. Some famous names include Condoleezza Rice {politician}, Bill Cosby {actor}, Michael Jordan {basketball}, Muhammad Ali {boxing}, Valerie Briscoe-Hooks {athlete} and Mae Jemison {astronaut}. Many African American Floridians have also proved their excellence on the national and international stage. Some of them are Abraham Lincoln Lewis, founder member of the Afro-American Life Insurance Company (McCarthy et al., 64), Zora Neale Hurston, author of Jonah’s Gourd Vine and Mules & Men (Floridamemory.com), Joseph W. Hatchett, Florida’s first African American Supreme Court judge (McCarthy et al., 124), David D. Deacon Jones, one of the best defensive American professional football player (Town of Eatonville), and Leander Shaw, Chief Justice of Florida Supreme Court (McCarthy et al., 126). Last but not least, one must not forget Barack Obama, who may not have been born in Florida {he was born in Honolulu, Hawaii}, but has made all African Americans in the U.S proud by becoming the first African American President of the U.S.

References

“About Eatonville”. Town of Eatonville. (N.d). 2009. Web.

“African American Floridians.” Florida Department of State. (N.d). 2009. Web.

Hurston, Zora Neale. “Their Eyes Were Watching God.” New York: Harper Collins. 2000.

McCarthy, Kevin M. & Jones, Maxine D. “African Americans in Florida: An Illustrated History.” Sarasota (Florida): Pineapple Press. 1993.

“Timeline.” Floridamemory.com. (N.d). 2009. Web.

Childhood Obesity: Medical Complications And Social Problems

Childhood obesity is best tackled at home through improved parental involvement, increased physical exercise, better diet and restraint from eating” ~ Bob Filner

The advent of the new century has bought many social problems along with itself; this is mainly due to the changes that came in the traditional way of living. Every social group and age cohort has been affected by the negativity of the changes. The children have also suffered from the adverse effects that have been instilled into our society. Obesity has become a common problem in children of American and European countries. Many researchers, social workers, parents, teachers, and physicians feel that it has become an epidemic that causes problems even in the later stages of life.

Until a few years ago, a “fat child” was considered to be “healthy,” since he was said to have the ability to fight off various diseases and have a strong immune system. This perception, however, has changed in the past few years as obesity was founded to be the cause of many health-related problems (Ebbeling, Pawlak, and Ludwig, p. 473, 2002).

Childhood obesity has been a problem in America for a few decades now, during the 20th-century measures were taken to prevent this epidemic. However, the beginning of this century increases the problem to a much higher rate than ever before (Krisberg, p. 1, 2004). Every “economic and ethnic” group is affected by the problem of childhood obesity, therefore a “single factor or sector” cannot be held responsible for this problem (Krisberg, p. 10, 2004).

The causes of childhood obesity are numerous and expand over a wide range of social elements. The medical cause is the mutation in the genes of a child before he is born; this mutation takes place in the “gene encoding leptin.” Another medical cause is the “tandem repeat region of the insulin gene,” however the causes of these mutations are still unknown to scientists (Ebbeling, Pawlak, and Ludwig, p. 474-475, 2002). The medical and genetic causes are not said to be the main cause of obesity, a very small number of children (throughout the world) have been known to suffer obesity because of mutations and gene make-up.

As mentioned earlier, the changes in the traditional way of living have contributed greatly to this problem. The traditional role of parenting was considered to be a home-maker, provider, caretaker, and role model. This has evolved to a new untraditional role in which parents are considered to be the provider of financial means. Today, every household has two people earning for the family; this is due to the requirement of the family to maintain their social status and do away with their money worries. However, this factor has lead to an increase in the un-traditional way of eating. Since parents, especially mothers, are working the traditional home-cooked meal is considered a luxury.

Most parents rely on ready-to-cook meals from fast-food restaurants. Americans and Europeans are always looking for the easy way out, therefore, the industries of ready-to-cook meals and fast foods are thriving. This concept is sometimes referred to as McDonaldization, where the parents or children order in food or survive on ready-to-cook meals. The usage of this type of food is said to deposit layers of fat as it contains much more calories and other unwanted ingredients.

Another factor is “eating out,” where families eat in restaurants instead of surviving on home-cooked meals. This factor affects obesity even in the households where single parents are earning. Restaurants are said to prepare “larger portions of energy-dense food,” which is why children “consume” higher percentages of fat from these meals. These factors combined with “television viewing” increase the possibility of eating an unhealthy diet. Eating and watching television at the same time has led to a stop in “family dinner” time; children now eat their meals in front of the television screen. Due to this, children become prone to consuming things that contain more fat and unwanted substances (Ebbeling, Pawlak, and Ludwig, p. 476, 2002).

The advent of computers and their presence in every household have led to a new form of entertainment, computer gaming, or simple web browsing. Television viewing is sometimes replaced by the usage of computers and the internet, thus this technological advancement also opens the door for unhealthy eating habits which ultimately leads to obesity. The presence of television and computers at home is called “pleasurable sedentary activities” that can cause health-related problems (Laing, p. 15, 2002).

The absence of physical activity in daily routine is yet another factor that has led to obesity in children in American and European countries. This factor has continued to increase because of television viewing and the availability of computers at home. It is known that obese children spent less time in physical activities than their “non-obese counterparts.” Television viewing does not only decreases physical activity but also leads to an increase in the unhealthy style of eating. Also, the companies have started advertising to children about food products which leads to the adaptation of unhealthy eating habits.

Advertising to children is not ethically allowed but the companies have started targeting the age cohort in an indirect manner (Ebbeling, Pawlak, and Ludwig, p. 475, 2002). The availability of entertainment inside a home has decreased the number of outdoor activities performed by children. Since parents are not available 24/7, the children continue to enjoy the untraditional means of entertainment while increasing the levels of unhealthy substances in their bodies. Also, the non-exercising attitude leads to the storage of the fat instead of burning it right after its consumption.

According to Ruskin and Schor, the government of the nation of the United States is not concerned with the problem of childhood obesity. Senators of various states blame the lack of physical activity rather than the unhealthy food products that are being marketed to the children. The manufacturers of the food and beverage products also fail to realize their social responsibility and blame “lack of exercise” rather than focusing on the real problem, or “junk food” industry.

The manufacturers of unhealthy products should start assuming their responsibility by eliminating the unhealthy contents from their products or at least by marketing responsibly to the children. These manufacturers continuously argue that none of the contents can be labeled as “good” or “bad” instead the only thing that can put a stop to the obesity problem is “balance” (Ruskin and Schor, p. 17, 2005). The other problem related to the unhealthy eating patterns and junk food eating is of the foods available in the schools for children. School cafeterias are supposed to provide children with nutritional food that obliges with the standards of the school board or any other governing committee.

The availability of “competitive food” in the vending machines and nearby shops opens doors to the availability of the same unhealthy and junk food that causes obesity in children (Krisberg, p. 10, 2004). Another common cause of obesity in children is the lack of information regarding the healthy eating styles and the nutritional values of food groups (Laing, p. 15, 2002).

Childhood obesity is said to cause problems in the short-term as well as long-term, especially during the adult years of one’s life. A child with an obesity problem does not only suffer medical complications but also social problems due to the unacceptable image of a ‘fat child’ by other ‘normal children.’ The obese child can face diabetes and adverse effects on the cardiovascular system during the adult age. According to research, an obese child can face problems like “persistence of obesity,” early age death, “impaired social and educational prospects” even in the adult stages of his life (Reilly, p. 92, 2007).

As recommended by Feeg (p. 362, 2004), every player in society is responsible for the problem of obesity in children. The government should assume the role of the leader and make “prevention of obesity” a “national public health priority.” The manufacturers in the food and beverage industry should act as a socially responsible company and promote a healthy way of eating among the youth of the nation. It can be easily done by displaying “media messages” about the importance of healthy eating. Thirdly, the social workers can form committees to check various stores, schools, and restaurants to ensure that the food provided to the children contains healthy content.

The schools and colleges can also get involved and eliminate the presence of unhealthy food in their buildings. Lastly, the parents need to start assuming the traditional role again and encourage physical activities among their children. Parents can also take away television and computer privileges to aid their children in adopting a healthy lifestyle. It is not the responsibility of one group to work towards the elimination of this problem, instead, everybody needs to put joint efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle. After all, healthy children mean a healthy and better future for the world.

References

Ebbeling, Cara B., Pawlak, Dorota B., and Ludwig, David S.”Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure.” The Lancet, Vol. 360 (2002): pp. 473 – 482.

Feeg, Veronica D.”Combating Childhood Obesity: A Collective Effort.” Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 30, No. 5 (2004): pp. 361 – 362.

Krisberg, Kim. “Institute of Medicine plan takes on childhood obesity.” The Nation’s Health, (2004): pp. 1 & 10.

Laing, Peter.”Childhood obesity: a public health threat.” Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 14, No. 10 (2002): pp. 14 – 16.

Reilly, John J.”Childhood Obesity: An Overview.” Children and Society, Vol. 21 (2007): pp. 390 – 396.

Ruskin, Gary., and Schor, Juliet. “Junk Food Nation: Who’s to blame for childhood obesity.” The Nation (2004): pp. 15 – 17.

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