Healthcare Policy And Delivery Systems Essay Example


They are designed to protect the public, ensure the quality of care, and control costs. For a health sector to run smoothly, there must be policies which are guiding it. The policies protect both the health workers and also the patients. Healthcare policies vary from country to country and even from region to region within a country. In the United States, healthcare policy is primarily determined at the federal level, although states also have a significant role in shaping healthcare policy. There are several benefits of a good health care sector in a nation. The health care sector is crucial in any economy and is one of the largest employers. The industry provides a wide range of services to the people of a nation, and it is one of the essential services that a government offers its citizens. A good health care sector is significant for a country’s development; it contributes a lot to a nation’s GDP and is essential for its development. The sector also employs a large number of people. The initiative helps in the development of the infrastructure of a nation. The industry also helps in the development of the human resources of a country. This paper explores analyses of one of the health policies known as the “Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act (PSQIA)” and its applications in clinical practices.

Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act

The “Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act (PSQIA)” was proposed in 2005 to provide a voluntary, confidential process for reporting and analyzing patient safety events and improving patient safety. The PSQIA created the Patient Safety Organization (PSO) designation and established a framework for PSOs to operate. The PSQIA applies to all health care providers, including hospitals and nursing homes. The Act also applies to provider-owned and driven risk management organizations, patient safety committees, and other entities that collect or analyze patient safety information. The PSQIA requires that PSOs collect, aggregate, and analyze patient safety information from health care providers.

PSOs use this information to develop and disseminate patient safety reports and recommendations. PSOs also share patient safety information with health care providers, other PSOs, and the federal government. Health care professionals can report patient safety incidents to PSOs using a voluntary, confidential reporting mechanism established by the PSQIA. PSOs and their state or local patient safety organization can receive reports of patient safety incidents from healthcare providers. According to the PSQIA, PSOs must protect the privacy of patient safety data and the identities of medical professionals who report patient safety incidents. PSOs do not disclose patient safety approval. For instance, some patients died after receiving a preventable mismatched blood transfusion. The PSQIA aimed to combat the issue of medical errors by establishing a secure platform for sharing and understanding adverse experiences (Bates & Singh, 2018). The Act has been successful in boosting the number of adverse events reported.

The PSQIA has had a favorable effect on American healthcare. The Patient Safety Rule, a provision of the PSQIA, protects patient safety information’s confidentiality. Except in some instances, the Rule forbids healthcare providers from providing patient safety information to anybody outside their company. The Rule aimed to persuade clinicians to report patient safety incidents without worrying about facing legal repercussions. The Act also encourages quality improvement initiatives by offering legal protection for quality improvement data. Patient safety and healthcare quality in the U.S. have benefited from the PSQIA. The Act has improved the healthcare system’s transparency and accountability while fostering a safety culture (Castillo, 2019). The PSQIA enhances patient safety and the quality of healthcare. The Act has also successfully promoted a safety-conscious culture in healthcare institutions.

The PSO has assisted in disseminating knowledge about best practices while also assisting in the identification of areas that can be improved. PSOs also provide resources and training to healthcare providers on improving patient safety. For example, a PSO may offer a webinar on medication safety or provide in-person training on reducing fall risk. By providing this type of education, PSOs help healthcare providers better understand how to keep their patients safe and the risks that are likely to occur if safety is not adhered to (McGowan et al., 2021). The PSO program has assisted in identifying trends in patient safety incidents and has sparked the creation of best practices to stop similar incidents from happening again. The PSQIA promotes transparency and accountability in the health care system.

Despite the PSQIA having been successful in promoting patient safety and quality improvement, there are limitations to the law. The PSQIA only applies to voluntary reporting of patient safety events. Providers are not required to report a patient safety event to a PSO if the patients have not volunteered, and many events go unreported. The confidentiality protections in the Patient Safety Rule are not absolute. The Rule prohibits disclosure of patient safety information to anyone outside the provider’s organization, but exceptions exist. For example, information about patient safety is submitted to accrediting authorities or regulatory organizations for oversight or regulatory purposes. The Act does not require PSOs to make their data available publicly. It is difficult for patients and families to obtain information about the safety of specific hospitals or other health care providers. The Act only applies to events in healthcare facilities that receive government insurance reimbursement. It excludes many facilities, such as those that only serve private patients. The Act does not require healthcare facilities to take any specific actions in response to patient safety events; it only requires developing and implementing patient safety plans. The PSQIA does not apply to all patient safety events. The law only applies to events that meet the definition of a “patient safety event,” which is a defined term in the law. No new legal rights or remedies were created by the PSQIA (Farokhzadian et al., 2018). The law does not establish a private right of action for patients harmed by patient safety incidents, and it does not stipulate any civil or criminal sanctions for law-breaking.

Applications of the PSQIA into Clinic Practice

There are numerous approaches to implementing the “Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act (PSQIA)” in healthcare services. One way is to use it to assess patients’ progress over time. It can be done by tracking patients’ scores on the PSQIA and using this information to identify any areas of improvement or decline. Finding out whether patients might benefit from more intense intervention is another method to use the PSQIA in clinical practice. It can be done by looking at patients’ scores on the PSQIA and comparing them to norms or other patients’ scores. A patient’s score is significantly lower than average may indicate that the patient would benefit from more intensive intervention. The PSQIA can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. It can be done by tracking patients’ scores on the PSQIA before and after an intervention and comparing the two scores. Another important application of the PSQIA in clinical practice is using data from PSOs to benchmark the safety of healthcare organizations. By comparing the safety performance of different healthcare organizations, healthcare professionals can identify which organizations provide the safest care and can learn from these organizations.

The PSQIA also provides for the use of patient safety event data in research. By studying patient safety event data, researchers can identify the root causes of patient safety events and develop new interventions to prevent these events. The PSQIA has had a significant impact on clinical practice. The PSO program has encouraged clinics to report patient safety events and to develop and implement quality improvement plans to prevent future events. The Patient Safety Rules can be used to standardize best practices for patient safety across clinics (O’connell, 2019). PSQIA can also be used to promote the development of cutting-edge patient safety technology, such as electronic medical records and software that automatically enters prescriptions from doctors.


In conclusion, the “Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act” of 2005 have been beneficial in boosting the reporting of adverse occurrences light. Furthermore, the healthcare sector must work hard to apply patient safety data to enhance patient care successfully. Patient safety has benefitted from the PSQIA. The PSQIA has aided in identifying safety risks and developing best practices for preventing patient safety events by encouraging healthcare practitioners to report patient safety events and Near Misses. The PSQIA’s restriction is that not all patient safety events are covered by it. Only situations under the law’s description of “patient safety occurrences” are subject to its requirements. It does not grant patients who suffer harm due to patient safety incidents a private right of action. PSQIA has a variety of uses in clinical settings as well. The PSQIA can assess the efficacy of therapies. It can be accomplished by monitoring patients’ PSQIA scores before and after an intervention, then comparing the results. Healthcare providers can use PSO data to benchmark the safety of healthcare organizations. It is a significant application of the PSQIA in clinic practice information that would identify a patient or a health care provider without the provider’s written consent (Gill, 2019). The PSQIA prohibits retaliation against health care providers who report patient safety events. The Act also establishes procedures for investigating reports of retaliation.

The PSQIA establishes a national patient safety database and mandates that the “Secretary of Health and Human Services” formulates and puts into effect rules to safeguard the data’s privacy. By the PSQIA, the “Secretary of Health and Human Services” must inform Congress of the Act’s effects on patient safety. Patient safety has benefitted from the PSQIA. The Act has prompted healthcare providers to report patient safety incidents and has gathered a vast amount of information on these incidents. The data is used to create reports and suggestions for patient safety that have assisted in raising the standard of care in the U.S. several high-profile medical blunders that could have been avoided led to public criticism, which led to the PSQIA’s


Bates, D. W., & Singh, H. (2018). Two Decades Since To Err Is Human: An Assessment Of Progress And Emerging Priorities In Patient Safety. Health Affairs, 37(11), 1736–1743.

Castillo, V. (2019). The Implications of Safety Culture for Quality.

Farokhzadian, J., Dehghan Nayeri, N., & Borhani, F. (2018). Challenges perceived by nurses are the long way to achieving an influential patient safety culture. BMC Health Services Research, 18(1).

Gill. (2019). The Response of the U.S. Health Care System to the Institute of Medicine’s Report on Medical Errors – ProQuest.

McGowan, J., Wojahn, A., & Nicolini, J. R. (2021). Risk Management Event Evaluation and Responsibilities. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.

O’connell, D. (2019). Disclosure After Adverse Medical Outcomes: A Multidimensional Challenge. 26(5).

Healthcare Sector Privatization Move In Saudi Arabia Impact On Individuals With Non-Communicable Diseases And Quality Of Care Essay Example


The expansion of the healthcare industry through privatization is a critical component of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030. This study investigates how the privatization of the healthcare industry in Saudi Arabia has impacted the healthcare quality and patients with non-communicable diseases. The public health care system is still essential to achieving general gains in the well-being of all segments of Saudi Arabia’s inhabitants. Nevertheless, that nation has seen an increase in the privatization of the healthcare industry (Almalki et al., 2022). The government must improve the community health care system to guarantee everyone has access to high-quality, affordable healthcare, especially those with non-communicable diseases. The financial burden on households brought on by chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) prevents patients from accessing care, negatively affecting their health. The study will also look into the percentage of OOP spending among Saudi Arabian household members diagnosed with chronic NCDs. Families with a working head of household, with more members, a higher SES level, health coverage and a residence in an urban area incurred much greater OOP. OOP expenditure is still a significant burden for households with chronic NCDs, with some inequalities considering the privatization of hospitals. In order to reduce OOP costs for NCD households, the research provides crucial information for decision-making.

Background and Rationale

Privatization is the transfer of ownership of an organization from the government to either the private for-nonprofit or private for-profit sectors entirely or partially. Healthcare privatization is a process in which non-governmental entities participate more and more in healthcare delivery through financial and managerial services. The state reduces or eliminates its longstanding involvement in the administration and service of the healthcare system. The provision of medical services by private practitioners, the contracting-out of load-shedding and health care administration, and, which involves shifting of the responsibility to families, people, or outside entities like medical coverage providers, are just a few examples of the different privatization procedures (Alkhamis et al., 2021). The many ways that the private, for-profit industry subsumes the public one in delivering merchandise and services are referred to as privatization. A centralized, underdeveloped, and disjointed health care system was eventually created by the Saudi government’s health policies, which were used to finance, administer, and provide public health care services. Therefore, it was believed that privatizing health care would improve its effectiveness, standard, and level of general satisfaction while enabling the government to carry out its constitutional duties.

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), often chronic illnesses, are rising in emerging economies due to socio-economic development, rapid urbanization, and epidemiological changes. The Saudi Arabian community has a high prevalence of Non-communicable diseases. The burden of NCDs, which causes considerable death and morbidity, is a public health concern for most nations. In the Kingdom, NCDs are responsible for 83,100 deaths annually, or 73 percent of all fatalities. Chronic illnesses increase the risk of early death and harm the financial security of individuals, families, and society. The financial burden on households brought on by chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) prevents patients from accessing care, negatively affecting their health. Therefore, the privatization of the healthcare industry in Saudi Arabia has increased the money people with NCDs and household members have to pay out of pocket (OOP) to acquire healthcare treatments.

In Saudi Arabia, a sizeable portion of healthcare spending comprises out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that OOP expenditures made up 14.4 percent of Saudi Arabia’s overall health spending in 2018 (Murphy et al., 2020). This percentage probably understates the actual OOP cost incurred by those who have chronic NCDs. Furthermore, many of the nation’s semi-public and public health providers might not meet patients’ requirements at all times, causing people to seek medical care outside the public system and pay the total price. Thus, the privatization of the Saudi Arabian healthcare system has enhanced the quality of care. Although the private sector offers a wide range of services, ordinary people cannot afford them (Al-Hanawi et al., 2019). Most people choose private hospitals since governmental hospitals provide discounted and other complementary services of poor quality.

 Research Question

What effects has Saudi Arabia’s effort to privatize the healthcare industry had on those who suffer from non-communicable diseases and the quality of care?

Literature Review

Numerous research has demonstrated how NCDs affect OOP health spending in various nations. For instance, families in Vietnam with NCD patients had 3.2 and 2.3 times higher odds of experiencing catastrophic medical costs and poverty, respectively. According to unbiased research, the underprivileged CVD families and patients in China, Tanzania, and India are the most severely harmed by the country’s excessive healthcare expenditures. According to Al-Kuwaiti and Al Muhanna (2020), households with Non-communicable diseases are statistically more likely than non-NCD households to experience catastrophic costs in low- and middle-income nations. Average individuals with stroke and heart disease had the most significant rates of catastrophic expenditures in India, Tanzania, and China. The countries with the most crucial spending were Vietnam, Iran, Nigeria, and those with epilepsy and cancer.

The Saudi Ministry of Health believes that removing or lowering financial barriers makes healthcare more accessible. Nevertheless, there is little information in the literature about the amounts of OOP expenditure amongst Saudi Arabian families with Non-communicable diseases considering the privatization of hospitals. The financial toll these conditions have on people, families, and society must be understood by policymakers and decision-makers. One research examined the connection between earnings, health coverage, and OOP spending.


Despite evidence from several nations indicating insured households experience lower OOP expenditure, research findings demonstrate that OOP spending is higher for families with health insurance. Maybe a rigorous analysis of the relationship reveals that health insurance is not financially sufficient to reduce OOP costs. It could be misleading to discount the importance of health coverage purely built on this thought. Improved access to treatment and higher consumption of healthcare services by families with insurance may help to explain some of the high levels of OOP spending (Rahman, 2020). It might be due to adverse selection, which states that families decide which coverage to acquire depending on their risk assessment. As a result, families with chronic Non-communicable diseases are frequently more inclined to obtain insurance and utilize more medical services. Additionally, moral hazards—incentives for overusing services—are present for insured households with generous policies.

Numerous financial changes have been implemented in Saudi Arabia as part of the Health Sector Transformation Program to meet the demands of the population. Health Assurance and Purchasing (PHAP) is one of the programs to initiate changes in Saudi Arabia’s healthcare system. The program will act as a single-payer national health coverage system to ensure that all citizens and legal residents have access to hospitals recently taken over by the MOH and other government providers offering cost-effective care. Prioritizing the stimulation of financial risk protection methods by reducing OOP spending should be its top priority, but it must be thoroughly prepared before execution. Vulnerable populations, such as those with Non-communicable diseases, would be exempted from the price of various services and prescriptions, comprising lower copayments and subsidies for essential pharmaceuticals (Nair, 2019).


The research findings show that since the privatization of hospitals in Saudi Arabia, households have spent significantly more money than previously to care for family members established with NCDs, most particularly diabetes and hypertension. The price of the services and treatment may be responsible for most of these out-of-pocket costs. Researchers were able to uncover data that may assist cut OOP expenditures for families with chronic NCDs by examining the variables that affect out-of-pocket expenses. A contributing cause to the high percentage of OOP expenses is the privatization of hospitals in the nation.


Alkhamis, A., Ali Miraj, S.S., Al Qumaizi, K.I. and Alaiban, K., 2021. Privatization of Healthcare in Saudi Arabia: Opportunities and Challenges. Handbook of Healthcare in the Arab World, pp.1865-1907.

Almalki, Z. S., Alahmari, A. K., Alqahtani, N., Alzarea, A. I., Alshehri, A. M., Alruwaybiah, A. M., … & Ahmed, N. J. (2022). Households’ Direct Economic Burden Associated with Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(15), 9736.

Al-Hanawi, M. K., Khan, S. A., & Al-Borie, H. M. (2019). A critical review of healthcare human resource development in Saudi Arabia: emerging challenges and opportunities. Public health reviews40(1), 1-16.

Al Kuwaiti, A., & Al Muhanna, F. A. (2020). Challenges of privatizing academic medical centers in Saudi Arabia and appropriate strategies for implementation. International Journal of Health Governance.

Murphy, A., Palafox, B., Walli-Attaei, M., Powell-Jackson, T., Rangarajan, S., Alhabib, K. F., … & McKee, M. (2020). The household economic burden of non-communicable diseases in 18 countries. BMJ global health5(2), e002040.

Nair, K. S. (2019). Role of Health Economics Research in Implementing Saudi Arabia’s Health Sector Transformation Strategy Under Vision-2030. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development10(18), 92–99.

Rahman, R., (2020). The privatization of the health care system in Saudi Arabia. Health services insights13, p.1178632920934497.

Healthcare-Associated Infections As The Quality Healthcare Patient Safety Writing Sample

Healthcare-associated infections have become a contemporary issue in healthcare delivery in hospitals. It occurs when modern medical devices get applied by doctors and medical officers while treating patients but causing diseases and infections. Majorly, infections occur after surgical procedures, making patients suffer from several illnesses. Common illnesses that occur through healthcare-associated infections include central line-associated bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. An individual doctor should work towards preventing any associated infections during service delivery to the patients. Therefore, the paper analyses the common types of healthcare-associated infections, their potential solutions and the personal impression regarding the infections based on past learning experiences and the course content.

Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections

Central line-associated bloodstream infections occur when the bloodstream gets infected by the germs which enter through the central line. It is also an infection that is laboratory confirmed by the doctors but has no relationship with the infection being treated hence developing within forty-eight hours of the central line placements. Thousands of deaths have occurred in the medical field due to central line-associated bloodstream infections. As such, it has led to a medical burden. Notably, most infections are preventable through several measures. The common central line-associated bloodstream infections include gram-positive organisms, which are the coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci (Haddadin & Regunath, 2019). Also, the gram-negative related to central line-associated bloodstream infections are the Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Candida and Enterobacter.

Consequently, central line-associated bloodstream infections lead to a prolonged hospital stay in patients, increasing healthcare costs. Same e infections are related to the presence of intravascular devices. In the United States of America, 0.081% of healthcare-associated infections occur as central line-associated bloodstream infections. Also, they are found outside the intensive care units (Haddadin & Regunath, 2019). Most importantly, the risk factors which intensify central line-associated bloodstream infections are chronic illnesses like gastrointestinal tract disorder, malignancy, hemodialysis, and pulmonary hypertension.

Also, the immune suppressed states like diabetes mellitus and organ transplant, malnutrition, total parental nutrition, prolonged hospitalization before the insertion of the central line, extreme age, and skin burn intensify the infections. Femoral central venous continues to escalate the central line-associated bloodstream infections, followed by the subclavian catheters and the internal jugular. Other associated risk factors include the conditions of the insertion of the medical operations, the skilful nature of the operators, and the catheter care. With prolonged administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics, hematologic malignancy creates resistance to the anti-microbial therapy (Haddadin & Regunath, 2019). The clinical manifestation of central line-associated bloodstream infections varies based on the state of the illness. The common manifestations include fever and chill, which are masked by the patient’s immune-compromise nature. The patient may also report pain, discharge from the exit site, and swelling.

Potential Solution of the Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections

After the suspecting central line-associated bloodstream infections, empiric therapy should be administered based on the most probable organism and the clinical picture. The healthcare provider should institute empiric treatment by covering the gram-positive and the gram-negative. Healthcare providers should also enhance hand hygiene and apply appropriate skin antiseptic for prevention. The sin prep agent should be completely dry before inserting into the central line (Haddadin & Regunath, 2019). During the insertion, the healthcare provider should use the cap, the mask, sterile glove, sterile gown and the sizeable sterile drape. The patients should research the hospital to learn about central line-associated bloodstream infections. They should also speak on the concerns to enable the healthcare personnel to follow the appropriate precaution for mitigating the detriment. Avoiding ouches on the tubing by the patient will create a hygienic environment hence preventing infections (Haddadin & Regunath, 2019). Every patient must wash her hands before and after visitations.

The Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CAUTI)

Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections are illnesses acquired in hospitals and occur due to the prolonged use of urinary catheters. The infections affect the urinary systems like the bladder, uterus, kidney and urethra. As such, the illness gets referred to as urinary tract infections. The tube insertion into the bladder through the urethra to drain the urine has caused 75% of the infections. The infection occurs in the patients admitted to the intensive care unit hence the prolonged hospital stay makes control difficult. The common etiological agents are the gram-positive bacteria like the Enterococcus faecalis and the gram-negative bacteria like the Pseudomonas species and the Proteus mirabilis (Su et al., 2020). Healthcare providers frequently report Yeast infections like the candida species. Common drug resistance development, which occurs with urinary tract infections, has led to the growth of pathogens. Other causes include extreme age, the female gender, diabetes mellitus, dwelling urinary devices and immunosuppressive therapy.

Potential Solutions to the Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

The healthcare providers should enhance hygiene by hand washing and avoiding the use o urine da tubes. If the urine drain tubes arere-used by the doctor, they shod be appropriately inserted and put in only when necessary, as soon as needed. The core preventive strategies are leaving the catheters in place when needed, ensuring that the trained catheters implement the insertion and the maintenance of the catheters, following the aseptic insertion and maintenance of the hand and the standard hygiene (Su et al., 2020). The doctors should also avoid using urinary catheters in nursing homes and inpatients for incontinence management. Healthcare providers must research before using catheters to prevent skin breakdown. Medical service providers should consider using external catheters to replace indwelling catheters for male patients with no urinary retention. The healthcare providers should maintain the unobstructed urine flow and follow the aseptic insertion while maintaining the closed drainage system (Su et al., 2020). Furthermore, healthcare service providers should use sterile gloves, drapes, sponges, and sterile solutions to clean the peri-urethral.

Ventilator-associated Pneumonia

Ventilator-associated Pneumonia is pneumonia acquired from e hospital through the use of ventilators. It occurs 48 hours after the mechanical ventilation, where the ventilator has a high mortality rate. It causes the patient to have challenges with weaning off the ventilators and longer duration of the hospital stay (Wanat et al., 2020). Therefore, it causes a financial burden and the demand for medical resources. Ventilator-associated pneumonia symptoms are fever, worsening oxygenation, increased tracheal secretions and an increase in white blood cell counts. The diagnosis is based on the clinical presentation, positive blood culture and chest x-rays. Bronchoscopic sampling in the lower respiratory tract combined with the quantitative gram strains and culture helps diagnose. Treatment is made using antibiotics (Wanat et al., 2020). The risk factors include endotracheal intubation, which beaches the airway’s defences, impairing the mucociliary clearance and facilitating the microaspiration of the bacteria-laden secretin. Consequently, bacteria may form the biofilm within and on the endotracheal tube, which protects them from the host defence and the antibiotics. The common pathogens include pseudomonas aeruginosa and the methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus.

Potential Solutions for the Ventilator-associated Pneumonia

Upright positioning reduces aspiration compared to recumbent positioning; hence, doctors should consider using semi-upright positioning during service delivery to the patients. Healthcare providers should also use noninvasive ventilators with continuous positive airways and bi-level positive airway pressure to prevent the beaching of the airway defence, which may occur with endotracheal intubation (Wanat et al., 2020). Also, the repeated aspiration of the subglottic secretin through a designed endotracheal tube with a suction device to reduce the microaspiration and VAP incidents prevents infections. Moreover, decontamination of the oropharynx using the colistin, gentamicin and vancomycin cream should be voided due to the possibility of developing resistant strains.

The Personal Impression Regarding the Infections based on the Past Learning Experiences and the Course Content

As a student of Healthcare, the healthcare patient safety course has enabled me to understand healthcare-associated infections. Understanding the healthcare-associated infection has created a comprehensive knowledge through which I can determine the symptoms associated with the ventilators associated pneumonia, catheter-associated urinary tract infections and central line bloodstream infection. Also, the study and the identification of healthcare patient infection has created a mechanism of conceptualizing the ideas which help determine the possible solutions. The possible standard solutions to combined healthcare patient infections are the maintenance of hygiene, like washing hands and using appropriate medical procedures. Notably, past learning provides the knowledge through which I can quickly determine the instances of healthcare-associated infections. The safety of medical procedures and medical machines and instruments like ventilators play a significant role in enhancing medical sustainability and delivering medical services.


Haddadin, Y., & Regunath, H. (2019). Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI). StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Su, M., Jia, Y., Li, Y., Zhou, D., & Jia, J. (2020). Probiotics for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Respiratory care65(5), 673-685.

Wanat, M., Borek, A. J., Atkins, L., Sallis, A., Ashiru-Oredope, D., Beech, E., … & Tonkin-Crine, S. (2020). Optimising interventions for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) in primary, secondary and care home settings. Antibiotics9(7), 419.

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