Bodenheimer and Grumbach (2012) specify that there are four ways of paying for the health care services; they are out-of-pocket payments (paid personally by the recipient of the care), individual private insurance that covers the services provided, group insurance paid by the employer, and government financing. According to WHO (2015), the lack of public (or government) financing of healthcare tends to result in such issues as the cost recovery by the medical institutions which triggers to policies that promote the charging of user fees. Also, when public financing is unavailable, the private sector begins to take over the facilities and privatize them. That way, the role of the marker forces in the field becomes stronger due to the implementation of the market user fees (WHO, 2015).
In the United States, the coverage of the individual care has become better over the last years; as a result, more patients became able to obtain insurance provided either by the employers or privately purchased, and in turn, their spending grew by 3-5% over the last several years (NCSL, 2016). The coverage by the government-financed programs such as Medicare and Medicaid made healthcare services easier to access and more available to the populations who tended to be underserved or vulnerable in this area.
For example, all the people who are older than 65 are eligible for Medicare part A if they have Social Security. That way, a large section of the population is covered automatically and given the opportunity to obtain health care as soon as the need for it arises. At the same time, the institutions that are funded publically are subject to many policies that force them to provide more careful care to avoid a waste of resources.
When it comes to the eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid, the immigrants who are legally present in the United States are covered; the low-income individuals are eligible for the premium tax credits when their income is 400% of FPL (federal poverty level) (Coverage for lawfully present immigrants, n. d.).
In the United States of America, there is a large portion of the population that does not have health insurance. This tendency occurs because health insurance is quite expensive and many people simply cannot afford it (The Uninsured and the Difference Health Insurance Makes, 2012). The majority of the population who are insured obtain their health insurance with the help of their employers; however, the individuals who do basic jobs and have low salaries are at risk of not being provided with health insurance at all (The Uninsured and the Difference Health Insurance Makes, 2012).
Due to the fear of high-priced services and large medical bills, the uninsured population is more likely to postpone visits to a doctor and have more negative health outcomes (The Uninsured and the Difference Health Insurance Makes, 2012). At the same time, the populations covered by private insurance or a health program, do not have such a problem. However, those covered by the health programs may receive limited care due to the policies that standardize the costs of services provided in each specific case.
The implementation of HIE requires specifically outlined objectives and goals; when it is used for the collection of data, it is crucial to determine the main focus of the information gathered, the criteria based on which it will be assessed, and the people who will be involved in the evaluation process (Vest & Gamm, 2010).
Bodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2012). The health care workforce and the education of health professionals. In T. Bodenheimer & K. Grumbach (Eds.), Understanding health policy: A clinical approach (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Coverage for lawfully present immigrants. (n. d.).
NCSL. (2016). The Uninsured and the Difference Health Insurance Makes.
Vest, J. R., & Gamm, L. D. (2010). Health information exchange: persistent challenges and new strategies. Journal of American Medical Informatics Association, 17(3): 288–294.
WHO. (2015). Strategy on health care financing. Web.
Gender Stereotyping Among Children
Andrews and Ridenour (2006) assert that gender stereotyping in children is a common reality that superintendents and school principals cannot ignore. In particular, the authors argue that young learners who aspire to work as school administrators must be in a familiar learning environment whereby equality exists between both boys and girls. In the case where equitable treatment of both genders does not exist, such children may never learn how to fairly handle gender issues arising in learning environments. Journals of individual student experiences were maintained by young graduate learners. The respondents were drawn from culturally diverse courses.
A total of 122 graduate learners took part in the empirical study that was conducted by the researchers (Andrews and Ridenour, 2006). Records for the course teaching were kept by the researchers who were also the authors of this journal article. In addition, assignments that were written by the students were recorded for the sake of analyzing the research findings. The latter standards were provided by the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium. The main agenda of this consortium was to champion the reform agenda in the leadership of schools. After conducting a detailed analysis of all the materials that had been written by the learners, the researchers made final conclusions.
To begin with, the results indicate that there is increased awareness of gender stereotyping among children who are exposed to the practice. In other words, children in higher learning institutions are more aware of the limiting effects of gender stereotyping (Andrews and Ridenour, 2006). Second, children in learning centers may decide to exercise gender fairness as a way of demonstrating appropriate professional practice even if they are not professionals. Third, children are quite aware of all practices related to power differences and gender discrimination that take place in learning institutions and households. Finally, the authors also found out that learners tend to acquire high level of sensitivity when it comes to the use of gender-biased language.
In order to carry out the qualitative study in the most effective manner, the gender awareness training was examined by the researchers. They found this type of training to be instrumental in the preparation program for school administrators. They also correlated the latter findings with those of students who desire to work as school leaders. Moreover, the authors used a specific research question in order to give guidance to the study. The research question posed by the authors explored the role played by gender in influencing school culture.
According to the authors, equity and fairness are required when preparing children for leadership positions in schools. One of the core gender roles of children who aspire to be school administrators is to understand the influence of gender in the process of leadership. The authors have also pointed out that the research study did not include certain perspectives and theories in compiling the final report. Some of the independent approaches that were not considered in the empirical study include gender standpoints, multi-ethnic viewpoints, and feminist theoretical perspectives (Andrews and Ridenour, 2006). In addition, the research study deliberately left out the discussion on how leadership affects class, race and gender.
In terms of the research plan, the authors employed a qualitative design in compiling the study. Hence, document analyses of field notes were carried out. The latter process assisted the researchers to correlate gender issues and the attitudes of students towards the practice of stereotyping.
Andrews, M. L., & Ridenour, C. S. (2006). Gender in schools: A qualitative study of students in educational administration. The Journal of Educational Research, 100(1), 35-43.
Fast Food Harmful Effects On Children
The problem with fast food is that it is made to be addictive to eat which can result in children being addicted to consuming this particular product resulting in it adversely affecting a child’s early behavioral development regarding proper eating habits. First and foremost, what you have to understand is that early eating habits do indeed impact the potential for children to become obese. As children get more used to a particular food item, they start to desire to eat that type of food exclusively resulting in the creation of the foundation of their future diet (Cunningham, Kramer and Narayan, 405). With fast food, children are thus exposed to a food product that is full of empty calories, is high in preservatives and has a chemical composition that may have adverse long term consequences. As such, it is in the opinion of this paper that the exposure of children to fast food early on has an adverse effect on them, resulting in the need to prevent the sale of fast food in schools.
The Problem with Consuming Fast food
The problem with consuming fast food on a daily basis is due to the fact that their convenience and serving size results in people eating more than they should in a single sitting. What is interesting about this particular product is that despite the relatively small sizes of some types of fast food (ex: a burger, a slice of pizza, a can of soda, a bag of chips, etc.) they are actually calorie dense. This means that despite being small in size, they can often contain more calories than foods of a comparable weight or density. As a result of their unique structure, people can consume more than 3,000 calories a day from the various forms of fast food they eat without even noticing it (Pan, 2567). This differs significantly from cases where people eat healthy food (ex: vegetables, fish, fresh fruits, etc.) and feel relatively full. Since an average adult should only consume 2,500 calories in a single day, consuming high calorie fast food such as a burger with a large coke is equivalent to more than 50 grams of fat and 1500 calories within a single sitting. Do note that since an average adult eats 3 to 4 large meals within a single day, these calories can add up resulting in a diet containing 4,000 or more calories per day. The end result is that the excess calories get stored as fat and contribute towards the obesity problem within the country.
Impact of Fast Food on our Population
Fast food such as chips, burgers, sodas, and candies has become such a part of our present day culture that it is almost unthinkable to imagine the U.S. without fast food. In nearly every town, city and state groceries, and shopping malls, various restaurants carry some form of fast food that is rapidly consumed by a voracious public that enjoys the taste and convenience of such products. The reason behind this quite simple, fast food is quick and easy to consume and is relatively cheap as compared to other food products. It is due these qualities and its general level of availability that it has become popular with kids and adults alike.
Unfortunately, the prevalence of such a product has resulted in a considerable price that has been paid in the form of growing obesity rates. This is especially true among children wherein 15.5% of kids aged between five to fifteen in school have body mass indexes reaching 30 or higher, far above the norm of 25 or below (Rossen, 123). When taking into consideration the fact that obesity has been connected to ailments such as diabetes, high blood pressure, heart problems and other maladies associated with being overweight, this shows that some means of stopping this current trend must be implemented in order to safeguard the present day population of the country. The source of this problem is related to eating habits that were developed early on in an individual’s life, the sedentary lifestyle they lead and the lack of proper education when it comes to the excessive consumption of fast food.
The current problem with approaches in resolving the issue childhood obesity in schools is that there is actually no effective method to prevent a child from eating unhealthy foods. A teacher cannot simply take burger out of a child’s hand and tell them not to eat it. The same applies to teachers forcing parents to give their child healthier meals, it simply cannot be done. One way in which the problem of fast food could be resolved would be to include healthy food options to be in school cafeterias, as well as the distribution of calorie and nutrition guidelines to parents which detail the various types of food that would be good for their children. Lastly, the school would restrict or outright ban the marketing or sale of fast food to children within the school premises as well as preventing the sale of other goods which have been connected to the obesity epidemic. If these practices are implemented within the school, then it can be expected that the students will be able to develop the correct kind of eating habits which should result in lower rates of obesity. While it is true that there would be a definite backlash from various food companies over the implementation of this particular policy within the schools, the fact remains that something should be done to prevent the current obesity epidemic in the country and preventing the sale of fast food to children so that they can develop good eating habits is a good place to start such an initiative.
Based on what has been presented so far, it is the opinion of this paper that the exposure of children to fast food early on has an adverse effect on them resulting in the need to prevent the sale of fast food in schools. By putting this particular plan into action this should help in considerably reducing the obesity epidemic that is adversely impacting the U.S. at the present.
Cunningham, Solveig A., Michael R. Kramer, and K. M. Venkat Narayan. “Incidence Of Childhood Obesity In The United States.” New England Journal Of Medicine 370.5 (2014): 403-411. Print
Pan, Liping. “Trends In The Prevalence Of Extreme Obesity Among US Preschool-Aged Children Living In Low-Income Families, 1998-2010.” JAMA: Journal Of The American Medical Association 308.24 (2012): 2563-2565. Print.
Rossen, Laruen M. “Neighbourhood Economic Deprivation Explains Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Overweight And Obesity Among Children And Adolescents In The USA.” Journal Of Epidemiology & Community Health 68.2 (2014): 123-129. Print.