Healthcare System Trends In The United States Essay Example

When developing this in 2018, the Senate had failed to invalidate, exchange, or alter the Affordable Care Act (ACA); therefore, the market left did not change from a legislative appearance. Persistent change of market before and after implementing the ACA has left ACA exchange in trouble. The troubles are related to finance providers, encountering decreased compensation, and consumers who have limited access to plans by urban statistical areas across the state. According to Vogenberg and Santilli (2018), through traditional carriers and employer self-funded market trends, the action led to the re-energizing of commercial health insurance.

Evident Topics Revealing Main Healthcare Trends in the United States

It is evident that there are several present healthcare system trends in the United States. The topics identified surround many leading trends in the energized US market. The following are the topics discussed intensively on health care system trends in the United States.

Healthcare in Rural Areas

Many United States patients get treatment from minor, nonmetropolitan hospitals that offer problems for patients and providers of the biggest cities and sub-metropolitan hospitals where health systems introduction happens. Essential health care services provided by rural hospitals are for about 57 million citizens. This population of people staying in rural counties deviates by almost 200,000 from 2010 to 2016, which is the first recorded period of the rural population. (Vogenberg & Santilli, 2018).

Consumerism in Healthcare

Consumerism refers to improving an employer’s advantage for health into that which puts economic buying ability and decision-making in the hands of members. The generation of baby booms continues to lead to pharmaceutical choices, costs, and healthcare and will continue for a while. They will soon overshadow in the controlling drug trends and healthcare for baby boomers, with approximately 7.7 million approximately outnumber millennials. (Vogenberg & Santilli, 2018).

Change in Workforce

According to Orji and Moffatt (2018), employment in the United States is experiencing heavy changes. Occupations in work that require intense education and expertise have risen. This concept has made many workers realize that upgrading their skills is long term commitment. According to Orji and Moffatt (2018), the industry now consists of many generations representing adverse skills of variation, life experiences, technical training, and college education. Such a diverse labor surrounding also creates limitations for healthcare.

Administration Transformation: Benefits Strategy and Specialty Drugs

According to Vogenberg and Santalli (2018), growing healthcare expenses have influenced employers to re-evaluate their healthcare advantages. Commonly, employers currently play a role in estimated care expenses of 70% and 30% of what consumers own, opposite of the previous 80% to 20% proportion. According to Vogenberg and Santilli (2018), administering specialty drugs not exceeding 1 % to 2% of the US number of people, yet they account for 38% of the US drug prescription cost. This drug predicts 50% of the accounted cost of the whole US prescription drug costs, and an intensive survey of advantage strategy and drug pricing is already happening.

Integrated Care for Population Health

According to Kenner (2017), a quick rise has happened in the select outpatient hospitals, including intervention and surgical processes served in the outpatient setup, whereas hospitalized visits of patients have decreased. Providers are highly shifting their attention to ambulatory care. Ambulatory care expenditures increased by 7.3 % from the second quarter in 2015 to the second quarter in 2016, sum up to $244.3 billion (Kenner, 2017). The increment is activated in section by payment best on value models and advancement in technology. Innovations run a foremost duty in the improved delivery of healthcare, and as a result application of technology goes on to grow, ambulatory and outpatient care will improve.

Technology Acceleration and Transformative Market Impacts

Increasingly, individualized and genomic medicine enables us to get therapy specified to our molecular setup. A few instances currently use genomic information in making treatment decisions, yet the research is dynamic and is getting better quickly. According to Vogenberg and Santilli (2018), trends controlling the industry’s vibrant wellness include blood testing done at home, improving round wellness, fitness festivals, and marijuana for wellbeing. Technology improvements will keep on to having a significant influence on the providing of healthcare and affect shareholders.

Government: Legislative and Regulatory Change

According to Cholangial et al. (2017), the national administration realizes and increasing cost pressure because health care is responsible for approximately 33% of national budgets. Governments have no suppleness on rules and regulations to make essential changes that decrease healthcare costs. With no federal action to alter the healthcare industry trends or enlighten states, the marketplace is polluted further by private and public sector limits. According to Cholangail et al. (2017), the public sector and other market factors allow for transformation that has led providers and insurers to concentrate more on the private sector. It includes continuous withdrawal from ACA exchange plans, as well as decreasing cash exposure to risk.


The information above has identified main topics which comprise different direction which will impact the 2018–2019 US healthcare industry. Additionally, the change of speed over time maintains acceleration and economic factors that continuously reduce cost control. It remains to appear if any enacted law comes out of congress to be signed by the president. Nevertheless, these topics will continue to grow and actively perform in the industry, effectively improving the healthcare business than the way it was before. The issues are supposed to be addressed intensively by the relevant authorities to improve the health care system.


Cholangial, G., Wong, R. J., Hu, M., Perumal, R. B., You, E. R., Puri, P., & Ahmed, A. (2017). Liver transplantation for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the US: Temporal trends and outcomes. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 62(10), 2915-2922.

Kenner, C. A. (2017). Trends in US nursing research: Links to global healthcare issues. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 23(1), 1-7.

Orji, R., & Moffatt, K. (2018). Persuasive technology for health and wellness: State-of-the-art and emerging trends. Health Informatics Journal, 24(1), 66-91.

Vogenberg, F. R., & Santilli, J. (2018). Healthcare Trends for 2018. American Health & Drug Benefits, 11(1), 48.

Electric Cars And Trade Paradigm

Global businesses and working environments are complex and require an in-depth assessment of issues for proper management. One such international business is manufacturing electric vehicles (EVs) that are likely to disrupt the original market structure. The commitment to the Paris emission agreement has pushed and will continue driving the growth of EVs (Dimsdale, 2019). Deloitte, a multinational accounting organization providing such services as audit and financial advisory, predicts that the industry will grow significantly to attain a market share of over 30% by 2030 (Woodward et al., 2020). Despite the growth and policies in different countries, consumers still prefer internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, citing a lack of infrastructure. Production and market have concentrated in such regions as the European Union (EU), United States, and China. However, other parts of the world are contributing at low levels to the manufacture of EVs. Following the new EVs’ demand and fabrication structures at the factory, the industry presents opportunities for conflicts and cooperation between countries, firms, and regions over market and production. This paper will assess the trend in EV growth to forecast changes in the current trade paradigm.

Factors that will Drive Global Chain Supply and Trade Paradigm


Some countries and companies have taken the lead in manufacturing EVs compared to ICE vehicles’ previous structure implying an inevitable change in market integration and supply chain. According to Deloitte, China is the leader in EVs, followed by the EU, while the United States comes third in making EVs (Woodward et al., 2020). Unlike the case in ICE vehicles, Japan does not feature among the top three regions in EVs sales every year. The development of greed cars has seen new countries, such as China, gaining more roots in the vehicle industry. Moreover, other companies are entering the market, following incentives in EVs. However, older companies in the ICE vehicles industry are also adding environment friendly vehicles to their catalogs. The development in the EVs market, where new companies are entering the business, will lead to a more integrated and altered global supply chain due to the need for resources and trade barriers.

Well established countries and those behind EVs manufacturing will impose trade barriers, such as tariffs, while strengthening the existing ones leading to deepened global supply chain and integration. EVs come as a strategic resource following leadership in countries and companies that can manage quick and better research and development (R & D). For instance, China has already classified EVs as their strategic industry, indicating plans to protect through trade barriers (Dimsdale, 2019). There also exists a trade barrier between the United States and China that challenges free trade. Similar to how the United States has protected its oil supply market globally, leaders in green vehicles might also introduce the same measures.

Companies and countries will only manage to sell to external markets by integrating with the local ones or establishing stockists instead of direct sales. For example, EV companies in China will have to incorporate with others in Japan and the United States for the respective governments to reduce registration, import, and other taxes. The firms will also need to establish supply chains by making existing ICE vehicle manufacturers their distributors in countries with substantial trade barriers. Such arrangements using established ICE companies will improve free trade in the industry to benefit EVs sales (Panda, Sethi & Chaudhuri, 2017). Therefore, the growth of EVs and their marketing as a strategic industry will lead to the introduction of other supply china players and increased integration to overcome the challenges of trade barriers and disputes.

Disparities in the EVs market between countries and especially those producing the vehicles will also deepen the global supply chain and integration to increase sales. Although the United States and EU are among the leaders in EV production, China has the largest market (Woodward et al., 2020). EU, on the other hand, has strict emission standards that will raise its market with time (Woodward et al., 2020). The market in other countries is relatively low with prolonged time to meet the Paris agreement on emission, which further reduces sale opportunities.

Consumers in other countries, for instance the EU, still have weak attitudes towards EVs with such questions as charging infrastructures. Woodward et al. (2020) project that there will be slow growth in the EVs market in other countries, primarily due to a lack of government incentives and emissions policies. Such issues limit the available external market where manufacturers will compete. The few EV manufacturing countries and firms will have to establish ways to reach the external market regardless of trade barriers and competition. For example, the EU will seek to reach China market, which is relatively large and growing at a fast pace. However, buying local goods to promote local producers might affect direct sales motivating the establishment of partnership, integration, and other points along the supply chain. EV market disparities will lead to a strengthened global supply chain and integration as sellers seek to compete in the limited market.


The EVs market is a capital-intensive business that needs many different inputs, especially at the current stage of its inception before advancements in technology. The demand for high capital and technological knowledge motivates further integration between businesses. According to Woodward et al. (2020), many EV start-ups will fail in the future due to a lack of resources to sustain production. The forecast is an indication of the needed massive investment in the businesses. Much of the resources go to research and development due to the required continued improvement of green vehicles to gain a competitive advantage and persuade consumers. Moreover, the cars need other materials that come from different countries other than the manufacturers. Resource mobilization will push for changes in the existing paradigm with expanded free global trade within the industry.

Among the factors that will drive expanded global free trade and a more in-depth global supply chain is capital to sustain the business. Woodward et al. (2020) predict that there will be partnerships and joint ventures in the future as many EV start-ups struggle to maintain their production. The original EVs and ICE vehicle manufacturers are more resourced with capital and established research and development departments (McKinsey & Company, 2017). Most of such ICE companies will have resources they save from low businesses as consumers turn to EVs. As countries and firms seek to get more resources for EV development through joint ventures, the vehicle industry will become freer with minimal trade barriers. The dependence on other established ICE companies will force countries to open up trade opportunities improving penetration of other states and vehicle manufacturers. Thus the need for heavy capital investment in the EVs industry will push for a more open global trade and a more resonant global supply chain with improved integration.

Need for Global Operations and Extensive Supply Chain

EVs are in their initial stages, indicating the potential to grow and companies’ need to invest heavily in production and supply chain to succeed in the market. The EV market share in the whole vehicle industry is around 2.5% of sales every year and is projected to go beyond 31.1% by 2030 (Woodward et al., 2020). At the moment, most manufacturers, for example, in China, are selling locally due to the large market. However, as the EVs market and production increase, companies will need to compete more in the local and external markets. Such competition will include marketing and production. In 2011, over 400 EV manufacturers in China joined, indicating many firms in the industry with growth chances in the future (Dimsdale, 2019). Most of the new companies in the industry and even the older ones, for instance, Ford, would not claim to have sufficient capabilities to meet customer expectations that can sustain and allow market penetration. The market for green cars is different from that of ICE vehicles, creating a new supply chain and production processes. Companies will have to go global or increases their depth in the international market to penetrate and become sustainable.

Globalization presents opportunities for EV companies to strengthen their supply chain to meet customer expectations and achieve sustainability. Multinational companies are efficient in penetrating new markets to offset challenges with low sales and changing consumer needs. Globalization makes corporations develop global supply chains that can facilitate ease of entrance to new markets due to their international status. The position provides loyalty to customers compared to new national companies attempting to sell their products in the outside market. EVs present the vehicle industry with different consumer needs and consumption forces to those in ICE vehicles (Woodward et al., 2020). In green vehicles, consumer needs are not similar to those they have in ICE cars. According to Smit, Whitehead, and Washington (2018), most consumers are yet to appreciate the EVs due to different cited issues such as establishing infrastructure, including charging points. Customers in most countries, for example, in the United States, have weaker attitudes towards EVs compared to others such as China. Manufacturers in the US and EU will therefore need to penetrate other markets for sustainability.

Companies’ globalization will allow EV corporations to easily penetrate the limited market at the beginning by influencing customers through loyalty. Global firms have favorable reputations even in countries with no outlets due to the brand name in producing quality products. Customers get the attraction to such companies following long-tern service to other regions without complaints. Corporations such as Ford and General Motors, for example, will have an easy time persuading customers towards EVs through loyalty transfer. Managers will use the same strategy of globalization to improve their loyalty towards potential customers. As a result, the growth of EVs will push most manufacturers to expand their global limits.

Another reason why EV growth will push vehicle companies into in-depth global operations is competition for improved models while driving change. Woodward et al. (2020) forecast that businesses that will survive the market will update their model with time to attract customers. Most of the original EVs firms have managed to stay afloat due to the acquisition of start-ups and update in their models (Woodward et al., 2020). Globalization benefits corporations with knowledge for continuous improvement of their products. Global firms employ people with diverse backgrounds in production and preference for local community products, following globalization’s benefit. EV manufacturers will seek to become multinationals to raise their knowledge in production. At the moment, China is more advanced in producing EVs. The US and EU companies will, for example, extend their market to China to get more employees from the country who can add technological knowledge on improving EVs models.

Apart from globalization growth of green car makers will change, alter and make the industry supply chain more extensive and specialized. EV manufacturers do not have established supply chains and capital to run a profitable business (McKinsey & Company, 2017). The firms will need to collaborate with ICE manufacturers who have all the resources and capabilities required to run a sustainable business. Negotiation between EVs and ICE vehicle companies will yield a new supply chain model with many companies developing the chain. ICE car producers will become sales points for green vehicles as they get stock from manufacturers. For example, Chinese EV producers might incorporate other companies, for instance, General Motors and Ford, to sell their cars. Although EVs car manufacturers might be new in the vehicle industry, there are low chances of standing independently without incorporating the existing companies in their supply chain. Such collaboration will deepen the global supply chain while expanding the supply chain for car manufacturers to have ICE manufacturers serving as sales agents.

Changes in the Management of Global Organizations

Management of global organizations affects the trade paradigm, making it vital for organizations to focus on the wave of EVs’ growth. Managers in global companies determine where to trade, who, and who to use to drive the company objectives. The growth of green cars will force the organizations to increase sourcing of employees from external markets to drive globalization, market-entry, and improving car models. The companies need to invest in predicting and shaping future market developments to remain relevant. EVs market is full of uncertainties, including changes in demand, policies, prices, and affordability (Dimsdale, 2019). The primary concern is consumer attitudes towards the models and government goodwill and support to the respective companies (Smit et al., 2018). Managers will have to reorganize their companies to have employees who focus on the future and represent different world regions.

Managers will also seek employees with local tastes to drive production alongside others with a global mindset to deepen international reach. Such a composition will be essential to reduce uncertainties in the future and ensure that the organization makes progressive decisions to sustain the market. Thus, EV growth will push companies in the industry to consider management aligned to business changes, especially the need for competitive models and marketing strategies.


In conclusion, EVs’ growth is a global issue that will affect the current vehicle companies and upcoming ones. The industry has led to the emergence of new manufacturers while making other regions leaders of EVs instead of the case in ICE vehicles. Moreover, there is customer segmentation with the needed push towards acceptance of green cars. The growth faces challenges in the market, marketing, and sustaining the businesses. This assessment establishes that EV firms will have to deepen their global supply chain and increases market integration to have a sustainable business. The information is essential to global managers in the industry to plan the needed structures for depending global supply chain and establish partners to avoid going out of businesses. Among the noted drivers to the need for in-depth global supply and globalization includes capital, improved car models, and market penetration.


Dimsdale, T. (2019). Redefining geopolitics in the age of electric vehicles. Web.

McKinsey & Company. (2017). Electrifying insights: How automakers can drive electrified vehicle sales and profitability advanced industries. Web.

Panda, R., Sethi, M., & Chaudhuri, S. (2017). Changing paradigm in trade theories: a review and future research agenda. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(46), 1-6.

Smit, R., Whitehead, J., & Washington, S. (2018). Where are we heading with electric vehicles? Air Quality and Climate Change, 52(3), 18-27.

Woodward, M., Walton, B., Hamilton J., Alberts G., Fullerton-Smith S., Day E. & Ringrow J. (2020). Electric vehicles: Setting a course for 2030. Web.

Romantic Period And Victorian Period Poetry Comparison

FigureRomantic and Victorian poetry refers to verses produced during the Romantic and Victorian periods. The poems that have been chosen for my analysis, “Porphyria’s Lover” and “She Walks in Beauty”, demonstrate the most striking features of each of the literary eras. Both the Romantic and Victorian periods were two significant stages in English literature. Many literary works of these two periods were based on the interpretation of the Bible, which raised questions for the church. Still, the two eras had two different variations of this concept. Theses of the epochs of poetry called into question the facts of formal religion and formed new ideas. What was different was that the romantic poetry of nature reflects profound ideas and experiences, and great human feelings, and this is its aesthetic value. On the contrary, Victorian poetry was affected by the industrial revolution and the rapid changes in the technological sphere of society. Romantic and Victorian poetry reflected the critical events of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the difference between them being the way these two schools of poetry portrayed the new philosophies.

George Gordon Byron – the author of “She Walks in Beauty”- influenced the work of Robert Browning, who wrote “Porphyria’s Lover”. Comparing the heritage of the poets, the thematic commonality of some of their works can be noted. Thus, in the works of Byron and Browning, there are Italian motives (Byron’s poem “Beppo” and Browning’s monologue “A Toccata of Galuppi’s”). Both authors also refer to the same Napoleonic motives (Byron’s poem “Napoleon’s Farewell”, and Browning’s “Incident of the French camp”). Several works by Byron and Browning reveal the pathos of sympathy for the people’s liberation movements (Byron’s “Song to the Suliotes” and Browning’s “The Italian in England”). Thus, it is quite easy to trace the connection between the artistic world of Robert Browning’s poetry and the work of Byron. However, specific points of contact only emphasize the profound individuality and originality of the Victorian poet compared to the great predecessor. Browning did not proceed from deeply felt, even if spontaneously perceived, interests of the masses like Byron did. His social and aesthetic ideals reflected the interests and views of classes alien to the people. Despite admiring the power and passion of the romantic hero, Browning understands that individualism stops the spiritual growth of a person, and hinders his understanding of the outside world. The essential difference between Browning and Byron is that in his attempts to contrast him with the world of the Middle Ages or the Renaissance, Browning was far from the people while Byron remained close to the masses.

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, England turned into an advanced state, which developed by leaps and bounds, becoming an example for the whole of Europe. Both the Romanticist and Victorian periods saw a surge in industry, trade expansion, and the prosperity of centuries-old colonial possessions in the New World and India. In both eras, the male society was dominant, which was reflected in the love poetry. Also, in both these epochs, the facts of formal religion were questioned, and new ideas were formed based on it. Both the 18th and 19th centuries were filled with changes and events reflected in poetry in terms of art, work, and people’s daily lives. Unlike the romantic artists, the Victorian artists did not see nature in an emotional and romantic light. It was due to the beginning of the reign of Queen Victoria and the industrial revolution that took place during this period. The leap in science and technology can be seen in many works written during this period. Scientific and technological discoveries and inventions of that era changed man’s attitude to nature from romantic to realistic. For the most part, the romantic movement affected aspects of intellectual life, so Romanticism had a connection with science in the field of education and enlightenment. Therefore, Romanticism was formed under the influence of the cult of feeling and nature. So, Victorian poetry contrasts with romantic poetry, a product of emotion, while Victorian poetry is more a product of intelligence and reason.

Both “Porphyria’s Lover” and “She Walks in Beauty” present a wealth of tools that allow building an internal language logic that reveals the subtext. The techniques of versification used by the poets give the texts a harmonious and organic sound. Both Byron and Browning, at first glance, are simply talking about female beauty, but the poem is profoundly symbolic, and there are several semantic spheres in it. Also, both poets actively use, for example, the nighttime of day and everything related to it. Both narratives are conducted in the first person, and the main character acts as the narrator. “Porphyria’s Lover” is often called Browning’s first dramatic monologue, counting from here the history of the new, “patented” genre. The dramatic action is transferred to the present, and the reader suddenly becomes a witness to what is happening. The absence of a backstory, of any coherent explanation, is more characteristic of a spontaneous monologue snatched from the middle of a play than of a story or a short story. The unity of time, place, and action (that is not present in “She Walks in Beauty”) also indicates that it is a drama. In Byron, there is no development of events; the work describes an innocent girl’s beautiful and pure inner world. He turns to the theme of beauty, which has an existential meaning for him, while Browning does not attach such a critical meaning to attractiveness.

Literary theorists end the period of romanticism in English poetry at the beginning of the 1830s, then the Victorian period starts. After mentioning all these facts, it can be seen that although these two types of poetry belong to two different eras, there is a development from the Romantic era to the Victoria era with a lot of research, knowledge, and technology development. It can be said that Victorian poetry absorbed the romantic traditions that the Industrial Revolution transformed. Therefore, not the gap from one generation to another, but the connection between these epochs is considered progress and a transition from the Romantic era to the Victorian one.

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