Healthy People 2030 Goal: Middle-Aged Adults With Breast Cancer

The US national project Healthy People 2030 seeks to enhance the health and well-being of everyone. Cancer is one of the goals, and it seeks to reduce the cases and effects. Particularly, breast cancer can affect people of all ages (Healthy People 2030). However, middle-aged adults face unique difficulties, and these are individuals between the ages of 40 and 65. This report aims to promote awareness of and support efforts to achieve the Healthy People 2030 Goal relating to middle-aged persons with breast cancer.

Breast cancer is a condition marked by unchecked cell proliferation in the breast tissue (Tan et al.). When diagnosed with breast cancer, middle-aged people confront particular difficulties. In this age range, breast cancer can occur due to hormonal changes, lifestyle choices, and genetic susceptibility. According to Franklin, breast lumps or chronic breast pain are all indications of breast cancer that must be recognized. Other factors are changes in breast size or shape and nipple discharge.

Early detection is crucial when it comes to improving outcomes for middle-aged adults with breast cancer. Women over 40 are advised to have mammograms (Ory et al.). According to Hemminki and Mutanen, it is most curable at this point. Critical tactics for reaching the Healthy People 2030 Goal include encouraging routine tests, encouraging breast self-examination, and teaching people the significance of noticing changes in their breast health.

The likelihood of acquiring breast cancer rises concerning specific risk factors. Breast cancer in the family, genetic abnormalities (such as BRCA1 and BRCA2), alcohol use, and a sedentary lifestyle are a few of them. Other factors are hormonal variables and obesity. A healthy lifestyle can lower your risk of developing breast cancer (Krieger). Preventive measures can be significantly aided by keeping a healthy weight and exercising frequently. Also, abstaining from tobacco and consuming alcohol in moderation.

Adults in their middle years diagnosed with breast cancer need extensive care and assistance. Surgery and hormone therapy are all possible forms of treatment. Other standard treatment is chemotherapy and targeted therapy. For those receiving treatment, it is critical to facilitate emotional support and guarantee access to high-quality healthcare services. Collaboration between healthcare professionals, decision-makers, and the community is crucial to achieving the Healthy People 2030 Goal about middle-aged adults with breast cancer. A vital component of the plan is raising awareness. People can be empowered to take control of their health by participating in public awareness initiatives that inform people about breast cancer risk factors, early detection techniques, and the value of routine screenings.

To lessen inequities in breast cancer outcomes, healthcare access must be improved. This includes ensuring that all middle-aged adults, regardless of their socioeconomic situation or residence, have access to reasonably priced mammography screenings, diagnostic services, and thorough treatment options. Another critical element is improving the support systems. Increasing the availability of peer support groups, counseling services, and survival programs for middle-aged breast cancer patients can offer emotional and practical assistance during treatment.

Healthy lifestyle promotion is crucial to lower the risk of breast cancer and enhance general health. Prevention efforts can be significantly aided by urging middle-aged persons to keep a healthy weight, exercise regularly, and consume less alcohol. To defeat breast cancer, research and innovation must be advanced. It can enhance outcomes and deliver specialized care based on individual needs by supporting research programs. These are meant to develop advanced screening methods (Krieger).

In conclusion, middle-aged women developing breast cancer is a severe public health issue that has to be addressed. We can help middle-aged adults with breast cancer live healthier lives. There is a need to work towards lessening the burden of this illness by putting in place comprehensive initiatives. By working together, we can significantly contribute to the Healthy People 2030 Goal and enhance the results for those who have developed breast cancer.

Works Cited

Franklin, Aimee L. “Institutionalizing Stakeholder Engagement.” Stakeholder Engagement, 2020, pp. 121–139,

Healthy People 2030. “Cancer.” Cancer – Healthy People 2030, 2023,

Hemminki, K, and P Mutanen. “Birth Order, Family Size, and the Risk of Cancer in Young and Middle-Aged Adults.” British Journal of Cancer, vol. 84, no. 11, 2001, pp. 1466–1471,

Krieger, Nancy. “Breast Bruises and Breast Cancer.” Breast Cancer Research, vol. 17, no. 1, 2015,

Ory, Marcia G., et al. “Cancer Prevention among Adults Aged 45–64 Years.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 46, no. 3, 2014,

Tan, King Fang, et al. “A Comparison of Breast Cancer Survival across Different Age Groups: A Multicentric Database Study in Penang, Malaysia.” Epidemiology and Health, vol. 43, 2021,

How To Make Rainbow Glasses


Rainbow glasses, also known as diffraction glasses, are eyewear with special lenses that can diffract light and create a mesmerizing display of vibrant hues. In recent years, these glasses have acquired popularity due to their ability to transform ordinary light sources into dazzling spectacles. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how rainbow spectacles are made and to assess their significance and potential benefits. Using a diffraction grating, a finely incised surface that disperses light into its component wavelengths, rainbow glasses function. Light endures diffraction when it passes through the diffraction grating on the lenses, resulting in the formation of a vibrant rainbow pattern (Ross 2022). This enthralling visual experience has made rainbow spectacles a sought-after accessory for a variety of applications, from concerts and entertainment events to educational demonstrations and art installations.

The significance of rainbow spectacles lies in their capacity to amplify and enhance light perception. By separating light into its component colors, these spectacles offer a unique perspective that enables individuals to see the light spectrum’s hidden complexities (Brett and Brassington 2023). In addition, rainbow spectacles have been utilized in science education to engage students and facilitate a deeper comprehension of concepts such as light diffraction and wavelength properties. The prospective advantages of rainbow glasses extend beyond their amusement value. These glasses have been used in therapeutic settings to create calming and visually stimulating environments, thereby promoting relaxation and reducing tension. In addition, artists and designers have embraced rainbow spectacles as a tool for creating immersive and captivating visual experiences by investigating the relationship between light, color, and perception.

The thesis of this paper is that by following a simple yet meticulously delineated procedure, individuals can create their own rainbow glasses, thereby gaining access to a world of colorful wonder. The hypothesis is that homemade rainbow glasses will effectively diffract light and produce rainbow patterns comparable to those of commercially available spectacles (Brett and Brassington 2023). This paper intends to provide a comprehensive guide for anyone interested in crafting their own mesmerizing eyewear by exploring the materials, methods, and outcomes of the rainbow glasses creation process.


Explanation of the materials required for making rainbow glasses

The materials required for making rainbow glasses are simple and readily available. Here is an explanation of the materials needed:

Cardboard or thick paper: This will serve as the base for the glasses. Choose a sturdy material that can be easily cut and folded.

Diffraction grating film: This is the key component that allows light diffraction and creates the rainbow effect. The diffraction grating film can be obtained from specialized suppliers or online retailers. Ensure that the film has a high-quality diffraction rating for optimal results (Brett and Brassington 2023).

Transparent adhesive tape: This will be used to attach the diffraction grating film to the cardboard or paper frame. Clear adhesive tape works best as it doesn’t obstruct the view through the glasses.

Scissors or a craft knife: These tools are necessary for cutting the cardboard or paper into the desired shape and size for the glasses. Make sure they are sharp and suitable for precision cutting (Ross 2022).

Ruler and pencil: These will assist in measuring and marking the dimensions of the glasses to ensure accuracy during cutting and assembly.

Optional: Decorative materials and accessories: If desired, you can personalize your rainbow glasses by adding decorative elements such as colored markers, stickers, or glitter.

Step-by-step procedure for making rainbow glasses

Initiate the process by utilizing a ruler and pencil to measure and demarcate the dimensions of the glasses on a cardboard or thick paper. The customary measurements are roughly 6 inches (15 cm) in width and 2 inches (5 cm) in height, although customization is possible based on personal preference (Fernandez et al. 2021).

The glass’s shape can be meticulously excised by means of scissors or a craft knife, adhering to the demarcated lines. It is important to carve out the apertures for the eyes, taking care to make them sufficiently spacious for ease of vision.

Acquire the diffraction grating film and divide it into two sections that surpass the dimensions of the apertures of the cardboard spectacles.

Place a single piece of diffraction grating film onto one of the apertures of the cardboard glasses. Affix the film firmly by means of clear adhesive tape, making certain that it is stretched tightly and encompasses the entirety of the aperture.

Proceed with the aforementioned procedure for the alternate eye aperture, utilizing the subsequent section of diffraction grating film.

Ensure that the diffraction grating film is firmly affixed and uniformly aligned across both apertures for the eyes (Ross 2022). If required, remove any surplus film.

If preferred, one may embellish the cardboard glasses with colored markers, stickers, or glitter to impart a distinctive flair.

It is imperative to ensure that the diffraction grating film is securely affixed by allowing the adhesive to fully dry.

After the drying process is complete, the rainbow glasses that you have made at home are now prepared for utilization. Wear the glasses and direct your gaze towards a luminous source, such as a light bulb or natural sunlight, in order to observe the captivating spectral display (Ross 2022).

Safety precautions and considerations during the process

It is crucial to follow specific safety guidelines and measures when creating rainbow spectacles. First, whether utilizing adhesive sprays or paints for decoration, make sure you are working in a well-ventilated environment to avoid any potential fume inhalation. To prevent any inadvertent cuts or accidents, use caution when using scissors or craft knives (Brett and Brassington 2023). When working with sharp instruments, it is advisable to wear the proper safety gear, such as gloves and goggles. Take care not to connect the diffraction grating film to the cardboard with any sharp edges that could cause abrasions or irritation. To prevent eye strain or weariness during assembling, take pauses as needed. To guarantee children’s safety, constantly keep an eye on them and help them if they are building rainbow glasses (Fernandez et al. 2021). You can make rainbow glasses in a safe and entertaining way by adhering to these safety precautions and considerations.


Making rainbow glasses results in a pair of eyewear with a distinct and appealing visual effect. The glasses are made of a strong cardboard or paper frame with a diffraction grating material that is securely affixed over the eye openings. When viewed via the glasses, the diffraction grating film is responsible for diffracting light and producing a fascinating rainbow appearance (Sparavigna 2019 Jul 15). When wearing the rainbow glasses and looking at a light source, such as a bulb or sunshine, they efficiently deflect the incoming light, breaking it down into its constituent colors. The light wavelengths are dispersed by the diffraction grating film, producing a brilliant and vibrant display of colors resembling a rainbow (Fernandez et al. 2021). The effect is stunning, with distinct bands of color blending effortlessly into one another.

The glasses’ ability to produce a rainbow effect is astounding. The diffraction grating film does an excellent job of diffracting light and producing a clear and well-defined rainbow pattern. The hues are brilliant and distinct, catching the viewer’s attention and intrigue. The rainbow effect appears to span the entire field of vision, encompassing everything in a bright show. The glasses provide a captivating experience by altering how light is perceived. The diffraction effect is not confined to specific light sources, as the glasses may diffract light from a wide range of ordinary sources, including lamps and streetlights (Diaspro 2022 Jan 1). The rainbow effect is most obvious when viewing direct and focused light sources, but even under ambient or diffused lighting settings, the glasses present a visible rainbow pattern. It is important to note that the efficiency of the rainbow glasses varies depending on the quality of the diffraction grating film used and the precision with which it is attached to the glasses. A more vivid and vibrant rainbow effect will arise from high-quality films with a higher diffraction rating. Furthermore, making sure the film is tightly and evenly affixed over the eye openings of the glasses will improve the clarity and integrity of the rainbow pattern.


Due to their many possible uses and applications, rainbow glasses are flexible tools that can be used in a variety of settings. Applications-wise, rainbow glasses are used in a variety of contexts. They are frequently used at entertainment events like concerts, light shows, and festivals, where they improve the visual appeal by giving the acts a fascinating rainbow appearance. In fireworks displays, rainbow glasses are also common. By diffracting the light from the fireworks, they produce a stunning display.

Significant usefulness can be found in rainbow glasses for science teaching. They perform as interesting tools for illuminating electromagnetic spectrum, diffraction, and light characteristics. Students can gain a stronger understanding of these scientific ideas by directly experiencing how various light wavelengths are divided to form a rainbow (Diaspro 2022 Jan 1). Rainbow glasses can also be used in optics demonstrations or experiments, allowing students to learn about the intriguing interaction between light and matter.

Using rainbow glasses has advantages beyond entertainment and education. These glasses have been used to generate relaxing and aesthetically exciting environments in therapeutic settings. The rainbow’s relaxing qualities might aid in easing tension and encouraging relaxation. In design and art, rainbow glasses are also used (Ross 2022). They are used by designers and artists to make immersive works that are visually stunning and explore the relationship between perception, light, and color. There are some restrictions to take into account, though. The diffraction effect is more evident in dimly lit or dark areas, which is where rainbow glasses work best (Fernandez et al., 2021). The rainbow pattern might be harder to see or might conflict with other light sources in brightly lit places, which would detract from the overall effect. Rainbow glasses are also largely made for aesthetic delight and are not meant to enhance or correct vision in any manner. They shouldn’t be used in dangerous conditions as a replacement for protective or prescription eyewear.


The process of creating rainbow glasses has been analyzed, with a focus on the necessary materials and step-by-step procedures. The creation of these spectacles has demonstrated their efficacy in diffracting light and producing a mesmerizing rainbow effect. The glasses offer a novel and visually stimulating experience, augmenting entertainment events and serving as valuable educational resources in science classrooms. Applications for rainbow spectacles are varied and extensive. They have applications in numerous disciplines, such as entertainment, science education, art, and therapy. These glasses add a mesmerizing rainbow effect to concerts and pyrotechnics displays, captivating audiences and enhancing visual experiences. Rainbow glasses engage students and deepen their comprehension of light, diffraction, and the electromagnetic spectrum in the realm of education. The success and utility of rainbow spectacles stem from their accessibility and simplicity. The required materials are widely accessible, and the procedure can be followed by individuals of any age. DIY enthusiasts, students, and anyone else interested in a one-of-a-kind visual experience can investigate the wonders of light and color with these inexpensive and inventive glasses.

The significance of rainbow spectacles is likely to endure in the future. Possibilities exist to improve the diffraction effect, incorporate new materials, or investigate alternative designs, making their future development and innovation prospects promising. Even more disciplines, including virtual reality, augmented reality, and immersive experiences, may find use for rainbow glasses in the future. Making rainbow spectacles is a rewarding activity that enables individuals to create their own visually captivating and enchanting eyewear (Sparavigna 2019 Jul 15). These glasses facilitate the exploration of the majesty of light and color, stimulating the imagination and enhancing comprehension. Whether used for education, artistic expression, or pure entertainment, rainbow glasses bring joy and intrigue to those who don them, opening up a world of vibrant possibilities.


Brett A, Brassington J. 2023. Pride and Progress: Making Schools LGBT+ Inclusive Spaces. Sage Publications UK. [accessed 2023 Jun 26].

Diaspro A. 2022 Jan 1. The Colours of the Rainbow. :31–56. doi:

Fernandez TT, Gross S, Privat K, Johnston B, Withford M. 2021. Designer Glasses—Future of Photonic Device Platforms. Advanced Functional Materials. 32(3):2103103. doi:

Ross K. 2022. Looking Through Rainbow Coloured Glasses: Radio Spectral Variability and its Physical Origins. espacecurtineduau. [accessed 2023 Jun 26].

Sparavigna AC. 2019 Jul 15. The play of colours of prisms.

Hybrid Or Remote Full-Time Work And Its Implementation As The Primary Method Of Work In America


Given current technological developments, education, and globalization, a paradigm change is very likely. Full-time workers now operating from a single location is an ineffective and unsustainable strategy. Hybrid or remote full-time employment are two possible answers to this issue. A hybrid or remote full-time position involves working from home sometimes but spending some days in the office. This differs from a typical 9 to 5 job since you could spend some days working from home and some of it at an office.

According to Vinueza-Cabezas et al. (2022), Many businesses have adopted the hybrid or remote full-time work strategy to save expenses. Additionally, it gives staff members greater scheduling freedom, which may boost output and morale. Over the last several years, remote work has become increasingly popular, which is not unexpected. It is now simpler than ever to remain in touch with your coworkers and supervisor, thanks to the development of technology, particularly the Internet. Consequently, more businesses are implementing flexible work schedules that allow workers sometimes to work remotely or from home using vacation time.

Literature Review

Remote full-time work is a hybrid working model, a mix between traditional workplaces and telecommuting. This type of working model allows employees to work anywhere worldwide as long as they can access the necessary technologies. The article by Hopkins and Bardoel (2023) discusses how remote full-time work has become popular since pandemics have affected many countries worldwide. The authors present the results of a study on paperless offices and remote workers. The authors describe their findings, including that many companies are implementing hybrid work models for greater flexibility for employees who work from home and in-office. This flexibility can result in more efficient use of time, reducing costs for employers. This article relates to the topic because it shows how hybrid work models can help companies reduce costs while improving employee satisfaction by allowing them to choose where they want to work. In addition, because these types of companies tend to have fewer employees working at any one time than traditional offices do, they could be more efficient than those who do not use this method.

Hopkins & Bardoel (2023) describe the implementation of hybrid work models in Australia, similar to the implementation of remote full-time work in America. In both cases, it is essential to note that the decision was made not because of a lack of interest or desire on behalf of employees but because it was necessary due to circumstances outside their control. In Australia’s case, an pandemic influenza outbreak forced many people to stay home from work; in America’s case, there is a shortage of workers willing to relocate across state lines or take jobs with long commutes. Both articles show that employers and employees are struggling with this new reality. Employers must find ways to retain staff who want remote work but cannot commute; employees must find ways to make remote work possible despite its challenges. Hopkins and Bardoel’s article cites several advantages for organizations implementing hybrid work models: increased productivity; increased employee engagement; decreased costs associated with commuting and parking; improved workplace culture; greater flexibility among employees; and reduced carbon emissions from commuting.

Konovalova et al. (2022) discuss how implementing hybrid and remote full-time work is an effective solution for companies looking to maximize their talent pool and improve productivity. The authors also explore some challenges companies face when implementing these new work models. Specifically, they discuss how the use of these work models has increased in recent years because of their ability to attract talented employees who otherwise would not have been available due to issues such as location or scheduling conflicts. They also discuss how these new models have allowed companies to reduce costs associated with office space and facility maintenance while increasing productivity by allowing more time for employees to focus on their projects rather than commuting or attending meetings outside of regular working hours.

Konovalova et al. (2022) also note that there are challenges associated with adopting these new models, including compliance requirements such as overtime pay laws as well as challenges related to managing remote teams, including communication challenges between team members who may not work together every day but need access information quickly when needed. The article further discusses the growing popularity of hybrid and remote full-time work and how it can be implemented to benefit both employers and employees. This topic is particularly relevant for America, where many remote workers would like to work from home but do not have the option. According to the article by Konovalova and colleagues, hybrid work models allow employees to balance their lives with their jobs more effectively than traditional models. In addition, this working method has been shown to improve employee morale and productivity, which helps companies save money on training and hiring new employees. The authors also note that hybrid work models can help companies by allowing them to retain valuable employees who might otherwise leave due to a lack of flexibility. They also discuss how this type of work model could benefit organizations looking to hire new talent because it gives them access to a broader range of candidates who may otherwise not be able to interview for certain positions due to their location.

The implementation of hybrid working from home-has had a positive impact on the productivity of employees. Bloom et al. (2022) found that when employees were allowed to work remotely full-time, they experienced significant improvements in their overall productivity. Specifically, they produced more work, were more productive at work and home, and reported higher satisfaction levels with their work-life balance. Their study is significant because it shows companies can benefit by allowing their employees to work remotely full-time. These include lower costs for keeping offices open and higher morale among employees who can spend more time with family or pursue other interests outside work hours. The authors find that employees are more productive when they work from home (on average), but there are also tradeoffs: the work-from-home employees have more stress and face more challenges in managing their time.

The authors of this article have found benefits to having some workers work remotely full-time, but there are also drawbacks. One significant benefit is that it can be less expensive for companies to hire remote workers because they do not need to pay for office space or equipment purchases like printers or computers. However, this may come at the cost of productivity due to distractions like social media and other factors like not being able to see coworkers often enough, as well as having trouble managing work hours due to scheduling issues with other employees who might want to get together at a specific location during certain times of the day.

Employees who work remotely have more flexibility and control over their time. This can help them reduce stress, improve productivity and increase employee satisfaction (Kokt & Chipunza, 2022). However, there are challenges associated with this type of work, such as a lack of support from managers and colleagues (Kokt & Chipunza, 2022). Therefore, employees must understand these challenges before starting remote or hybrid work. The article also explains how hybrid working can benefit employees when working on projects outside their comfort zone or when they need to collaborate with people worldwide (Kokt & Chipunza, 2022). This collaboration can provide them with new opportunities for learning and development, improving their skills and performance at work. Kokt and Chipunza note that remote and hybrid working can be a cost-effective way to boost productivity and efficiency, but it has many implications for employee development.

The authors note that employees accustomed to working at home may struggle with workspace management, including managing their schedules, communicating correctly with other team members, and staying focused on their tasks (Kokt & Chipunza, 2022). In addition, they say that employees accustomed to working remotely may have difficulty transitioning back into a traditional office environment when needed. The article’s findings suggest employers should consider offering training programs for remote workers that focus on managing their time effectively and communicating clearly with coworkers. They also recommend offering training programs for traditional office workers about how to work effectively with remote workers.

The article by Agba et al. (2022) discusses the benefits of remote work over traditional office settings, including increased employee productivity and job satisfaction. The authors state that “there is a strong correlation between telecommuting and high levels of productivity,” especially for those in creative or technical fields such as engineering or computer programming (Agba et al., 2022). The study also found that workers allowed to work remotely reported higher levels of job satisfaction than those who worked in an office environment (Agba et al., 2022). This study supports the idea that hybrid work models are more effective than traditional full-time positions because they allow employees to balance their personal lives with their professional lives without sacrificing one or the other entirely for their jobs. However, the authors also state that many challenges are involved in implementing a remote-work model within an organization.

For example, it may be difficult for managers to monitor what employees are doing and whether or not they are working efficiently when they are not in the exact location as everyone else. Additionally, employees might feel isolated from other team members if they cannot interact with them regularly and vice versa. The authors conclude that while benefits are associated with traditional office-based work environments and remote work models (such as increased productivity), neither method is superior. Instead, each has pros and cons, which must be considered carefully before implementing any particular strategy within an organization or company.

Research Question

What are the impacts and challenges of implementing hybrid or remote full-time work as the primary work method in America?

Theoretical Framework

Flexible Work Arrangements Theory: This theory looks at how different flexible work arrangements, such as remote work and hybrid work models, are implemented and what effect they have on employee productivity, job satisfaction, and work-life balance (Erro-Garcés et al., 2022). The emphasis is on how businesses may modify their organizational structures to consider shifting employee preferences and technology improvements. The theory explains the advantages and difficulties of flexible work schedules and sheds light on the variables that affect how well they are implemented.

The Flexible Employment Arrangements (FWAs) hypothesis is an excellent choice for this hybrid or remote full-time employment research since it is both very relevant and suitable. The theory of flexible work arrangements (FWAs) offers a comprehensive framework for comprehending and analyzing the idea of flexible work arrangements, including hybrid work models and remote employment (Wöhner, 2022). It provides insights into the fundamental ideas, advantages, difficulties, and effects of such work arrangements on workers and organizations.

The first benefit of FWA theory is that it clarifies the justification for using hybrid or remote full-time employment arrangements. It acknowledges that conventional labor arrangements have shifted paradigm due to technological advances, education, and globalization. According to the hypothesis, FWAs like remote work and hybrid work provide workers more flexibility, schedule freedom, and work-life balance, which boosts productivity and job satisfaction (Seeber & Erhardt, 2023). This aligns with the study’s goal of investigating the advantages and effects of full-time remote and hybrid work on workers and organizations.

In addition, the FWA theory offers a framework for analyzing organizational variables that affect the adoption and effectiveness of hybrid work models. It covers the difficulties employers experience in leading remote teams, guaranteeing clear communication, and fostering cooperation and efficiency in a distributed workplace. To overcome these obstacles, the theory also emphasizes the need to encourage management practices, training programs, and efficient communication channels. This aligns with the study’s suggestions for organizations to manage the difficulties and consequences of adopting hybrid work models.

Thirdly, in Weideman and Hofmeyr’s article (2020), the FWA theory recognizes that circumstances at the individual level may affect how successful flexible work arrangements are. It acknowledges that various workers may have varied preferences, driving forces, and capacities for adjusting to remote or hybrid work. The idea discusses the significance of worker autonomy, self-management, and skills necessary for productive remote work. It also draws attention to workers’ difficulties, like managing their workspaces and their time and establishing boundaries between their personal and professional lives. These factors are important since the research examines how hybrid work affects employee growth, satisfaction, and productivity.

Lastly, the FWA theory acknowledges the wider organizational and social ramifications of implementing hybrid or remote full-time employment arrangements. It discusses possible business cost reductions, less commute, environmental advantages, and access to a larger talent pool (Austin-Egole et al., 2020). The theory also considers the various tradeoffs and difficulties posed by FWAs, such as handling compliance obligations and preserving social ties and teamwork. These ideas align with the study’s investigation of remote and hybrid full-time employment’s advantages, disadvantages, and consequences.


The adoption of hybrid or remote full-time work as the predominant mode of employment in America will benefit productivity, employee satisfaction, work-life balance, and cost savings for businesses, but it may also present difficulties for communication, workspace management, and upholding a sense of connection and collaboration among staff members.


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Austin-Egole, I. S., Iheriohanma, E. B., & Nwokorie, C. (2020). Flexible working arrangements and organizational performance: An overview. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS)25(5), 50-59. DOI:10.9790/0837-2505065059

Bloom, N., Han, R., & Liang, J. (2022). How hybrid working from home works out (No. w30292). National Bureau of Economic Research.

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Konovalova, V. G., Petrenko, B. V., & Aghgashyan, R. V. (2022, February). Choosing a Hybrid Work Model and New Challenges. In Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference “Smart Nations: Global Trends In The Digital Economy” Volume 1 (pp. 547–554). Cham: Springer International Publishing. Doi: 10.3390/ijerph192114337

Seeber, I., & Erhardt, J. (2023). Working from Home with Flexible and Permeable Boundaries: Exploring the Role of Digital Workplace Tools for Job Satisfaction. Business & Information Systems Engineering, 1-16. DOI:10.1007/s12599-023-00801-2

Vinueza-Cabezas, A., Osejo-Taco, G., Unda-López, A., Paz, C., & Hidalgo-Andrade, P. (2022). A Comparison of Working Conditions and Workers’ Perceptions among On-Site, Telework, and Hybrid Workers in Ecuador during the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(21), 14337. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph192114337

Weideman, M., & Hofmeyr, K. B. (2020). The influence of flexible work arrangements on employee engagement: An exploratory study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management18(1), 1-18. DOI:10.4102/sajhrm.v18i0.1209

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