Hinduism’s Perspective On Abortion As A Women’s Human Right Free Sample

In the history of human civilizations, various religions have played a critical role in shaping their followers’ life decisions. This has become evident as most followers approach controversial societal issues based on their religion’s beliefs and ethics. Women’s rights to abortion are one of the controversial topics that have sparked mixed reactions among followers of various religions. Some have approved of the rights, while others have failed to acknowledge it as it is against their beliefs and moral values. The Women’s rights to abortion stemmed from the Supreme Court’s landmark decision in the Roe v Wade case in 1973, in which the court guaranteed women rights to access legal and safe abortion within the first trimester (Cohen, pg. 2). However, the Supreme court’s decision was not welcomed by everyone which led to several debates among followers of various religions on whether women should have a right to abortion. The followers of Hinduism, a religion which beliefs in the doctrines of Samsara and Karma, have been at the forefront of airing their opinions regarding the issue. Based on Hinduism beliefs, when considering controversial issues like women’s rights to abortion, the best solution is to choose the option that will do less harm to involved parties (Aramesh, pg. 2). Thus, it is generally opposed to abortion except when it is necessary to protect another life. There is a need to understand how Hinduism’s beliefs affect the perspectives of its followers on women’s rights to abortion.

Based on the Classical Hindu texts, most of its followers consider abortion to be the worst sin. The texts compare the act of aborting an innocent fetus to killing a priest. Also, the texts portray abortion as a worse sin than killing one’s parents. The texts also say that women who consider engaging in abortion are likely to lose their caste. Based on these teachings, most followers believe that women should not be given the right to practice abortion as it would amount to sin and violation of their holy texts. According to the teachings of the Dharma Sastras and Purana, a woman that aborts the fetus becomes an outcast in Hindu society (Back and Laura, pg.1). That the penalty that would befall a woman that terminates the fetus is to make her an outcast in the society. Further, the texts, especially in the code of Manu Samhita (5.89-90), teach that any libations of water shall not be offered to any woman that practices abortion or kills their husband. All of these doctrines portray abortion as the worst sin. This has influenced the perspectives of many Hinduism followers as they view abortion to be the worst sin that a woman can ever commit. As a result, they do not approve of it.

Also, based on their Hinduism beliefs and bioethics, most of its followers view abortion as a breach of duty to produce children to ensure the continuation of the family and society. According to the Hindu science of life, Ayurveda, childbirth is a natural and sacred event (Rooney, pg. 2). The teaching holds that since human creation replicates the divine creation, human beings have the duty to sire offspring. Thus, when a woman engages in abortion and kills what the doctrines term “sacred,” she sins. Based on this reasoning, most Hinduism followers disapprove of abortion as it breaches their duty to ensure the continuation of their society. However, in some instances, the religious ban on abortion is overruled in favor of female foeticide. Female foeticide involves selective abortion in which the termination of the female fetus is approved through illegal methods. This practice is socially acceptable in India and is motivated by factors such as avoiding paying dowry to the future bridegroom of their daughter. Although the government of India legalized abortion, female foeticide is punishable and a crime.

Further, based on the teachings of Hindu texts, all life is sacred because all creatures are manifestations of a supreme being; therefore, engaging in abortion would be against the beliefs of Ahimsa that discourage violence. Thus, when considering abortion, most followers of Hinduism would advocate for action that will do little harm to the mother, fetus, society and the father. Since abortion only benefits the mother and does great harm, they disapprove of it. Although some Hindu Communities, such as those within the U.S, express strong support for women’s rights to abortion, the classical Hindu texts such as Vedas and Shastras prohibit abortion and only limit it to when the life of the pregnant mother is in danger or when the healthcare professionals have identified a fetal abnormality (Aramesh, pg.6).

Based on the doctrine of reincarnation, the followers of Hinduism believe that abortion is morally wrong as it involves the termination of the fetus’s life, which under the doctrine is considered a person. The doctrine portrays life as a repeating cycle called Samsara which starts at birth and proceeds to death and rebirth. The Samsara cycle is not endless; a person can only break from the cycle through good deeds that eventually lead to Salvation and getting out of the cycle (Aramesh, pg. 7). Salvation, referred to us as Moksha, is considered the ultimate goal of life. Thus, if a woman ends the fetus’s life through abortion, it would be morally wrong as it violates the Hindu ethics of Salvation. One should not break out of the cycle due to evil deeds such as abortion. The doctrine of reincarnation states that a fetus becomes a person immediately after conception. The soul within the fetus supposedly remembers its life during the pregnancy stage, and those memories are only destroyed during birth as a result of the trauma the process of birth subjects it to. Thus, it has a reborn soul and should be treated according to the Hindu bioethics of the Samsara cycle that prohibits breaking out of the cycle unless it is based on Salvation (Hemmann, pg. 12). This doctrine explains the reason why the followers of Hinduism view abortion as morally wrong and that women should be allowed to have access to abortion rights. Although the Garbha Upanishad texts, which are focused on medicine in Hindu, argue against the doctrine of reincarnation that the soul does not attach itself to the fetus until the seventh month, this interpretation has been heavily contested by Hindu religious leaders.

Hinduism’s beliefs have significantly affected the perspectives of its followers regarding women’s rights to abortion. The Hindu texts portray abortion as the worst sin a woman would ever engage in by comparing it to killing a priest or one’s parents. This has made many followers view abortion as a sin and, as a result, disapprove of women’s rights to abortion. The doctrines of Dharma Sastras and Purana, which regard a woman who engages in abortion as an outcast to society, have made Hinduism believe that women should not be allowed to terminate the pregnancy and, if found, should be excluded from society. Also, based on the teachings of Ayurveda, which considers childbirth sacred, engaging in abortion amounts to a breach of a duty to give birth to children to ensure the continuity of society and the family. Further, to some extent, some follower approves of abortion but with a limit to when the action would cause a little harm to society, the fetus and the two parents. The doctrine of Ahimsa disapproves of actions that cause significant harm to society. Lastly, the Hinduism belief in reincarnation, which portrays abortion as morally wrong since it involves the termination of a fetus considered a person, has made many Hinduism followers disapprove of abortion. Most believers now claim that abortion violates the Samsara cycle of life, which only permits breaking from it through Salvation. There is a need for future research to investigate the effect Hinduism beliefs have on practicing abortion on medical grounds.

Works Cited

Aramesh, Kiarash. “Perspectives of Hinduism and Zoroastrianism on Abortion: A Comparative Study between Two Pro-Life Ancient Sisters.” Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 6 Aug. 2019, 10.18502/jmehm.v12i9.1340.

Back, Amanda and Laura Conway. “Hinduism and reproductive decision‐making: Karma, Samsara, and the in‐between.” Journal of Genetic Counseling 29.4 (2020): 594-597.

Anand, Trisha, et al. “Abortion Laws In India: A Critical Analysis.” International Journal of Mechanical Engineering 7.6 (2022).

Cohen, I. Glenn, Eli Y. Adashi, and Lawrence O. Gostin. “The Supreme Court, the Texas Abortion Law (SB8), and the beginning of the end of Roe v Wade?.” JAMA 326.15 (2021): 1473-1474.

Rooney, Natasha L. “Ayurveda, Preconception, Biological Plasticity, and the Re-conception of a Nation.” (2020).

Hemmann, Kathryn. “I Coveted That Wind: Ganondorf, Buddhism, and Hyrule’s Apocalyptic Cycle.” Games and Culture 16.1 (2021): 3-21.

Homelessness In Seattle Sample Essay

Overview

If significant, long-term solutions are not found to the issue of homelessness in Seattle, the situation will probably continue to worsen. This is particularly true when it comes to helping individuals not just find but also maintain housing. For this purpose, there is a pressing want in the city of Settle for a well-thought-out policy that makes an effort to identify and emphasize the most effective long-term solutions to the issue of homelessness. It is crucial to emphasize that homelessness affects not only those who live outside in the harsh elements and on platforms made of hard cement but that its effect frequently extends much farther. Being homeless comes with huge expenses not only financially, but also morally and socially. This is especially true when considering the inherent human misery that is caused by the same thing and the possibility that is lost as a result of it being wasted.

Significantly larger Seattle, like other rich regions in the USA, is presently in the bad spot of holding both vast quantities of riches and astonishing numbers of homelessness. This is a situation that no city in the world would choose to be in. Bill Gates and Bezos’s companies, whose two corporations have risen to be among the most profitable on the planet, both have their headquarters in the King County area, which has had an enormous financial increase in recent years and is home to both of these businesses. Nevertheless, although it is a significant economic powerhouse, the region is dealing with a homelessness crisis of immense proportions. In King County in 2019, more than 22,000 different households were affected by homelessness, and more than 4,000 children attending Public Schools were homeless (Maritz & Wagle, 2020). Even though there was a very minor decrease in the proportion of homeless people who were counted during the one-night Point-In-Time (PIT) census that took place in 2020, the overall high growth has not been reversed.

Homelessness in Seattle Source (Mckinsey Survey)

Figure 1: Homelessness in Seattle Source (Mckinsey Survey)

At first glance, it could seem as though King County already possesses all of the resources necessary to solve this issue. The region has both made substantial improvements in low-income housing, and together they have more than 4,000 additional units in the pipelines that are currently under development (Duber, Dorn, Fockel et. al 2020). There has been a commitment of huge amounts of money to the cause from huge companies as well as individuals. The knowledge has been shared with community leaders, and multiple strategies have been established. There is no shortage of vigor and passion coming from the group of volunteer workers. However, notwithstanding years of dedicated endeavor and the right attitude of public officials, industry experts, companies, and individual residents, the percentage of residents in the region that require homelessness services is continuing to rise.

The issue is getting even more serious

In 2019, the 22,000 households that received assistance for homelessness, signified an uptick from the previous year. The unfortunate fact that Seattle and King County, Washington, are among the top three regions in the United States in terms of the number of homeless people per capita gives them a questionable reputation (Mitchell et al 2020). In addition, the number of people who are homeless and do not have access to shelter has increased by 26 percent over the past year. Those who are now homeless represent a distinct segment of the overall population in this region.

According to Fynn (2019), the majority of people who are homeless in King County are classified to be ELI, which means that their income is less than thirty percent of the area median income (AMI). According to the reference point established by Housing and Urban Development, which indicates that a family should devote no more than thirty percent of its earnings to tenancy, the top range of this section receives approximately $23,500 per year and has the financial capability to pay approximately $6050 per month for shelter. at this price, Mckinsey reports that it’s impossible to locate a house in this region.

Reasons for Homelessness

According to Bell (2016), a significant contributor to the problem of homelessness in the area is the rapid economic expansion and accumulation of wealth in the neighborhood. Since a decade ago, the number of people employed in King County has expanded by 22 percent, while the population in the county has grown by 13 percent. However, the state has only expanded its housing supply by less than 10 percent over that same period. This disparity between demographic growth and job development has resulted in significant rises in rates all over the board—as much as fifty-two percent for various levels of residential accessibility. This type of phenomenon, which is known as a “fly up,” is typical in sectors like the property market where there is very little bargaining power of buyers and when availability is restricted. The decline in the accessibility and affordability of homes is a direct consequence of the demand (increase in demographics) surpassing the delivery. This imbalance has appeared although good efforts have been made to add housing at all scales, as well as specific activities that have been undertaken to provide accommodation that is accessible to people with low and intermediate incomes. The state has made complete use of the two most important government Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) schemes, which are often applied for the construction of affordable homes. There are more than 4,000 units in the planning stages for the city of Seattle, while the area is already developing more than a thousand units. However, Bell (2020) notes that this will not even come close to solving the issue by itself.

Some strategies that can end Homelessness

Integrated services and better coordination

It has been discovered that constructing a distinct service system for homeless persons from conventional programs is both costly and counterproductive (Rine & LaBarre, 2020). As a result of the lack of long-term strategic planning for housing stock and other critical procedures, initial homeless alleviation operations have been proposed. Although some temporary shelter will always be required, Seattle must have more than transitory solutions in place, no matter how varied or well-delivered they may be. There is a requirement for a tactical response. Long-term fundamental concerns necessitate standard programs that are tailored to suit the special requirements of homelessness. To reduce impediments to homeless persons accessing entitlements through mainstream programs, significant efforts are required ( (Rine & LaBarre, 2020). Institutional complexity and sector-specific financing, on the other hand, frequently thwart attempts to prevent homelessness and treat its consequences.

When specialized agencies establish organizational plans, they frequently focus on the issues and policy solutions that are most pertinent to their unique region of competence. Problems that occur across or span such jurisdictions appear to receive less attention. As a result, the organization of policy and planning is a critical factor in explaining variances in degrees of homelessness. Consequently, how interrelated governmental bodies, programs, and legislative ideas communicate and cooperate is vital for successful action against homeless individuals (Rine & LaBarre, 2020). To eliminate gaps and redundancy, and to get the most out of every investment made, inter-agency collaboration is essential. There are, nevertheless, numerous effective community-based models of integrated solutions linked to housing. These must be substantially enhanced on a much bigger scale to create a holistic range of services and housing.

Employment, business development, and community engagement

Employment, according to Dej, Gaetz, and Schwan (2020), is the foundation for most people’s economic well-being. Economic inequality and reliance are unavoidable without employment or a venture. As a result, many homeless-related programs include some form of business creation and training opportunities. These are often centered on activities for homeless people (such as guest housekeeper tasks or construction work on future housing) and are often just beneficial employment that is easily accessible for homeless individuals. Because many homeless persons in states work as garbage collectors, small traders, and other low-wage jobs, micro-finance can help them increase their production. In reality, their performance can grow to the point that they can become self-sufficient in safe housing, particularly if the financing also offers a space for established enterprises.

Conclusion

By fighting homelessness in an evidence-based approach, the Seattle area can act as a model for other port cities experiencing homelessness. The wealth of the neighborhood should serve as an incentive and trigger for constructive transformation. The joint objective should be to reduce homelessness to relatively low rates. Due to the reason that expenditures and continued attempts have been targeted at the symptoms of the issue rather than the underlying factors, the rich city packed with well-meaning, knowledgeable authorities is still trying to make homelessness a once-in-a-lifetime event for its inhabitants. In order to create development, the area should examine how it manages expansion and allocates resources. This can be done through integrated service and coordination as well as combating unemployment.

References

Bell, A. R. (2016). Thinking Past Tomorrow: An Analysis of Policy Efforts to Reduce Homelessness In King County, Washington.

Dej, E., Gaetz, S., & Schwan, K. (2020). Turning off the tap: a typology for homelessness prevention. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 41(5), 397-412.

Duber, H. C., Dorn, E. M., Fockele, C. E., Sugg, N. K., & Shim, M. M. (2020). Addressing the needs of people living homeless during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 26(6), 522-524.

Fynn Bruey, V. (2019). Development-induced displacement and homelessness in Seattle, Washington. Artha-Journal of Social Science, 18(2), 1-25.

Maritz, B., & Wagle, D. (2020). Why does prosperous King County have a homelessness crisis?. McKinsey & Company.

Mitchell, S. H., Bulger, E. M., Duber, H. C., Greninger, A. L., Ong, T. D., Morris, S. C., … & Pan, H. (2020). Western Washington state COVID-19 experience: keys to flattening the curve and effective health system response. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 231(3), 316-324.

Rine, C. M., & LaBarre, C. (2020). Research, Practice, and Policy Strategies to End Homelessness. Health & Social Work, 45(1), 5-8.

Hopscotching For Food, Water, And Shelter In Beaumont, Texas Sample Assignment

Hurricane Harvey was among the most destructive natural disasters in the history of the United States. The category four hurricane created landfall on August 25, 2017, in Texas, bringing with it winds of up to 130 miles per hour and causing widespread damage along the coast. In the days that followed, the storm dumped more than 50 inches of rain in Houston, causing significant flooding. Many people were forced to evacuate their homes, and those who remained faced difficult conditions. The hurricane caused widespread damage, leaving many residents without power or running water. Food and water became scarce, and people had to ration what they had. With no power, people had to cook on camp stoves or over open flames, which posed a fire hazard. Lack of shelter was also a major problem, as many people were left homeless or living in damaged homes. Some people could find shelter with family or friends, but many others had to stay in shelters set up by the government or non-profit organizations. Thus, the article discusses the theory of extreme weather events following Hurricane Harvey in Texas.

I think the theory of extreme weather events based on climate change best describes what happened during Hurricane Harvey. The theory states that as the Earth’s atmosphere warms, the chances of extreme weather events like hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes will increase. There is evidence that Hurricane was greatly influenced by climate change. First, the storm was increased by unusually increased water temperatures in the Gulf of Mexico (Mann, 2017). These waters were about 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit warmer than normal, which is likely due to the long-term warming of the Earth’s atmosphere. The extra heat provided extra energy for the storm, helping it to grow stronger and more destructive. The accumulated energy in the cyclone was 225% of normal (Trenberth et al., 2018). In addition, the atmospheric conditions that led to Hurricane Harvey were more favorable for extreme weather than in the past. The storm developed in areas of low pressure and high humidity, which are more common in a warming world. The effects of climate change on Hurricane Harvey were likely responsible for the storm’s unprecedented rains and flooding. As the storm moved over southeastern Texas, it stalled and dumped an incredible amount of rain on the region. Some areas saw over 50 inches of rain, which is more rain than any hurricane in US history. The link between climate change and Hurricane Harvey is clear. The storm was fueled by warm waters and favorable atmospheric conditions, which are more common in a world that is getting warmer. As the Earth’s atmosphere continues to warm, we can expect more extreme weather events like Hurricane Harvey.

The theory of extreme weather events is a good explanation for behaviors following Hurricane Harvey, Texas, as described in the articles. It can help to explain why people behaved the way they did in the face of the hurricane. For example, people evacuated their homes because they were afraid of the expected high winds and flooding (Rojas & Robertson, 2017). In addition, it led to water damage, as the run of flood waters carried pollutants to the clean water sources (Qin et al., 2020). The theory of extreme weather events can also help to explain why people behaved differently after the hurricane. For example, some people may have been more likely to help their neighbors because they had been through a similar experience. In addition, other people may have been more likely to hoard supplies because they were afraid of running out. This knowledge can be used to better prepare for future storms and to help people cope with the aftermath of a disaster.

In conclusion, the theory of extreme weather events can be used to describe the event that occurred in Texas in 2017. The rise in temperatures provided extra energy for the storm, causing extreme flooding. Thus, the consequences included food shortage, destruction of property, including homes, and water shortage.

References

Mann, M. (2017, August 28). It’s a fact: climate change made Hurricane Harvey more deadly | Michael E Mann. Retrieved from the Guardian website: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/aug/28/climate-change-hurricane-harvey-more-deadly

Qin, R., Khakzad, N., & Zhu, J. (2020). An overview of the impact of Hurricane Harvey on chemical and process facilities in Texas. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction45, 101453. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2019.101453

Rojas, R., & Robertson, C. (2017, September 2). In Beaumont, Tex., Hopscotching for Food, Water, and Shelter. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/01/us/beaumont-texas-water.html

Trenberth, K. E., Cheng, L., Jacobs, P., Zhang, Y., & Fasullo, J. (2018). Hurricane Harvey Links to Ocean Heat Content and Climate Change Adaptation. Earth’s Future6(5), 730–744. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018ef000825