Hispanic And Mexican Heritage And Health Beliefs Sample Paper

Cultural Group

A Brief History

  • Hispanic and Latino Americans are chosen.
  • The long time of nations’ development.
  • “The history of admixture and migrations” (Bryc, Durand, Macpherson, Reich, & Mountain, 2015, p. 37).
  • Constant interaction among different tribes.
  • A significant number assimilated among Americans.

Values and Worldview

  • Following the traditions and religious foundations.
  • The value of family and relationships.
  • The protection of national interests and ideas.
  • Close relationships with ancestors (Bryc et al., 2017).
  • Separate culture and strong self-expression.

Language and Communication Patterns

  • Spanish is dominant among the population.
  • Gestures and non-verbal forms of interaction.
  • The speech is lively and active.
  • Adherence to communication and interaction.
  • Different language dialects and lexical patterns (Bryc et al., 2017).

Art and Other Expressive Forms

  • Art is the essential component of culture.
  • Ancient monuments of architecture are preserved.
  • Passion for music and national motives.
  • Famous historical manuscripts of ancient tribes (Bryc et al., 2017).
  • The influence of different cultural backgrounds.

Norms and Rules

  • Family values are considered paramount.
  • The selfless protection of relatives’ interests.
  • Religion is an important aspect of life.
  • Respect for all older adults.
  • Adherence to national traditions and customs.

Lifestyle Characteristics

  • Rallying and uniting are encouraged.
  • The desire to prove cultural identity.
  • Adherence to the values of ancestors.
  • They are protecting the interests of national unity.
  • People’s habits are often similar.

Relationship Patterns and Common Rituals

  • Betrayal is regarded as a sin.
  • Frequent pastime with family members.
  • Traditional worship and religious prayers.
  • Typical funeral and wedding ceremonies.
  • Revenge in case of an offense.

Degree of Assimilation

  • The assimilation level is high (Alarcón et al., 2016).
  • I am forming communities and groups.
  • Reservations are usually not created.
  • Interracial marriages are not condemned.
  • Access to all social services.

Health Behaviors and Practices

  • Health care services are free.
  • Traditional forms of treatment are found.
  • “Depression and suicidal behaviors” (Alarcón et al., 2016, p. 863).
  • Natural drugs are usually encouraged.
  • Resistance to various environmental influences.

Socio-Cultural Group

A Brief History

  • The Mexican heritage is taken.
  • The long period of assimilation.
  • Constant communication with the Americans.
  • The rich heritage and cultural background.
  • Self-identity and the unique environment.

Values and Worldview

  • The value of family ties.
  • The protection of personal interests.
  • The high level of self-awareness.
  • Cultural heritage awareness and adherence (Solis & Callanan, 2016).
  • Traditionalism and canonicity in lifestyle.

Language and Communication Patterns

  • The Spanish language is dominant.
  • The vividness of emotional expression.
  • Rather a rich lexical composition.
  • Unique language dialects and idioms.
  • Non-verbal communication is usually encouraged.

Art and Other Expressive Forms

  • Mexican music is very popular.
  • National songs are performed everywhere.
  • Kahlo is a famous painter.
  • The influence of neighboring cultures.
  • They preserved architectural monuments and constructions.

Norms and Rules

  • Respect for the national identity.
  • The preservation and enhancement of heritage.
  • They are protecting the interests of loved ones.
  • The desire to prove personal freedom.
  • Unity is an integral feature.

Lifestyle Characteristics

  • Typical eating and treating habits.
  • People’s grouping and community lifestyle.
  • Frequent emigration for stable income.
  • Mexican habits are known worldwide.
  • The combination of modern-traditional foundations.

Relationship Patterns and Common Rituals

  • Ritual ceremonies are strictly observed.
  • Catholic traditions are revered (Yom-Tov, Strong, & Strong, 2017).
  • The value of relationships is significant.
  • Relations with fellow citizens are peaceful.
  • Loved ones are always protected.

Degree of Assimilation

  • Frequent interracial marriages are normal.
  • The influence of neighboring cultures is reflected.
  • Constant communication with different nations.
  • The absence of restrictions on departures.
  • Entry to America is partially restricted.

Health Behaviors and Practices

  • Traditional healing practices (Yom-Tov et al., 2017).
  • I am sticking to the root rites of treatment.
  • Free access to medical services.
  • We are expanding opportunities through recent reforms.
  • The use of national experience.

Both Groups

Comparison and Contrast Analysis

  • Most characteristics are common.
  • The Mexican heritage is influenced by neighboring cultures.
  • The Hispanic identity is unique and recognized (Stroope, Martinez, Eschbach, & Markides, 2015).
  • Mexicans often leave their motherland.
  • Hispanics prefer to live in communities.

Differential Healthcare Approaches

  • The participation of professional specialists is necessary.
  • Mexicans should adhere to modern medical practices.
  • Facilities for Hispanics should be high.
  • Racial and moral distinctions are unacceptable.
  • The consideration of cultural identity is required.

References

Alarcón, R. D., Parekh, A., Wainberg, M. L., Duarte, C. S., Araya, R., & Oquendo, M. A. (2016). Hispanic immigrants in the USA: Social and mental health perspectives. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(9), 860-870. Web.

Bryc, K., Durand, E. Y., Macpherson, J. M., Reich, D., & Mountain, J. L. (2015). The genetic ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 96(1), 37-53. Web.

Solis, G., & Callanan, M. (2016). Evidence against deficit accounts: Conversations about science in Mexican heritage families living in the United States. Mind, Culture, and Activity, 23(3), 212-224. Web.

Stroope, S., Martinez, B. C., Eschbach, K., Peek, M. K., & Markides, K. S. (2015). Neighborhood ethnic composition and problem drinking among older Mexican American men: Results from the Hispanic established populations for the epidemiologic study of the elderly. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 17(4), 1055-1060. Web.

Yom-Tov, E., Strong, W. F., & Strong, L. R. (2017). Hispanic use of alternative medicine as demonstrated in Internet searches. Health Behavior and Policy Review, 4(5), 503-510. Web.

African And Haitian Heritage And Health Beliefs

Cultural Group: African American

A Brief History

  • the race initially emerged in Africa.
  • ethnicities and societies developed continuously.
  • African Americans were transported to America.
  • racial discrimination largely shaped the group.
  • African Americans represent a distinctive social group.

Values and Worldview

  • worldview determined by the cultural legacy.
  • the uniqueness of being African American (Brittian Loyd & Williams, 2017).
  • appreciation of African cultural identity.
  • perception of itself as an oppressed group.
  • struggle for equal social and political rights.

Language and Communication Patterns

  • assimilation with the English language.
  • continuous transformation of the language.
  • a significant impact of ethnic languages.
  • development of a unique language.
  • the use of ebonics within the group.

Art and Other Expressive Forms

  • numerous African Americans influenced culture (Hall, 2014).
  • the emergence of jazz and related sub-genres.
  • creation of the soul, blues, and R’n’B.
  • the development of rap culture.
  • impact of the mentioned genres on the music..

Norms and Rules

  • the majority of rules are implicit.
  • relationships based on these rules.
  • the importance of implicit norms.
  • social behavior determined by collective responsibility.
  • the significance of the group’s opinion.

Lifestyle Characteristics

  • historically, slavery largely determined lifestyle.
  • racial prejudice continued to shape lifestyle.
  • low-skilled jobs and poor income.
  • the inability to get an education.
  • nowadays, lifestyle is average.

Relationship Patterns and Common Rituals

  • the importance of familial relationships.
  • women traditionally care for children.
  • common rituals are related to church.
  • attendance of church events and gatherings.
  • community services provided by churches.

The Degree of Assimilation or Marginalization from Mainstream Society

  • historically, the group was marginalized.
  • the movement for equal rights.
  • discrimination and racial prejudice in the 20th century.
  • currently, open discrimination is eliminated.
  • assimilation process is not completed.

Health Behaviors and Practices

  • insufficient access to healthcare services.
  • low levels of health education.
  • prevalence of unhealthy behavior patterns.
  • the impact of traditional medicine.
  • distrust of the official medicine.

Socio-Cultural Group: Haitian Heritage

A Brief History

  • the confluence of indigenous and European cultures.
  • a colonial state for a long time.
  • the impact of slavery persisted.
  • revolution of 1804 as a turning point.
  • the immense influence of indigenous legacy (Christian & Herbert, 2016).

Values and Worldview

  • relative isolation after gaining independence.
  • development of unique cultural beliefs.
  • pride of the first Black-ruled country.
  • African culture’s moderate yet distinct impact.
  • spirituality is highly valued among Haitians.

Language and Communication Patterns

  • the development of language is complicated.
  • the French language was prevalently spoke.
  • the “Kreyol” language was developed.
  • recently, English also gained importance.
  • Haitian group influenced by several languages.

Art and Other Expressive Forms

  • the richest tradition in dance and music (Henry, 2015).
  • dance as the culture’s integral part.
  • graphic arts are largely appreciated.
  • traditional decorations and handicrafts are widespread.
  • literature works written in French.

Norms and Rules

  • social stratification has a large impact.
  • the distinction between classes is evident.
  • skin color as a marker of social stratification.
  • patriarchy as the social basis.
  • etiquette rules are diversified and strict.

Lifestyle Characteristics

  • children are early engaged to work.
  • population’s majority is rural people.
  • any education is valued high.
  • carnivals and festivals are traditional.
  • familial relationships shape the society.

Relationship Patterns and Common Rituals

  • marriage as a cornerstone of the society.
  • family forms a domestic unit.
  • equal inheritance by men and women.
  • festivals and carnivals as social events.
  • the role of religion is values.

The Degree of Assimilation or Marginalization from Mainstream Society

  • historically, Haiti was a colonial state.
  • the indigenous population was marginalized.
  • the situation changes after the 1804 revolution.
  • a period of cultural isolation.
  • currently, society is largely assimilated.

Health Behaviors and Practices

  • numerous serious diseases are widespread.
  • HIV, STDs, malaria, tuberculosis, intestinal parasites.
  • the access to healthcare is significantly low.
  • indigenous medicine is highly developed.
  • population vastly rely on informal medicine.

Two Groups

Comparison and Contrast

  • groups have similar cultural origins.
  • historical development possesses similar traits.
  • groups are marginalized to some extent.
  • African Americans rely more on official medicine.
  • Haitians are less culturally assimilated.

Differential Approaches

  • consider the low health education.
  • respect for culturally determined traditions.
  • educational work in the community.
  • promotion of safe health practices.
  • using the culturally sensitive approach (Streets, Wolford, & Nicolas, 2015).

References

Brittian Loyd, A., & Williams, B. V. (2017). The potential for youth programs to promote African American youth’s development of ethnic and racial identity. Child Development Perspectives, 11(1), 29-38.

Christian, C., & Herbert, B. (2016). Perceived socio-economic, socio-ecological and socio-cultural impacts of the Caribbean’s tourism sector. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 3(12), 166-182.

Hall, S. (2014). Cultural identity and diaspora. In Diaspora and visual culture (pp. 35-47). Routledge.

Henry, A. R. A. (2015). Cultural heritage and representation in Jamaica: Broaching the Digital Age. Web.

Streets, B. F., Wolford, K., & Nicolas, G. (2015). A Culturally Competent Immersion Protocol: Petit Goâve, Haiti. International Research and Review, 5(1), 1-24.

Asian And Russian Heritage And Health Beliefs

Cultural Group: Asian American

A Brief History of the Cultural Group

  • Asian Americans are descendants of Asian immigrants.
  • The largest immigrant population group in the U.S.
  • Asian immigration rose after 1965.
  • By 2014, there were 12.8 million Asian immigrants (Zong & Batalova, 2016).
  • Asian American population expected to grow further.

Values and Worldview

  • Asian Americans have diverse religious backgrounds.
  • Family is important in Asian culture.
  • Collectivism is prominent in Asian Americans (Paik, Rahman, Kule, Saito, & Witenstein, 2017).
  • Education is critical to life success.
  • Families often live together with grandparents.

Language and Communication Patterns

  • Asian Americans are often bilingual.
  • Mother tongue depends on family origins.
  • Reserved in terms of emotional expression (Paik et al., 2017).
  • Strong oral history traditions in families.
  • Asian parents may experience language barriers.

Art and Other Expressive Forms

  • Visual arts are particularly popular (Xiao, 2013).
  • Artistic expression inspired by traditional motifs (Xiao, 2013).
  • Children engage in different art forms.
  • Performance arts are also common.
  • Listen to American and Asian music.

Norms and Rules

  • Authoritarian parenting style is common (Paik et al., 2017).
  • Show respect and support for elders (Paik et al., 2017).
  • Preservation of individual and family honor.
  • Politeness and reserved attitude are normal.
  • Start a family later than Americans.

Lifestyle Characteristics

  • Nutrition depends on socio-cultural background.
  • Smoking and substance use are common.
  • Traditional healthcare is widely used (Paik et al., 2017).
  • Diligent, often work extra hours.
  • The level of activity varies among individuals.

Relationship Patterns and Common Rituals

  • Family is the primary source of support.
  • Ties with family members are strong (Paik et al., 2017).
  • Decreased rate of divorces and separations.
  • Seek family approval for major decisions.
  • Common rituals: celebrations, family gatherings.

Degree of Assimilation or Marginalization from Mainstream Society

  • The degree of assimilation depends on the age.
  • Younger Asian Americans are more assimilated.
  • Some Asian American communities are isolated (Paik et al., 2017).
  • Might experience language and cultural barriers (Smith, 2017).
  • Marginalized in predominantly white communities (Paik et al., 2017).

Health Behaviors and Practices

  • Traditional medicine includes herbal remedies.
  • Acupuncture is common in some communities.
  • Increased utilization of conventional health resources.
  • Avoid visiting a doctor when possible (Smith, 2017).
  • Low health literacy and risk awareness (Smith, 2017).

Socio-Cultural Group: Russian Heritage

A Brief History of the Socio-Cultural Group

  • The first wave of Russian immigration before WWI (“Background information,” n.d.).
  • Most Russian immigration was politically motivated (“Background information,” n.d.).
  • Many Russians fled to avoid prosecution.
  • Immigration was restricted during the Cold War (“Background information,” n.d.).
  • Well-established communities in most cities.

Values and Worldview

  • Family is significant for Russian immigrants (Bradford, 2017).
  • Collectivism and homeland are key values (Bradford, 2017).
  • Connection to culture remains for generations.
  • Strive for success in career and education.
  • Value generosity and honesty in people.

Language and Communication Patterns

  • Most families speak Russian at home.
  • Fluency in English depends on the career.
  • Many people speak several foreign languages.
  • Rarely express emotions and feelings (Bradford, 2017).
  • Willing to share information and help others (Bradford, 2017).

Art and Other Expressive Forms

  • Russia has a significant artistic heritage.
  • Ballet a popular art form in Russia (Bradford, 2017).
  • Classical music is part of Russian Heritage (Bradford, 2017).
  • Literature by Russian authors is popular (Bradford, 2017).
  • Clear ties between culture and art.

Norms and Rules

  • Family interests outweigh individual interests.
  • Children are taught to respect elders.
  • Successful career and education are imperative.
  • Patriarchy is prominent in Russian families.
  • Parents usually use an authoritarian parenting style.

Lifestyle Characteristics

  • Low level of physical activity.
  • High-fat diets due to traditional foods (“Russians in Minnesota,” 2013).
  • Office work and entrepreneurship are prevalent.
  • Alcohol use and smoking are common (“Russians in Minnesota,” 2013).
  • Disease prevention using herbal remedies.

Relationship Patterns and Common Rituals

  • Early marriage and high divorce rates.
  • Mothers and grandmothers care for children.
  • Can build lasting friendships and relationships.
  • Respect elders and often live together.
  • Russian holidays (e.g., New Year and Orthodox Christmas).

Degree of Assimilation or Marginalization from Mainstream Society

  • Many live in isolated Russian communities.
  • Build supportive relationships with other Russians.
  • Language barriers prevent cultural assimilation.
  • Marginalization due to small population size.
  • Experience alienation due to cultural differences.

Health Behaviors and Practices

  • Distrust towards medical professionals is widespread (“Russians in Minnesota,” 2013).
  • Low health literacy, reliance on self-medication.
  • Poor care-seeking behaviors lead to complications (“Russians in Minnesota,” 2013).
  • High incidence of chronic diseases.
  • Use home remedies for most conditions.

Comparison

  • Similar family relationships and parenting styles.
  • Both groups rely on herbal remedies.
  • Higher cultural assimilation in Asian Americans.
  • Asian Americans lead healthier lifestyles.
  • Gender inequality is more prominent among Russians.

Differential Approaches

  • Establish trustful relationships with Russian Americans.
  • Respect patient dignity with Asian Americans.
  • Encourage conventional medicine use (both groups).
  • Promote adequate care-seeking behaviors (both groups).
  • Provide education to improve health literacy (both groups).

References

Background Information. (n.d.). Web.

Bradford, A. (2017). Russian culture: Facts, customs & traditions.

Paik, S. J., Rahman, Z., Kula, S. M., Saito, L. E., & Witenstein, M. A. (2017). Diverse Asian American families and communities: Culture, structure, and education (Part 1: Why they differ). School Community Journal, 27(2), 35-66.

Russians in Minnesota. (n.d.).

Smith, S. (2017). Language, cultural norms clash with optimal care for some Asian-Americans. Web.

Xiao, A. (2013). America’s newest creative class: Asian Americans.

Zong, J., & Batalova, J. Asian immigrants in the United States.

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