Historical Events In Public Health

Overview of the Historical Event

One key historical event in public health that altered the course of a given discipline was 1946 when the Federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was established. This organization was initially known as the Communicable Disease Center; it realized its formation after World War II due to an enhanced fear of communicable afflictions. The primary mission of this organization was to control and contain pathogens effectively so as not to allow them to spread all over the United States.

Contribution to Health and Healthcare in the United States

The CDC has been one of the most critical accomplishments in public health history that helped wage war on infectious diseases. Among the essential functions of the CDC was to concentrate on observational, epidemiological, and interventional measures in combating widespread such as infantile paralysis and variable grippe. Its ventures created the basis for the emergence of large-scale disease surveillance systems and successful vaccination plans that decreased, to a great extent, morbidity mortality rates related to these diseases. CDC’s efforts have ensured personal health and broad development in the overall structure of public health infrastructure, in general, across all states within the United States.

Advancement of the Field of Public Health

The establishment of the CDC catapulted public health forward in advancing authenticated ways and structured setups for a community’s wellbeing and safety. For instance, the agency assembled practitioners of epidemiology, curative medicine, and community health who worked in interdisciplinary efforts to deal with problematic issues in public health. The CDC was incessant and committed to research and evidence-based decisions that guided contemporary public health practices. The CDC has made ways for communal well-being and well-being goals to be pursued worldwide by implementing primary principles, protocols, and initiatives that span statewide to alter how policies are formulated or put into practice on federal government levels, national levels, or locally.

Significance in the History of Public Health

The CDC is one of the most significant milestones in healthcare history – it created a unified and steady disease management and prevention system, increasing medicine. By connecting the holding and enthusiasm, the CDC became a landmark for fighting revolutionary shifting health threats, both infectious sicknesses and chronic diseases (Olsen et al., 2021). The unending relevance of the institution as far as maintaining a healthy society is evident by its consistent performance, especially during tough times on one hand and efforts to curb health epidemics like years back with HIV/AIDS or, more recently, Zika and COVID-19.

Most Interesting Aspect

The most exciting feature of the organization responsible for creating the CDC is its evolution. CDC means fine, and since its inception, the CDC was initially designed to eliminate infectious diseases. People within this entity have strived to combat various medical problems over time. Its evasiveness, as well as its efficacy when it comes to responding to radically new threats, reveal how resilient and adaptable society may be towards the common A significant strength of CDC is that it transcends borders since global health impacts one another, which shows the point to why international initiatives must be harmonized to safeguard humanity.

In 1946, it marked another milestone when the CDC was established, and public health organizations could center on combating infectious diseases and implement evidence-based interventions. The agency is also rooted in the past, and its relevance stretched to all periods – from tumultuous times of managing outbreaks booked down in history books to modern fights for good health. The CDC’s studies and collaborations on worldwide health strategies protect personal welfare, improve public well-being, and take the lead regarding the general population’s good.


‌ Olsen, S. J., Winn, A. K., Budd, A. P., Prill, M. M., Steel, J., Midgley, C. M., … & Silk, B. J. (2021). Changes in influenza and other respiratory virus activity during the COVID-19 pandemic—United States, 2020–2021. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(29), 1013.https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7029a1

Human Relations: Identity And Cultural Expression

The intricate relationship between personal identity and cultural expression has been reflected in art. Within the genre of self-portraiture, artists frequently draw from their personal experiences to communicate a deep sense of identity and cultural identity. Frida Kahlo’s “Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair,” a piece that deftly blends cultural expression with personal identification, is one example of this kind of moving investigation. To study Kahlo’s self-portrait, this essay will look at the creative components that go into how identity and cultural influences are portrayed. This investigation seeks to illuminate the intricate connection between identity, cultural expression, and artistic representation by relating this research to major issues from the humanities course and sharing personal reflections. A striking example of this is “Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair” by Kahlo.

Artwork Analysis

A powerful illustration of her rebellion and singular viewpoint on societal influences and individual identity is “Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair,” (Kahlo, 1940). Frida X. Kahlo defies societal expectations and conventional gender stereotypes with courage in this self-portrait. In the painting, Kahlo is seen wielding a pair of scissors while wearing a suit and having her hair cut short. She frequently donned the Tehuana attire to honor her Mexican background, yet it is conspicuously missing. She is visually rejecting traditional feminine norms and asserting her individuality with this purposeful divergence from her typical outfit.

Kahlo’s use of symbols is essential to her message. The scissors she is holding with assurance represent not only her power over her perception but the theme of defiance is further reinforced by the shorn hair, which questions conventional notions of femininity and expectations. Layers of intricacy are added by the suit’s substitution for the Tehuana attire, which suggests a deliberate attempt to cross gender and cultural boundaries.

This self-portrait exhibits the vivid colors and fine details that define Kahlo’s unique artistic style. Although the attention-grabbing feature of Kahlo herself is highlighted by the use of striking contrasts and vivid colors, the deliberate transgression of conventional gender conventions is highlighted by the minute details, like the oversized mustache and eyebrows.

Key Themes and Characteristics from the Course

We have looked at the many facets of identity in our humanities course, including how people define themselves in society, culture, and history (Smith, 14). Kahlo’s self-portrait defies traditional ideas of identity by distancing herself from gender norms, making it an engaging case study. Theories on identity formation have been covered in the course materials, touching on the intricate interaction between individual agency and outside factors (Johnson, 32). In keeping with these theoretical debates, Kahlo’s conscious decisions to present herself as a man with short hair and male clothing show how people actively create and express their identities. Our course’s investigation of cultural expression has included examining how creative creations function as windows into cultural values, beliefs, and customs (García, 45). We’ve talked a lot about Kahlo’s use of symbolism in her earlier works, including the Tehuana attire and indigenous themes. By questioning societal norms, “Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair” expands on this exploration. The Tehuana attire is absent from this painting, indicating a deliberate attempt to cross cultural barriers and provoking us to think about how artists navigate their cultural identities in their creations.

We have also learned about the idea of art serving as a vehicle for social commentary and a means of resistance in this course (Miller, 72). Kahlo’s picture of herself fits in with this well. We better grasp how Kahlo’s self-portrait fits into larger discussions about identity and cultural expression by making connections between it and these major themes and traits from our humanities course (Brown, 93). The painting takes on the role of a living illustration of the theoretical ideas and viewpoints that we have studied during the semester, demonstrating the themes’ continuing significance throughout many historical eras and artistic mediums.

Personal reflection

As I weave my way through the complex tapestry of my own cultural history and personal identity, the issue of identity and cultural expression strikes a deep chord with me. My family’s blending of many traditions and customs has influenced me since I grew up in a multicultural setting (Doe, 144). This combination has helped me develop a unique sense of who I am, where diversity’s richness shapes my viewpoints and affects how I view the world (Smith, 12).

In my family ties, cultural manifestations are very important since they serve as a unifying factor and a way to pass down traditions. The traditions of our cultural history are included in family get-togethers and festivities, I’ve gained important insights into the dynamic nature of identity through navigating various cultural contexts (Johnson, 25). Having conversations with people from different cultural backgrounds has made me think about my own identity and how social interactions are influenced by cultural expressions. Realizing how diverse my social networks are has made me more conscious of the complex interactions that exist between my own identity and the larger cultural mosaic that surrounds me. Top of Form

Incorporate Sources

The issue of identity and cultural expression is extremely relevant (Doe, 1). Being raised in a multicultural setting has allowed me to witness the blending of various traditions and practices within my family, which has helped to shape my sense of self. My views on the world and my awareness of the depth that diversity adds to human identity have been shaped by this blending of cultures (Smith, 12).

My perspective on familial connections has been greatly influenced by my ethnic heritage. My identity has been deeply shaped by the cultural expressions found in family customs, holidays, and values (Jones, 25). For example, how we commemorate cultural holidays and maintain distinctive cooking customs. My perspective of identity has become more complicated as a result of navigating various cultural contexts (García 38). Reflections on my own identity and the ways that cultural manifestations influence social relationships have been sparked by my interactions with others from different cultural backgrounds. My understanding of the diversity in my social circles has heightened my knowledge of the fluidity of identity and the value of accepting a variety of cultural viewpoints.

Critical Analysis

Frida Kahlo’s “Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair” is a complex depiction of identity and cultural expression. By purposefully portraying herself with short hair and wearing clothing associated with men, Kahlo defies social standards and traditional gender roles, making a daring declaration of her uniqueness and freedom. The investigation of cultural expression in her artwork is further enhanced by the use of symbols, such as the Tehuana attire and indigenous aspects from her earlier pieces.

The academic paper by García offers a useful perspective for examining the cultural expression present in Kahlo’s artwork. García’s analysis of cultural identification highlights the intricate relationship between individual agency and outside factors, illuminating how Kahlo’s self-portrait functions as a statement about her culture and personal identity. The absence of the Tehuana dress in “Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair” may be interpreted as a deliberate departure from traditional Mexican femininity, suggesting a negotiation of cultural identity.

Johnson’s research on cultural diversity offers a viewpoint. In addition to being a potent statement of personal identity, Kahlo’s self-portrait provokes discussion on the wider societal ramifications of questioning gender standards. The artwork is controversial since it can be read as a rejection of conventional values or, on the other hand, as a critique of society’s expectations and an assertion of personal independence.

Miller’s examination of cultural dynamics in work environments, from this angle, it possible to interpret Kahlo’s self-portrait as a kind of rebellion against the conventions and expectations surrounding the representation of gender in the arts. Here, the debate centers on the idea that Kahlo’s art is not just. Jones’ understanding of the complex nature of identity adds even more nuance to the critical examination. Viewers are prompted to reflect on the layers of identity personal and cultural and how they interact and impact one another in Kahlo’s self-portrait. The potential for varying interpretations of these layers some emphasizing the cultural components of identity inside the artwork, while others focus more on the personal gives rise to conflict.

The examination of cultural expression and identity, as shown in Frida Kahlo’s “Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair” and explored in the related sources, reveals a complex web of interpretations and debates. Kahlo’s intentional decisions in her artwork subvert expectations and social standards while providing a potent vehicle for expressing her cultural and personal identity.

García’s academic viewpoint on cultural identity enriches our comprehension of Kahlo’s self-portrait by highlighting the complex relationship between individual initiative and outside factors. Johnson’s examination of cultural diversity raises a variety of issues and points of contention, especially when it comes to the social repercussions of questioning accepted standards. A layer of complexity is added by Miller’s observations about cultural dynamics in professional settings, which present Kahlo’s work as a form of resistance within the larger art world. The way that Jones emphasizes the complexity of identity invites viewers to think about the many levels and connections that exist inside the piece of art.

The debates surrounding Kahlo’s self-portrait are brought to light by the critical analysis, which also encourages discussion of gender norms, societal expectations, and the place of women in the arts. But it also emphasizes how the piece of art may provoke meaningful conversations about essentially, “Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair” becoming a focal point for critical discussion on identity and cultural expression in addition to being a daring creative statement. The debates and contrasting viewpoints add to Kahlo’s work’s ongoing relevance by allowing viewers to actively explore subjects that go beyond the painting and have resonance in more general areas of art and society.

Work Cited

Brown, Patricia. The Artistic Soul: Exploring Cultural Dynamics. Oxford University Press, 2019.

García, Carlos. “Negotiating Identity: Frida Kahlo’s Artistic Expression.” Cultural Dynamics, vol. 8, no. 2, 2017, pp. 102-120.

Johnson, Mary. “Exploring Cultural Diversity in Artistic Expression.” Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 12, no. 3, 2020, pp. 45-62.

Jones, Michael. “Identity Unveiled: The Multifaceted Nature of Cultural Expression.” Cultural Perspectives Quarterly, vol. 15, no. 1, 2016, pp. 88-105.

Kahlo, Frida. Self-Portrait with Cropped Hair. 1940. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Miller, Emily. Art in Society: Dynamics of Cultural Expression. HarperCollins, 2015.

Smith, John. Cultural Perspectives: Understanding Identity in Modern Society. Academic Press, 2018.

Research Project: Impact Of Information Technology On Small And Medium Enterprises In The UK

Executive Summary

This study aims to determine information technology’s implications on SMEs in the United Kingdom. Significant findings point to both possibilities and difficulties for SMEs implementing IT. The recommendations are for reducing the possible problems of optimal IT use to foster growth.


In the modern business community, technical breakthroughs emerge quickly, affecting organizational processes significantly. Information technology IT is becoming all with the world’s industries moving more into digitization. The SMEs have played an essential role in the UK since they contribute to job generation and employment creation. Such flexible organizations are very well known to be highly creative and capable of rapid changes, resulting in new technologies that improve their competitive benefits.

The external environment is vital in companies’ operations as it is also an organizational change agent. The same is true about the surrounding environment in which SMEs operate because several factors affect it and keep changing over time. It is one thing to note the form and magnitude of mutual advantage SMEs have with their outdoors; it would be another for a person to know how these businesses respond or adapt to opportunities using challenges.

This study seeks to know what IT has played in managing SMEs within the United Kingdom. This research focused on how small and medium enterprises successfully adopt IT and implement it through strategic management (Chouki et al.,2020). Researching the impact IT has made so far on SMEs is not only a vital academic endeavour, but also a productive one since such studies provide valuable information that can help companies achieve competitiveness to ensure sustainable growth.

Aims and Objectives

This study aims to acquire comprehensive knowledge about how information technology has transformed small and medium-sized businesses in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this research is to find out and analyze in terms of not only the positive but also the negative aspects deriving from whether IT adoption impacts SMEs positively or negatively.

In particular, the study investigates IT innovations used by UK SMEs, evaluates how these changes affect performance levels and looks into a connection between the adoption of such novelties in SMEs-related management (Saka & Chan, 2021). Difficulty – certain aspects of IT are challenging to use for development perspective purposes. The study aims to provide actionable recommendations for SMEs on how best they can take advantage of IT, making them more resilient and competitive in an ever-changing digital arena (Eze et al.,2019).

Literature Review

IT is a fundamental force that has become essential for innovation and competition with small and medium-sized businesses. The utilization of IT nowadays has become indispensable in helping small and medium-sized businesses within the country restructure corporate business activities, improve productivity rates, and facilitate more effective strategic decision-making.

Every day, SMEs utilize a variety of IT innovations to enhance the efficiency of their internal organization. For example, cloud computing gives these companies scalable and cost-effective resources in central computer processing without significant initial investments (Masood & Sonntag 2020). CRM systems also make it easier for SMEs to connect better with their customers, increasing customer satisfaction and loyalty (Dey et al., 2022).

The subject of studying the effect that IT has on SMEs’ performance is a complicated one. Teece’s 2007 model of dynamic capabilities offers a practical perspective on how SMEs can effectively utilize IT skills to develop and sustain competitive advantage. This paradigm centres on the value of knowledge, creative thinking and adaptation as technological change occurs. SMEs that can change their operations and strategies quickly to adapt or reposition IT environments will have more opportunities to survive in the innovative economy.

To top it up, Wu et al. (2015) educate us on how IT governance relates to gaining organizational performance through the strategic alignment of organizations, which is also a concern. Increasingly so for the SMEs keen to ensure they have an integrated, fully functional IT plan in place and that this aligns with their overall strategic goals of incorporating technology into enterprises.

The adoption of IT has apparent advantages in SMEs, but it also presents particular challenges. 2019′ Vial highlights that it is essential to understand such challenges as lack of resources, cybersecurity issues, and gaps in digital capabilities. For SMEs to fully implement IT, these barriers must be removed.

Teece’s Dynamic Capabilities Framework offers a strong theoretical foundation upon which various ways SMEs can exploit IT to achieve sustainable competitive advantage can be explained. Teece defines the dynamic capabilities of an organization as the capacity to innovate and reconfigure individual resources in order for itself to adapt to real situations.

2007 marked the year that Teece emphasized dynamic capacities when dealing with complexity arising from digital reality. Due to technological improvements, SMEs need to be able to adjust their operations constantly and plan to stay caught up. However, from the framework perspective, successful management by SMEs that IT adoption is not just enough; they also need to foster a learning and change environment.

In his latest research done in 2018, Teece explains how IT helps small companies become much more creative and adaptive. He investigates how IT can transform the usual forms of business and create new possibilities for SMEs to develop their positions in the market. Through IT, SMEs can better themselves in areas such as relating with their clients and producing innovative products or services.

The Dynamic Capabilities Framework is a theoretical framework which can be used to analyze how IT impacts the strategic management of SMEs in the UK and helps them realize their objectives. These observations of Teece will serve as a basis for the research on how SMEs could proactively introduce IT in their business processes to create an atmosphere where freedom and imagination can blossom within this rapidly changing digital environment. Consequently, this framework can be a valuable instrument for understanding the intricate interdependence between strategic endowments that support SMEs’ success and IT adoption.

According to Wu et al. 2015, literature on IT governance and strategic alignment shows convincing evidence of the subsequent relationship between managing an organization’s information technology infrastructure, environments or services, and a business across the entire organization. This report also stresses that having a well-harmonized IT strategy with business goals is essential – especially for small and medium-sized businesses and SMEs adopting an IT envelope.

Wu et al. (2015) state that IT governance improves a company’s agility and reactivity. Thus, It is crucial for UK SMEs, where resource limitations are commonplace, to ensure that their IT investments match strategic intent. Research results have revealed that an effective IT strategy is well integrated into the SME’s overall performance, enhancing operational efficiency (Mendy, 2021).

Strategic alignment is the application of IT to a business plan and activities whose goals are achieved by aligning these initiatives with corporate objectives. Wu et al. provide a comprehensive account of how this alignment positively correlates to improvements in organizational performance. This is especially true for SMEs attempting to use their IT investment and make technology a competitive edge.

Wu et al. also investigate the function of IT governance structures as facilitators for strategic alignment. It is argued that suitable governance structures encourage accountability, communication, and decision-making, leading to a more successful implementation of IT into organizational routines. These research findings provide valuable insights for SMEs, which could help them develop a governance framework that allows the alignment of strategies and leverages the value derived from IT initiatives.

The body of research on IT’s impact on SMEs highlights the most critical topics and emphasizes areas requiring deeper study. Dynamic capabilities and strategic management are mainly related to the development model of Teece’s Dynamic Capabilities Framework (2018). The dynamic depends on two factors. This paradigm focuses on the significance of dynamic capabilities in fueling SMEs’ use of IT to gain competitive advantage. Another critical issue explored by Wu et al.2015 stems from the solid linkage between IT governance, strategic alignment and organizational performance.

The literature points out that if SMEs want to enhance their overall performance, they must make sure IT plan goals support more general business objectives and establish suitable governance structures. Despite these disclosures, there are significant voids in the literature. Instead, UK SMEs need an application of these frameworks specific to the context that considers the opportunities and real challenges for putting them in place. Secondly, although the literature lists the benefits of IT adoption, there needs to be a comprehensive analysis to understand how adopting It has impacted various aspects of several SMEs, for instance, market positioning, customer engagement and operational efficiency.

Finally, the study identifies limited research on barriers SMEs face in implementing IT. Future studies should address, in particular, the problems slowing down SMEs from using IT well, including budget restrictions, lack of digital skills and resistance to change. Improvement of knowledge regarding the IT-SMEs relationship would come from future studies that close these gaps and give helpful information to academics, policymakers and companies.

Research Methodology

In this study on the impact of IT in small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) within the UK, a methodological approach for secondary research has been used.

For a study project, firsthand information is gathered mainly through questionnaires, interviews or observation. Primary research methods were not used since the nature of this particular study is such that it attempts to assess current literature. Instead, secondary research – synthesizing and analyzing information other people had gathered was the key.

Secondary research can include reports, academic articles and studies to thoroughly analyze previous research on the subject effects of IT in SMEs. Utilizing secondary research provides a foundation for understanding the notable concepts, hypotheses, and empirical data presented by academic experts in their corresponding fields. This method is beneficial when trying to understand the topic in terms of history, identifying trends and forming a holistic understanding of everything.

Secondary data in this study is drawn from academic journals, peer-reviewed publications, conference proceedings and reputable reports by organizations and industry specialists. This study comprehensively analyses the relations between IT and SMEs by relying on diverse, reliable sources. This highly knowledgeable approach combines existing information to facilitate a constructive debate about potential problems and impacts of IT adoption among the UK’s SME population.

Problems Identified (Findings and Analysis)

Reviewing the relevant literature reveals a few challenges SMEs face when implementing IT. One common obstacle that prevents SMEs from spending large sums of money upfront on IT systems and infrastructure is the availability of funds. Also, there is a significant digital gap; SMEs often need more knowledge and experience to install and manage the operation of innovative IT systems. The second issue is the resistance to change in corporate cultures.

Even though there are hardships, it has been revealed in the literature that the digital economy also holds a few opportunities for SMEs. IT adoption would make SMEs more competitive because processes are smooth and enhance operating efficiency. For instance, with IT allowing SMEs to have a robust online presence, communicate with the customers, and customize customized rings based on need shape-shifting, better customer engagement is an enthralling prospect. Further, SMEs can, in turn, acquire the advantages of the digital economy to form their business models and use e-commerce forms to expand their publicity base, enabling them to reach out more comprehensively and better help garner data-informed insightfulness to guide attributes towards rational choices.

Analysis of prospects and problems is a rather complicated field for SMEs, which suffer from the complexity they must go through when adopting IT. Although the evident obstacles are skills shortages and budgetary limitations, SMEs still have an excellent opportunity to build their competitiveness. Programs such as collaboration with industries, support for digital literacy and the government’s targeted training activities can help reduce these problems. The digital economy provides many opportunities for SME transformation, shaping attitudes to proactive and strategic IT adoption. SMEs can navigate and fully exploit the opportunities a constantly evolving digital environment offers.

Recommendations and Conclusion

Organizations organize a comprehensive strategy to get the best value out of IT as an SME. Look for low-cost IT solutions and government programs that offer financial help or incentives to implement these technologies. The gap in digital skills can be closed by investing in employee training programs and fostering a lifelong learning culture. Effective communication, staff involvement, and leadership devotion should help overcome the reluctance to change and show that this new IT is beneficial. It can also be possible to assist SMEs in working together against these problems through industry collaboration initiatives and knowledge-sharing networks.

Investigation of essential findings reveals that IT is a two-sided sword having both positive and negative sides concerning SMEs’ Such negative obstacles as lack and deficit of finances, essential competencies shortage which are necessary to run their projects properly, poor willingness In the world of digital economy successful SMEs not only see IT as a tool but also in terms of its transformative power that influences their dynamic capacities and strategic management.

This study is significant to SMEs that want to succeed in the digital economy. The information gathered offers SMEs a pathway to the successful implementation of IT to help surpass obstacles and leverage opportunities. As a result of this research, policymakers will be able to devise unique support programs that assist SMEs in overcoming the obstacles associated with IT assimilation.


Chouki, M., Talea, M., Okar, C., & Chroqui, R. (2020). Barriers to information technology adoption within small and medium enterprises: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 17(01), 2050007.

Dey, P. K., Malesios, C., De, D., Budhwar, P., Chowdhury, S., & Cheffi, W. (2022). Circular economy to enhance sustainability of small and medium sized enterprises. In Supply Chain Sustainability in Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (pp. 10-45). Routledge.

Eze, S. C., Olatunji, S., Chinedu-Eze, V. C., Bello, A. O., Ayeni, A., & Peter, F. (2019). Determinants of perceived information need for emerging ICT adoption: A study of UK small service businesses. The Bottom Line, 32(2), 158-183.

Lepore, D., Vecciolini, C., Micozzi, A., & Spigarelli, F. (2023). Developing technological capabilities for Industry 4.0 adoption: An analysis of the role of inbound open innovation in small and medium‐sized enterprises. Creativity and Innovation Management, 32(2), 249-265.

Masood, T., & Sonntag, P. (2020). Industry 4.0: Adoption challenges and benefits for SMEs. Computers in Industry, 121, 103261.

Mendy, J. (2021). Performance management problem of four small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): towards a performance resolution. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 28(5), 690-710.

Papadopoulos, T., Baltas, K. N., & Balta, M. E. (2020). The use of digital technologies by small and medium enterprises during COVID-19: Implications for theory and practice. International journal of information management, 55, 102192.

Prasanna, R. P. I. R., Jayasundara, J. M. S. B., Naradda Gamage, S. K., Ekanayake, E. M. S., Rajapakshe, P. S. K., & Abeyrathne, G. A. K. N. J. (2019). Sustainability of SMEs in the competition: A systemic review on technological challenges and SME performance. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 5(4), 100.

Saka, A. B., & Chan, D. W. (2021). Adoption and implementation of building information modelling (BIM) in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs): A review and conceptualconceptualizationing, Construction and Architectural Management, 28(7), 1829-1862.

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Teece, D., 2007. Explicating dynamic capabilities: The nature and micro foundations of (sustainable) enterprise performance. Strategic Management Journal, 28(13), pp.1319-1350.

Teece, D., Peteraf, M. & Leih, S., 2016. Dynamic capabilities and organizatiorganizationalRisk, uncertainty, and strategy in the innovation economy. California Management Review, 58(4), pp.13-35.

Teece, D., 2018. Business models and dynamic capabilities. Long Range Planning, 51(1), pp.40-49.

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Vial, G., 2019. Understanding digital transformation: A review and a research agenda. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 28(2), pp.118-144.

Wu, S.P., Straub, D.W. & Liang, T., 2015. How information technology governance mechanisms and strategic alignment influence organizatiorganizationalce: Insights from a matched survey of business and IT managers. MIS Quarterly, 39(2), pp.497-518.