Historical Evolution Of The Two-Party System And Functions Of Parties Essay Example For College

The American two-party system characterizes the dominance of two major political parties that comprise the country’s largest number of elected officials. Of the two parties, the one with the most elected officials is usually referred to as the majority party whereas the other is labeled the minority party. At present, the majority party in the United States is the Democratic Party, while the Republican Party is the minority. The concept of political parties in the US was born in the 1796 elections country’s country first held elections at the local, state, and national levels. At the time, two major parties emerged the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans, making the foundation for the current two-party system. However, the Federalist Party lost prominence in the subsequent elections. The country came to be dominated by one party that is the Democratic-Republican.

In the 1832 elections, the Federalist Party was revived and renamed the New Republican Party. The Democratic-Republican held a convention in 1844 to adopt one name for the party and avoid contradiction leading to the birth of the present-day Democratic Party. The New Republican Party advocates came to be loosely called the Whigs but it faced challenges in the handles of issues about slavery. The conditions favored the formation of a new party, and in 1854 the Republican Party was born. Despite the emergence of other smaller parties, the Democratic Parties and the Republican Party have dominated the US elections since then (Sidlow & Henschen, 2018). In the US, political parties are highly involved in the formation of government at all levels. Even though they are not recognized constitutionally, they are important instruments used in nominating candidates for public office and getting as many of them to be elected.


Sidlow, E., I., & Henschen, B. (2018). Principles of American government (10th ed.). Cengage Learning.

The San Diego Police Department’s History And Work

The police department is the main body of executive power, which is engaged in preserving law and order, ensuring security, and preventing offenses in society. People can feel protected by relying on the work of police departments. An essential factor in the relationship between the public and the police is the trust that must be present on both sides. This work describes the work of the San Diego Police Department, its brief history, and statistics about working there.

Initially, from 1845 to 1850, the military forces were engaged in maintaining law and order and control. Until 1889, law enforcement agencies were under the discretion of city marshals and constables. The San Diego metropolitan Police Department was first established on May 16, 1889 (San Diego Police Department, 2022). Its geographical responsibility is the City of San Diego. The first chief of the police department was Joseph Coyne, marshal of the city. The first police uniform consisted of derby hats, high-collared coats, and seven-pointed star badges (San Diego Police Department, 2022). Subsequently, the department’s work has evolved; new departments appeared, and working conditions improved. In 1987, police headquarters moved to the current seven-story building at 1401 Broadway. The current Chief of the San Diego Police Department is David Nisleit. “On March 2, 2018, David Nisleit was named the 35th Police Chief of the City of San Diego” (San Diego Police Department, 2022). Chef graduated from the University of Redlands with a degree in business and management, and in 2014 Nisleit graduated from the FBI National Academy.

If a person living in San Diego wishes to serve the city and help maintain order, it is essential to disclose the minimum requirements for employment. At the initial stage, the candidate may enter the ranks of the San Diego police in entry-level positions. Mandatory requirements are to be 20 years of age or older, a US citizen or permanent resident alien, and have a US high school diploma or GED (San Diego Police Department, 2022). After applying to serve in the police department, the candidate will have to write a particular test. The written test consists of 100 questions that consider the level of knowledge and skills in reading and writing.

Moreover, the test consists of various sections that determine the level of reaction to any circumstances, the awareness of perceived information, and the possession of special skills. The recruitment process takes an average of three to four months. The use of illicit drugs, traffic violations, and other criminal offenses make it challenging to work in the police department. There are no specific height or weight requirements, but all candidates must complete a rigorous 475-yard obstacle course simulating a chase for no longer than 3 minutes and 15 seconds.

When entering the service, it is necessary to consider the conditions of wages and benefits. “Starting salaries for new officers start at about $3,863 a month at the academy and top out at about $6,077 after their fourth year” (San Diego Police Department, 2022). Medical benefits are provided to each employee annually, including a certain amount of money for necessary medical expenses. At the same time, each employee is free to choose an individual benefit plan independently. Depending on seniority, the agency provides between 17 and 21 days of vacation for all officers, both for days off and sick leave.

I chose this agency because it seems attractive in terms of its conditions and interesting in its history of origin. Moreover, experienced specialists work in this department, from whom you can learn many subtleties of the profession. If I want to become a qualified specialist in this agency, I need to prepare mentally and physically for the tests and apply for a job. Moreover, I can enroll in the Police Academy, where I will be registered as an employee of the city of San Diego and will be able to receive payment.


San Diego Police Department. (2022). Police | City of San Diego official website. The City of San Diego.

McDonald’s And Starbucks In The Canadian Market

Current and Recent Economic Conditions

The Canadian economy is currently experiencing growth that had already surpassed, in some ways, the pre-pandemic period when there was a significant recession. It is evidenced by GDP and unemployment figures, which slightly exceed the values ​​of January-February 2020 after a prolonged increase from May 2020 to today (Statistics Canada, 2022a; Statistics Canada, 2022b). These indicators indicate the return of production to pre-crisis levels, as well as the restoration of the purchasing power of citizens. However, several signals show negative changes in this situation in the economy. First, since the pandemic’s beginning, when inflation was even below zero, it has risen to almost 8%, hitting new all-time highs (Trading Economics, 2022a). The situation also required appropriate interventions from the authorities, who began to return the country’s key rate to the level of 2018 (Trading Economics, 2022b). These actions are caused by the threshold of a new economic crisis due to the complicated geopolitical situation in Eastern Europe.

It is very likely that against this background, GDP growth and unemployment may reach a plateau if the growth trend of the critical rate and inflation continues. High vital rates make it difficult to lend to households and businesses, which has caused, for example, housing construction and mortgage lending to sag significantly (Statistics Canada, 2022c). If, in the first quarter of each year, such a decrease is natural, then these trends are already noticeable during the year before and after that. Inflation and complicated lending significantly reduce the purchasing power of the population and, accordingly, business revenue. Thus, GDP growth, for now, is still recovering from the pandemic, adjusted for inflation. The future state of the Canadian economy is unlikely to boom, given the dynamics of these indicators. This paper analyzes two companies: McDonald’s and Starbucks.

Political and Social Trends

The selected companies represent the food industry, implying establishments for visitors. Working with delivery aggregators is an essential step in business development dictated, among other things, by the pandemic trends. Due to the long-term consequences of the spread of the virus, political security trends are likely to remain in place even after the situation is brought under control. Therefore, these companies must increase operating costs to maintain stricter security conditions for customers on an ongoing basis. As the financial analysis shows, Starbucks significantly increased its long-term debt ahead of 2020, which proved to be a financial cushion as part of the store closures and crisis (Macrotrends, 2022a). At the same time, the company could significantly increase revenue even minus the cost of goods sold in 2021, which indicates the social trends of returning to everyday life and the value of such actions.

A similar trend is observed at McDonald’s, although in smaller volumes in revenue, but in more enormous net profits, indicating efficiency. The only difference is that this company’s assets/liabilities ratio did not experience significant jumps (Macrotrends, 2022b). Share prices sank in 2020 but began to recover quickly and rise by 2022, after which they began to decline again. Growth is likely due to adaptation to new political trends and changes and works with delivering food and drinks and the gradual return of visitors. A disruption in the supply chain most likely caused the fall due to the aggravated situation in the east of Europe, which created new political trends.

The Industry in Which Companies Operate

The restaurant industry, which includes McDonald’s and Starbucks as separate representatives, has been experiencing significant difficulties since the pandemic lockdowns and partial bans. On the eve of the new year, 2021, legislation banned sales during a specific period, significantly hitting industries that stocked food for the holiday (Bundale, 2021). This ban affected Starbucks and McDonald’s chain outlets less, but revenue was probably lost.

These companies directly participate in several trends at once. Starbucks may have lost share prices due to pay scandals, leading to the formation of workers’ unions in Canada, following the example of the United States (Subramaniam, 2022). On the other hand, the company pays for travel to places where abortion is legal for its employees (Chapman & Durbin, 2022). This balance at the social level creates unsustainable dynamics in stocks. In addition, both Starbucks and McDonald’s have exited the Russian market, which will affect the companies’ revenue in 2022 financial statements (Reuters, 2022a; Reuters, 2022b). Accordingly, globally, companies are beginning to experience a crisis due to the exit from a large market and the disruption of supply chains, while in the Canadian market, they are also forced to adapt to security conditions due to the consequences of the pandemic, but they survive these obstacles much better.

Financial Statements

The Revenue/Sales Dollar Amounts and Net Income After-Tax Dollar Amounts

Table 1. Income Statements (Macrotrends, 2022a; Macrotrends, 2022b).

Company 2021 2020 2019
McDonald’s revenue, mln $ 23223 19207 21346
McDonald’s Net Income, mln $ 7545 4730 6025
Starbucks Revenue, mln $ 29060 23518 26508
Starbucks Net Income, mln $ 4199 928 3599

Financial Ratios

Table 2. Financial Ratios (Macrotrends, 2022a; Macrotrends, 2022b).

Company 2021 2020 2019
McDonald’s Current Ratio 1.78 1.01 0.98
McDonald’s Debt/Equity -7.74 -4.78 -4.16
McDonald’s Net Profit Margin 32.49 24.62 28.20
McDonald’s Asset Turnover 0.43 0.36 0.45
McDonald’s ROE -163.99 -60.45 -73.39
Starbucks Current Ratio 1.20 1.06 0.91
Starbucks Debt/Equity -2.75 -2.09 -1.79
Starbucks Net Profit Margin 14.45 3.94 13.57
Starbucks Asset Turnover 0.92 0.80 1.37
Starbucks ROE -79.03 -11.85 -57.69






The Business/Product Cycle of the Companies

McDonald’s adapts its dishes to different countries and offers various seasonal novelties, the best of which remain on the menu. However, there is no horizontal diversification in McDonald’s products, while Starbucks enters the markets for retail coffee in packages. The company’s increased expenses on the line expansion are noticeably reflected in the crisis year in the net profit margin. McDonald’s, being a more financially efficient organization, generally has more robust liquidity and financial leverage, except for highly high long-term debt. Accordingly, Starbucks’ production cycles are expanding, and the supply chain is becoming more complex while covering a more expansive geography in logistics, including retail. McDonald’s, like Starbucks, is a non-cyclical company, so one of the first to recover from the severe restrictions of the pandemic and showed significant growth in shares and revenue. However, current product sales are only growing, like those of competitors. At the same time, it is much more difficult for local networks to adapt and compete with the ability to deliver and maintain the market price of products with global companies.

The Risks That Apply to the Companies’ Stocks

Currently, the world is on the verge of a significant crisis due to complications in supply chains due to the geopolitical situation in Europe. Shares of non-cyclical companies during an economic downturn are protective for investors, but both organizations are deprived of a large market and, accordingly, financial resources to pay dividends. Participation in local scandals does not significantly impact the share price. The balance will be found through regular adaptation to new crisis challenges. It is worth noting that McDonald’s survived the pandemic better than Starbucks, but Starbucks has diversified its business into new markets with a firm brand name. All negative factors are balanced to some extent by positive ones; therefore, it is worth evaluating possible risks precisely from a number of negatively influencing determinants. In addition, the companies are already showing a significant boom in growth, which is currently accompanied by a fall, which is likely to continue on a small scale until the situation in the global market stabilizes.


Bundale, B. (2021). Frustration, anger grow among restaurateurs over lack of data linking industry to COVID-19. The Globe and Mail.

Chapman, M. and Durbin, D.-A. (2022). Starbucks will cover travel for workers seeking abortions. The Globe and Mail.

Macrotrends. (2022a). Starbucks – 30 Year Stock Price History | SBUX.

Macrotrends. (2022b). McDonald’s Market Cap 2010-2022 | MCD.

Reuters. (2022a). Golden Arches make way for hamburger and fries after McDonald’s Russian exit. The Globe and Mail.

Reuters. (2022b). Starbucks to leave Russian market after nearly 15 years. The Globe and Mail.

Statistics Canada. (2022a). Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, by industry, monthly (x 1,000,000).

Statistics Canada. (2022b). Employment and unemployment rate, monthly, unadjusted for seasonality.

Statistics Canada. (2022c). Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, housing starts, under construction and completions, all areas, quarterly.

Subramaniam, V. (2022). Wave of unionization of Starbucks stores in the U.S. shows signs of making its way to Canada. The Globe and Mail.

Trading Economics. (2022a). Canada Inflation Rate.

Trading Economics. (2022b). Canada Interest Rate.

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