Everett’s statement ‘European cinema is not a monolith, but a series of expressions of different ways of questioning and portraying itself and the world’ (Everett, 5) demonstrates that the whole European cinema can hardly be defined since not only the gap between Central Europe and Western Europe but also the notable national identities create various form of aesthetic elements in cinema movement which reflects political, cultural and social circumstance of each nation.
Thus, European cinema can be regarded as national cinema representing state heritage as well as embodying the national historical moment. Forbes and Street state that the European cinema engages itself in the national issue with a range of expressions from reworking on typically Hollywood genres to repossessing the national history (Forbes & Street, 2000, p40). It is essential to lay stress on the national question since this is a vital component to both the content and the structure of the film.
Both the movement of Soviet montage and French New wave can be considered to be reaction to which involved young artists that were intricately connected to society. With reference to two films, which are The Battleship Potemkin (Sergei Eisenstein, Russia, 1925) and Breathless (Jean Luc Goddard, France, 1960), this essay will attempt to examine how social and political upheaval which Soviet Union was enduring result in its aesthetic approaches, and technical aspects of Soviet Montage cinema and how the social and economic turbulence related to the innovative characteristics of French New Wave.
The Bolsheviks realized that force alone could not lead to the victory of revolution. The notice of the agitational impact of cinema highlights the relationship between art and politics during the early years of the Soviet regime. Artists closely linked to onstructivism, those who viewed the artistic production share similar pattern to a machine-put piece together to complete the form, most artists inherited the concept that art irrevocably performed a social function with a rational even technical pattern hailed the 1917 Revolution and actively supported its process. Though struggling under extraordinary hardship in the circumstance of famine, severe weather and brutality during the Civil War period of 1918-1921, the government still nationalized the film industries for propagandistic purpose.
According to Thompson and Bordwell, in the years following the October Revolution the state realized that cinema could be an effective tactic to agitation of the masses and for political propaganda since motion images can be an operative substitute for written form of depicting an impression of nation with the hope of reaching economic egalitarianism while the majority of the population was illiterate (Thompson & Bordwell, 2003, p. 120).
In 1928 Eisenstein wrote: ‘The first basic function of our films is to interpret the theses and decrees, to reveal them and make them infectious through a visual demonstration of their significance in the general cause of socialist construction’ (Eisenstein, in Taylor and Christie, 218). Taylor and Christie’s statement on Eisenstein’s perception that the key to fulfill a social and political function relies elaborately on the basis of ‘Kuleshov effect’, which indicates that the response of audience depended more on the editing style.
For instance, the juxtaposition of conflicting shots which appears to not spatially correspond to each other, however, by editing them together, the spectator could reach a new comprehension over created by the collaboration of two shots. In comparison to the classical Hollywood continuity editing which guides the audience through a series of sequence and trace the storyline in a logical way, montage tends to involve more audience participation into the film through the composition of a series of individual shots to evoke the emotional reaction as well as engage the audience in an active way to interpret the content of film.
The Battleship Potemkin which was produced at the time Soviet Union was pioneering a new form of social and economic order: socialism, can be an instance to illustrate the through both editing style and storyline. The narrative structure of The Battleship Potemkin appears to be within the traditional style. Being divided into five parts, it is arguably less expressive but as well emerged to be not too ntellectual for the illiterate masses as the montage editing appeared to be. Forbes and Street not that since filmmakers wanted to support socialism they represented history in an aggrandized way instead of to present the historical accuracy in order to consolidate and glorify the new political and social system (Forbes and Street, 2000, p. 55).
Considering the historical truth that the Soviet Union was devastated during the Civil War may lead to a negative influence on the citizens and arouse the challenge towards the new policies and socialist ideology, Eisenstein lays more emphasis on the influence of the spirit of Revolution which may stimulate the state population and build up an inspiring and positive image of the government, by deliberately depicting the myth of a successful 1905 Revolution while the truth could be argued as failure, thus manipulating the historical event to correspond with Communist preference.
The munity of sailors in history actually ended in failure and in reality the ship sank, but the film portrays it as a victorious and inspirational event, effectively re-writing history to fit in with the propagandistic purpose of the production. This can be considered to be as an expressive and comparatively efficient way of storytelling; The way that the film changes history emphasises the potential ability of a unified working class to achieve anything.
Additionally, in the contrast of Hollywood’s preference to focus on individual character, the Soviet cinema in Lenin’s time rejected to apply protagonist acting in isolation since it represents the social norms and the capitalism association to star system which is the antithesis of the policies of new Marxist regime. Soviet cinema at that time concentrates on the power and potential of a collective group and their intentions. It appears that Soviet montage filmmakers applied ‘typage’, which refers to non-professional actors who are chosen on basis of ‘type’.
As in Battleship Potemkin, the main character is presented as a group of sailors, who are dressed in identical uniforms. The absence of an individual protagonist and concentration on the collective Russian sailors who represent the working class allows the film to highlight the idea of class solidarity and unified action as well as to promote the Marxist ideology metaphorically. While Soviet montage cinema focus more on collective group of audience and applied innovative aesthetic editing which tended to have persuasive purpose that to engage the population in the olicies of new Soviet Regime, French New Wave, which also involved group filmmakers and intended to break the conventional elements of film to reach the consciousness of the spectator. Raymond Durgnat suggests that French New Wave is an ‘artistic movement’, is not a ‘substance’ around a definable ‘essence’, but a response to pressures and influences converging from many different ‘layers’ of reality-social, political, economic, ideological, artistic and personal (Durgnat, 1963).
It can be noted that the Post World War which could be regarded as the origins of the movement influenced on the auteurs thus determining the characteristic related to the mise en scene, editing style, narrative structure and the improvise of acting. Within the austere situation that being an occupied country during the Post World War, part of the French population collaborated with the Nazis while the others resisted the invasion and occupancy, directly leading to the internal intension within the nation and left frustrated memories to the citizens.
This created the evolvement of Existentialism, which is philosophy indicating philosophical thinking must be the experiences of the individual. Existentialism emphasizes on the individual, the experience of free choice, the absence of any rational comprehension of the universe and a sense of the absurdity in human life. The characters in French new wave films are often marginalized young man who behaves spontaneously. In the film Breathless, Michel, who appears to be an eccentric man can be a protagonist whom an existentialist seeks for to show the struggle that individuals go through in coexistence.
The financial restrictions which resulted from the Post War created distinctive characteristics attributed to the French New Wave cinema. After the occupation, a variety of pressures and influences converged to ravage a fragile institution. Perhaps the greatest of these threats came from within the industry itself. For years, films had been shot at the great studios surrounding Paris, and at the Liberation there were still fifteen studios in operation. Shooting in studios required enormous and elaborate sets, crowds of extra, complicated technologies of lighting and sufficient expertise in management to coordinate this vast division of labor.
After the film industry in France became financially delicate after the war, with the lack of intervention the government, New Wave filmmakers sought low-budget alternatives to the usual production methods. With shooting in natural location such as the beautiful Parisian landscapes and constantly jump cuts which is relatively dynamic, fulfilling the aim that provided the audience with a sense of being in the scene. The way the films were made reflected an interest in questioning cinema which were made to compete with Hollywood with entertaining appeal and intended to turn the audience away from the everyday reality.
The French New Wave directors strove to present an alternative to Hollywood, by consciously breaking its conventions, while at the same time paying homage to what they regarded as valuable in Hollywood cinema. In conclusion, the relatively different social and political context results in the general cinematic terms between two movements. The thematic terms in which different ways directors approach the working class were also distinctive generated from historical background.
Despite that both Soviet Montage and French New Wave filmmakers tried creative and original technique Russia Communists launched revolution against their royal opponents and pursued an egalitarian society thus Soviet Montage adopted typage in the film, presenting the whole social class as a collective protagonist and French New Wave filmmakers focus on individual and pursue tended to function as propaganda and promote the Bolshevik government by controlling the rhythm and affecting the viewer through method of montage.
It is essential to stress that the film aesthetics can be in service of emotionally engaging the audience, thus evoking their consideration about what the filmmakers intend to place. National background referring to historical event and political ferment are all potential themes for the film and with the deliberate aesthetic form, there is more likelihood for the director to reach his expectation of what the film should achieve.
Research On Hybrid Cars
Overview Of The Project: This project is based on the latest technology in automobile (car) industry- HYBRID TECHNOLOGY. In this project we are going to discuss about the hybrid technology in cars, the impact of hybrid technology on Indian automobile (car) industry, the companies which have adopted and benefited through this technology and the findings & the conclusion. ? Hybrid Technology: A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. Power sources include: ? On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) ?
Gasoline or Diesel fuel ? Hydrogen ? Compressed air ? Human powered e. g. pedaling or rowing ? Wind ? Compressed or liquefied natural gas ? Solar ? Coal, wood or other solid combustibles The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. ? HYBRID CARS: Hybrid cars are one among the promising types of new generation cars. In the present era, the motor vehicle industry is going through a transition phase, which is to meet the pace of the growing world. Cars are now become nevitable assistants for the travel and it is not uncommon to have 2 or 3 cars in a home. And, motor vehicles are now facing the next generation problems of the conventional cars. Moreover, many environmental and energy utilization issues are coming cross. Hybrid cars are developed with an intention to answer much of these questions, and the success of it in the road make it a favorite choice of many. Although any car, which has a combination of two different ideas can be called as a hybrid, but the cars, which combine two energy sources for its running is popularly named as hybrid car.
To be simple, the conventional cars run on a single fuel source such as gasoline, petrol and diesel. The energy efficiency of the cars was insufficient to meet the future needs, in the highly energy depleting situation. The search for alternative resources is intensive and one of them, electric cars were a success, but its limitation was the inadequacy for a long drive and difficulty for frequent recharges. Hybrid cars were a better solution since it combines the benefits of both types of cars.
Now, most of the hybrid cars use the engine that work in combination of gasoline and electricity. Hybrid cars are much appreciated by the experts because of its energy efficiency. As the car has two energy sources, the car will in effect, use up only reduced energy and the most beneficial attribute is that the batteries in the car for electrical transmission will be spontaneously charged, along with the working of the car. However, the success of the hybrid cars among the motorists relies on mainly on its performance on the road.
Despite of the great fear, whether the new car could give out the performance as of a conventional car, hybrid car gave out adequate performance, with aid of its sophisticated technology and aerodynamic design. The utility of hybrid cars for the society was proved, when Government adopted particular measures for its promotion. Now, as part of its preferred usage, tax credits are available, which are changed yearly, according to the prevailing market conditions. Government was impressed with the two important advantages such as improved mileage and reduced tailpipe emissions, which can attribute low environmental pollution and reduced non enewable fuel consumption. Now many companies such as Toyota, Ford, Honda and Lexus are competing in the market of hybrid cars with their latest versions. Any how, a comparison of different models is advised before the purchase. Hybrid cars are thus the present phase of car industry. The advancements are going on continuously in its fuel selection and structure, to persist it to a future car, and motorists are looking forward to the best out of it. ? History of Hybrid Vehicles The history of hybrid cars dates back to the late 1800s and 1900s. In 1905, Mr.
H Piper filed a patent for a gasoline engine-electric motor powertrain. According to him, the electric motor would augment a gasoline engine, allowing a vehicle to accelerate from zero to 25 miles an hour in 10 seconds, much faster than the gasoline engines of that time. Ironically, when finally Mr. H Piper was granted the patent a few years later, normal engines were capable of producing the same kind of acceleration. Due to rapid advancements in the gasoline engine, the popularity of a hybrid car slowly diminished untill again in the early to mid 1970s, the time of oil crisis.
Many companies poured funds to build experimental Hybrid Electric Vehicles. But as the oil became available again, the surge for HEVs died down immediately. The Europeans and Japanese researching on reducing production costs and making HEVs more salable. Companies like Toyota, Honda, Volkswagen, Mitsubishi came up with ways to reduce emissions and better the mileage. Toyota introduced the Prius in 1997 (in Japan and in 2000 in the US) which proved to be a huge success. Recent sales figures indicate that well over 300,000 units of Toyota Prius have been sold the world over justifying the concept of a clean family car.
In 1999, Honda introduced its first production hybrid car, the Insight and then the Civic Hybrid in 2002. Ford came up with the first hybrid SUV, the Escape, which hit the road in 2004. Quick on their path are several other contestants such as Dodge with their hybrid pickup, the Ram, and chevrolet’s Silverado. ? How Hybrid Cars Work? Hybrid Cars integrate the power of the conventional gasoline engine with that of an electric motor. A high powered battery pack provides energy to the motor which itself gets recharged when the car is decelerating. This is called as regenerative braking.
The gas engine can also assist the battery in recharging. This kills the need to plug the car to an external source of energy. As of now, there are two types of hybrid vehicles. In one type, the electric motor acts as a side-kick to the gas engine, assisting it whenever surplus power is needed. The electric motor alone is incapable of independently operating the vehicle. Honda’s Power Assist technology in its hybrids, Civic and Insight is an example. Such vehicles are termed as Mild Hybrids. In mild hybrids, the gasoline engine provides the main source of power, and the electric motor provides additional power whenever needed.
The second type of hybrid can be termed as a Full Hybrid, where the gasoline engine and the electric motor can operate the vehicle saperately. In this type, the electric motor can drive the vehicle at lower speeds. In need of more speed, the gasoline engine kicks in. The Toyota Prius and the Ford Escape implement the same techonology. Be it mild hybrids or full hybrids, both are capable of providing lower emissions and better fuel efficiency. The Internal-Combustion Engines (both gasoline and diesel) installed in Hybrid cars are often smaller than those in normal cars for a simple reason that Hybrids have the electric motor for assistance.
The motor can take care of city travel which poses stop and go conditions as well as power-consuming add-ons such as the A/C or power-windows and power-steering. At high speeds, the gasoline engine supplies power. This switching of power sources is computer controled and nothing needs to be manually done. Power to the electric motor comes from the battery-pack. Recharging of the battery is automatic and need not be done by external sources. When the car is in uniform motion or when it is decelerating, it generates power which charges the batteries which utilises the valuable kinetic energy.
As with any other battery, the Hybrid car battery also has a limited life span. Auto makers however, put the battery life at around 200,000 miles which roughly comes around to 7-8 years, depending on the kind of travel it endures. Thus, It pays to take extra care of your vehicle and travel when necessary. ? Hybrid Car Technology: With the prices of gasoline and fuel always on the increase, car manufacturers have today found a new form of car technology that is fuel efficient and low in pollution.
This technology is called the hybrid car technology where the cars have a rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) found in the vehicle, along with some fuel propulsion source. Hybrid cars don’t produce much pollution and consumes minimal fuel; and its different propulsion systems have either common parts or systems. Hybrid cars are generally designated to vehicles running on a combination of petroleum and electricity. These vehicles are called hybrid-electric vehicles where electric cells are used to power electric engines, along with an internal combustion engine.
The advantage of these cars is that they sort of extend their battery charge through the kinetic energy they catch in regenerative braking. Moreover when such cars cruise, or move on a small thrust, the combustion engine generates energy with the running of a second electric motor. This is done to either recharge the battery or to provide energy to the motor for driving the car. This is unlike the conventional electrical cars where they avail of their battery charge through external sources like the grid.
Today, most of the hybrid cars run on either gasoline or diesel as their main energy source while there are some cases where other fuels like ethanol or plant based oils are used too. There are also some cars that use hydrogen fuel. Sometimes, hybrid cars are also referred to the cars that are flexible-fuel vehicles where they run on a combination of different fuels like gasoline and ethanol alcohol fuel. The main reason people prefer to use hybrid cars is because of its hybrid technology of a combination of technologies. With this, a lot of gas fuel is saved which is of course, beneficial to the car buyer.
With the passage of time, hybrid car technology has improved in the different hybrid cars. This is because with time, hybrid cars have also become popular and the manufacturers have been working on more means to make the car more feasible to the prospective car buyer. With hybrid car technology, the motion of the car is designed in such a way that the engines in these cars have a smaller size that is used when drifting and driving leisurely. It is usually the battery source that provides the additional power like going uphill or accelerating whenever needed.
To couple things, when the hybrid car is stopped, the hybrid fuel engine gets switched off to run off the electric motor. Hybrid cars are built lighter and are designed more aerodynamically for better speed. And its tires are usually stiffer and have a higher inflation so that the drag of the car is reduced. So it can be seen that with hybrid car technology, a car has become more efficient. Though the rates of these cars may initially be a bit high, they are very much worth it in the long run during its lifespan. ? Hybrid Car Pro and Cons
The pros and cons of hybrid car is one of the widely discussed topics since hybrid car is a trend among the new generation vehicles. Hybrid car is the type of car, which utilizes two different energy sources to meet the energy requirement. Even though the hybrid technology was prevailing for many purposes such as train engines and submarines, its well-liked use among the people was begun only with the incorporation of the idea in the motor vehicles. Hybrid car became soon accepted among the customers, however, its increased popularity arise the need for a cross analysis since it is a fact that every factor will have two sides. Pros of Hybrid Vehicles Hybrid cars carry with them a bundle of advantages. o Hybrids combine clean energy of the electrical motor with the power of the gas-powered engine which results into lower emissions and better mileage. o Thanks to the ever improving technology, hybrids perform at par with the normal ga-powered vehicles, if not better. o Hybrids are reliable and comfortable as any traditional car and they have a tax benefits(only till 2006). o There are purchase incentives for Hybrid vehicle owners (varies by state). o Hybrids are much cleaner cars than normal vehicles with lesser CO and other greenhouse gas emissions. Hybrids provide a better mileage. o The future for hybrids looks bright with rapid developments in hybrid technology to improve engine efficiency. o Due to the Regenerative Braking technology, the batteries need not be charged by an external source. o o Special warranties are provided for the battery pack, the electric motor other costly items. o Hybrids help reduce the dependency on fossil fuels which directely affects fuel prices. Hybrid cars are often refereed to as the ‘car of the era’. The unique advantages of the hybrid car will be sole basis for such recognition in the market.
The motor industry was always in the effort to develop most beneficial model and the disadvantages of the conventional model might be the triggering factor for the formation of advantageous models. Usually, anything to be considered as advantageous will make benefit only to its owner, and to the maximum, the family of the owner. The specialty of the hybrid car enhances in this situation since its advantages can attribute benefit to not only the owner or his family, but to the entire society, nation and the mankind. The advantages of the hybrid car start right from its difference in the basic pattern.
Hybrid car is type of car that utilizes two energy sources for its movement. The popular hybrid cars in the market are manufactured in such a manner to combine the benefits of an internal combustion engine and electrical motor. The shortening level of gasoline in the world as it is a non-renewable energy was the major drawback of the conventional cars, which was rectified in the electrical cars, but it also had its own disadvantages. The advantage of the hybrid car is that it can rectify the complaints in the both systems and balances the use of electrical energy and gasoline engine, in their optimum levels.
In the hybrid car, the electrical energy is used while starting up of the car and its low speed ranges, which will help to impart a check to the tail pipe emissions. As the automobiles is increasing, world is at the threat of toxic pollutants and global warming, due to their exhaust ingredients. The decrease in the tail pipe emission will be a great advantage for the environment as well as the society. However, gasoline engine will take up the transmission, when the speed goes up since, it is essential to attribute the pace for the drive.
While the traffic stops and steep slopes the electrical energy will be again activated, which will help to reduce the gasoline utilization. The aerodynamic design, lighter materials and smoother tyre will help for better energy consumption. The striking technological advantage of the hybrid car is that the energy loss, while braking is re-channeled for the electrical battery charging, called as regenerative braking, and a separate energy for battery charging is not required. The advantages of the hybrid car are multifaceted since it attributes economical, technical and economical benefits.
Despite of the owner, the country as well as, is benefited from the gasoline saving as the oil prices are steeping very high, and its effects the country’s whole economy. This advantage is also a benefit to the customer as government has decided to give reductions and tax credits for the hybrid car buying. In addition to Federal exemption certain states also provide local exemptions to promote the use of hybrid car. Hybrid car is thus an advantageous car, which helps to over come much of the crisis related to the motor world. ? Disdvantages Of Hybrid Cars Hybrid cars, though useful, have some disadvantages.
The point to be noted here is that the advantages far exceed the disadvantages. o High cost: hybrids cost anywhere from $2,000 to $5,000 more their non-Hybrid versions. o More weight due to battery packs. o Some states charge additional fees for registration. o In the event of an unfortunate accident, there is a risk of exposure to high voltage wires. o They have a complicated system which needs to be taken care of by experienced mechanics only. o Spare parts maybe hard to find and may be costly. o Usually, hybrids have a lower acceleration than that their normal counterparts.
II. INDUSTRY PROFILE: ? HYBRID TECHNOLOGY IN INDIAN AUTOMOBILE (CAR) INDUSTRY: ? INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY AN OVERVIEW: The manufacturing of automobiles commenced in India 60 years ago, since then, the journey of the Indian Automotive industry can be classified into three main phases. Touching upon them briefly: The first phase till mid 1980s could be termed as one of protection for the Indian automotive industry. There were restrictions on the manufacturing and import of automobiles and the Indian automobile market was a seller’s market.
The second phase, post 1991, could be termed as a phase of liberalization as the Indian automotive market was the beneficiary of the opening up of India’s economy. This phase was marked by the entry of foreign automobile players and increase in the availability of automotive financing. The Indian automotive market became a buyer’s market during this phase. Coinciding with the second wave of liberalization, the third phase from early 2000 till date could be termed as a phase of globalization of the Indian automotive industry.
This phase has been marked by the removal of most import controls, entry of many more foreign players in the Indian automotive market and Indian companies gaining a global identity and acquiring foreign companies. The year 2008 is an important year for the Indian automobile industry. Today, the Indian automobile industry is ranked first in the world in the production of three wheelers, second in the production of two wheelers, fourth in the production of commercial vehicles and ninth in the production of passenger vehicles.
With a production of nearly 10. 8 million vehicles in FY07-08, the Indian automotive industry has shown an outstanding resilience after the last down cycle about a decade back. In the last few years, the Indian automotive industry has grown at a healthy rate by reducing costs and improving efficiency. With its new found confidence, it has gone beyond the shores of India and is creating a noteworthy footprint in different geographies in the world. The Indian automotive market with a healthy growth rate of 13% in the last 7 ears was a source of attraction to many foreign automobile companies whose entry in the Indian market not only increased competition, but also raised customer expectations about product quality and reliability. This forced the Indian companies to introduce new and interesting products and innovation has now become a noteable feature of the Indian automotive industry. The innovation story of the Indian automotive industry would not be complete without mentioning the NANO, which has evoked worldwide nterest, curiosity and confidence in the competency of Indian talent. It has not only brought the automobile industry, but also India into focus. The NANO and other similar products have the potential to change the paradigm of the automotive industry worldwide. To maintain a high rate of growth, retain the attractiveness of the Indian market and to further enhance competitiveness in the market place, the Indian automotive industry has been working in a collaborative manner with the government and has drafted an Automotive Mission Plan 2006-16.
Some of the key initiatives which have been pursued as per the Automotive Mission Plan include: • Establishment of National Automotive Testing and R&D Infrastructure development Project (NATRIP) • Initiatives for creation and fulfillment of automotive demand • Initiatives towards the betterment of society and the environment, and • Initiatives to become a catalyst for generating an additional 25 million jobs. In the last five years, sales in various segments of the Indian automobile market have grown at a healthy rate of 15% to 27 %.
This growth provided encouragement to various players and nearly Rs 78,000 crores of investment has been planned, out of which more than 50% has already been committed. However, today the Indian automotive industry is facing unprecedented challenges. On one hand, demand is shrinking because of the lack of availability of consumer finance, high interest rates and the high cost of fuel, and on the other, cost of input materials has witnessed massive increases. e. g. in the last two years, steel price has increased by almost 40%, copper prices are up by 45%, natural rubber has risen by 40% .
The impact of steel price increase alone on various segments of automobiles is quite significant. These factors are having a catastrophic impact on the bottom line of the Indian automotive industry and are resulting in withdrawal, scaling down or deferment of capital investment which would hurt the objectives of the Automotive Mission Plan in the long run. Two other long term challenges are faced by the Indian automotive industry. The first one is climate change due to global warming which would have an impact on all.
Contribution of carbon dioxide emissions giving rise to global warming by various sectors are – Public Electricity and Heat Production: 53% Manufacturing Industries & Construction21% Internal transportation (Road,rail,air)12% Others14% (Source: International Energy Agency-2005 Report based on 2001 data for India) Reduction in carbon dioxide emission would require a holistic and an integrated approach. However, the automotive industry is aware of its 10% contribution and is conscious and determined to pursue initiatives to reduce the same.
This could be implemented by adopting an integrated and a partnership approach. Some of the initiatives that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions include introduction of new and more fuel efficient vehicles, a mandatory inspection and maintenance regime, the removal of old vehicles as they contribute to a larger portion of carbon dioxide emissions, efficient traffic management, use of alternative fuels like CNG, LPG, bio-diesel etc and the introduction of electric vehicles / hybrid.
The second challenge which the Indian automotive industry is facing today is in attracting and nurturing talented manpower not only for the creation of better and reliable products but also for servicing and maintenance throughout the life cycle of the product. More than 60% of the additional 25 million jobs that is projected to get created as per the Automotive Mission Plan, would be in the skilled category. ? INDIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY AND HYBRID TECHNOLOGY: [pic] ? WHY HYBRIDS IN INDIA: [pic] [pic] [pic] CONCLUSION: [pic] III. COMPANIES PROFILE:
Hybrid technology has become a latest trend in the automotive industry. There are a number of companies which have adopted this technology. The list of the companies which have launched their hybrid vehicles are: ? TATA ? Hyundai ? Honda ? Mahindra & Mahindra ? Ford ? Toyota ? BMW ? Nissan Motors A brief profile of these companies and their hybrid car versions are discussed in the following pages: [pic] ? COMPANY OVERVIEW: The Hyundai Motor Company, a division of the Hyundai Kia Automotive Group, is South Korea’s largest and the world’s fifth largest automaker in terms of units sold per year.
Headquartered in Seoul, Hyundai operates the world’s largest integrated automobile manufacturing facility in Ulsan, which is capable of producing 1. 6 million units annually. The Hyundai logo, a slanted, stylized ‘H’, is said to be symbolic of two people (the company and customer) shaking hands. In 1998, after a shake-up in the Korean auto industry caused by overambitious expansion and the Asian financial crisis, Hyundai acquired rival Kia Motors. In 2000, the company established a strategic alliance with DaimlerChrysler and severed its partnership with the Hyundai Group. In 2001, the Daimler-Hyundai Truck Corporation was formed.
In 2004, however, DaimlerChrysler divested its interest in the company by selling its 10. 5 percent stake for $900 million. Hyundai has invested in manufacturing plants in the North America, China, Pakistan, India, and Turkey as well as research and development centers in Europe, North America, and Japan. In 2004, Hyundai Motor Company had $57. 2 billion in sales in South Korea making it the country’s second largest corporation, or chaebol. Worldwide sales in 2005 reached 2,533,695 units, an 11 percent increase over the previous year. Hyundai has set as its 2006 target worldwide sales of 2. million units (excluding exports of CKD kits). Hyundai motor vehicles are sold in 193 countries through some 5,000 dealerships and showrooms. After a recent survey of global automotive sales by Automotive News, Hyundai is now the tenth largest automaker in the world in 2007.  Hyundai Motor Company’s brand power continues to rise as it was ranked 72nd in the 2007 Best Global Brands by Interbrand and Business Week survey. Brand value estimated at $4. 5 billion. Public perception of the Hyundai brand has been transformed as a result of dramatic improvements in the quality of Hyundai vehicles. HYBRIDS IN HYUNDAI: Hyundai plans to begin producing hybrid electric vehicles in 2009. The Avante will be the first vehicle to be produced. Since 2004, Hyundai has supplied about 3,000 hybrid versions of its Getz and Accent small cars to government fleets as part of a testing program. The automaker cites a lack of local tax benefits for purchasing hybrids as a barrier to its hybrid development program. But Hyundai expects the tax situation to change in 2009. The new hybrid electric Sonata will make its debut at the Los Angeles International Auto Show in November 2008.
Hyundai expects to release it in the U. S. market in 2010, featuring lithium-ion battery technology ? HYUNDAI HYBRIDS IN INDIA: Hyundai is getting increasingly aggressive these days. If Genesis sedan assault wasnt enough, Hyundai is now seriously looking at another Japanese stronghold, the Hybrids. The company is planning to go full steam in developing its own hybrid technology. The company will start off with the hybrid variants of Accent, Sonata and Avante sedan while the research and development center in India will be given the go ahead to develop the technology for small cars.
Currently, Hyundai provides Verna (Accent) hybrid models to government agencies as pilot projects. The plan is to expand the line-up to mid-sized sedans and beyond for mass production, starting from 2009. Seok San Jang, a senior vice president for Hyundai’s international business operations says“We have been slow in the field so far but have aggressive plans given the fact that high oil prices have made hybrids almost a necessity now. From next year, we will sell hybrid cars in Korea and by 2010 we will be selling them all over the world, India is our hub for small cars and hybrids for smaller cars will also eventually come from there. ? HYUNDAI HYBRID MODELS: |[pic] |[pic] | |HYUNDAI ACCENT |HYUNDAI GETZ | [pic] ? COMPANY OVERVIEW: Tata Motors Limited, formerly known as TELCO (TATA Engineering and Locomotive Company), is a multinational corporation headquartered in Mumbai, India. It is India’s largest passenger automobile and commercial vehicle manufacturing company. Part of the Tata Group, and one of the world’s largest manufacturers of commercial vehicles.
The OICA ranked it as the world’s 20th largest automaker, based on figures for 2006. Tata Motors was established in 1945, when the company began manufacturing locomotives. The company manufactured its first commercial vehicle in 1954 in collaboration with Daimler-Benz AG, which ended in 1969. Tata Motors was listed on the NYSE in 2004, and by 2005 it was ranked among the top 10 corporations in India with an annual revenue exceeding INR 320 billion. In 2004, it bought Daewoo’s truck manufacturing unit, now known as Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle, in South Korea.
It also, acquired a 21% stake in Hispano Carrocera SA, giving it controlling rights in the company. Tata Motors launched their much awaited Tata Nano, noted for its Rs 100,000 price-tag, in January 2008. In March 2008, it finalised a deal with Ford Motor Company to acquire their British Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) business, which also includes the Rover, Daimler and Lanchester brand names. The purchase was completed on 2 June 2008 Tata Motors has its manufacturing base in Jamshedpur, Pantnagar, Lucknow, Ahmedabad and Pune. ? HYBRIDS IN TATA
The world’s cheapest car, Tata Nano, may also turn out to be world’s cheapest hybrid version as well. Tata Motors intends to offer micro-hybrid version of Tata Nano with micro-hybrid technology that allows the vehicle to reduce fuel consumption and emissions by up to 10 percent. According to a leading Indian news channel, Bosch shall provide the micro-hybrid technology to Nano also known as Start-Stop System. This system allows the engine to automatically turn off when the vehicle is not moving. This additional technology may cost another Rs. 4000 to Rs. 000 to the overall cost but this technology is definitely the cheapest hybrid technology most suitable for the world’s cheapest car. Most of the countries around the world are getting stricter with fuel consumption and emission norms including Europe and the US. This micro-hybrid technology can b deployed to the vehicles at much lower cost than full hybrid systems. The micro-hybrid technology will also be available in diesel and electric variants of Nano. [pic] TATA NANO [pic] ? COMPANY OVERVIEW: Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), (English: Bavarian Motor Works) is an independent German automobile manufacturer founded in 1916.
It also produces motorcycles, is the owner of the MINI brand and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. ? HYBRIDS IN BMW: ? BMW H6 ACTIVE HYBRID: BMW ActiveHybrid is a particular highlight of BMW EfficientDynamics, BMW’s trendsetting development strategy for today’s world. Introducing this technology, BMW is taking the next step in the ongoing reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. BMW ActiveHybrid is based on a modular concept following the strategy of “Best of Hybrid” to integrate the most appropriate, optimum components in each case in different concepts.
The concept is running a new BMW drivetrain that integrates the batteries, electronics systems and power inverter all within the transmission. Compared with the non-hybrid model, the new Active Hybrid is said to improve fuel-economy by up to 20%. The two-mode hybrid system, co-developed with General Motors and DaimlerChrysler, uses twin electric motors which can either be used to boost acceleration, charge the batteries or as a generator to mutually power each other. The two-mode active transmission is based on an ECVT electrical continuously variable transmission.
The two operating modes, one of which has been optimised for low, the other for high speeds, are supplemented by fixed transmission ratios. Fitting in with BMW’s new EfficientDynamics focus, the modular hybrid system can be easily adapted to other models and should make its way across more cars in coming years. [pic] BMW X6 ACTIVE HYBRID ? BMW DIESEL X5 HYBRID VERSION: BMW will be presenting a new eco-friendly concept touting the latest in EfficientDynamics technology at the upcoming Geneva Motor Show. BMW has given a preview of the upcoming concept, a twin-turbo diesel X5 with a hybrid system.
As has been the trend in Europe of late, carmakers are developing ultra-efficient hybrid models by combining frugal diesel engines with electric powertrains. BMW X5 SUV is fitted with a 2. 0L turbodiesel and the carmaker’s mild ActiveHybrid technology plus an eight-speed automatic gearbox and even roof-mounted solar panels. All of these technologies combine to deliver the best fuel economy and lowest emissions of any fullsize SUV currently on sale. The BMW Vision EfficientDynamics delivers 43. 5mpg on the combined cycle and just 172g/km of CO2 emissions.
Despite its green credentials, the X5 ActiveHybrid is no slouch. Output from the diesel stands at 204hp and 400Nm of torque, and the hybrid systems adds a further 20hp and 210Nm of torque under acceleration. This sees the car accelerate from 0-62mph in a reasonable 8. 9 seconds. The mild hybrid solution in the BMW Vision EfficientDynamics uses a compact generator-motor mounted directly onto the gearbox that’s powered by an array of lithium-ion batteries in the boot. The vehicle also features Brake Energy Regeneration technology, lithium-ion batteries and the aforementioned solar panels. pic] BMW X5 HYBRID SUV [pic] ? COMPANY OVERVIEW: Honda Motor Company, Limited is a multinational corporation, engine manufacturer and vehicle manufacturer headquartered in Japan. The company manufactures automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, scooters, robots, jets and jet engines, ATV, water craft, electrical generators, marine engines, lawn and garden equipment, and aeronautical and other mobile technologies. Honda’s line of luxury cars are branded Acura in North America, Hondura in the Honduras and Hongda in China. More recently they have ventured into mountain bikes.
Honda is the 6th largest automobile manufacturer in the world as well as the largest engine-maker in the world, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. As of August 2008, Honda surpassed Chrysler as the 4th largest automobile manufacturer in the United States. Currently, Honda is the second largest manufacturer in Japan behind Toyota and ahead of Nissan With high fuel prices and a weak US economy in June 2008, Honda has reported a 1% sales increase while its rivals including the Detroit Big Three and Toyota have reported double-digit losses.
Analysts have attributed this to two main factors. First, Honda’s product lineup consists of mostly small to mid-size, highly fuel-efficient vehicles. Secondly, over the last ten years, Honda has designed its factories to be flexible, in that they can be easily retooled to produce any Honda model that may be in-demand at the moment. Honda’s sales were up almost 20 percent from the same month last year. The Civic and the Accord were in the top five list of sales. ? HONDA HYBRIDS: Honda Civic Hybrid:
In line with Honda’s long-term commitment to the development of advanced and environmentally-friendly technologies that do not compromise on driving pleasure, the 2008 Honda Civic Hybrid offers a rare combination of being environmentally friendly, fuel efficient and also having a high fun-to-drive quotient. The launch of the Honda Civic Hybrid is the fulfillment of yet another commitment HSCI made to its customers – of bringing in latest technologies and models from Honda’s global line-up. It also seeks to strengthen HSCI’s efforts towards the protection of the environment and conservation of energy sources.
The Honda Civic Hybrid System features a 3-stage i-VTEC + IMA that employs Honda’s 1. 3L i-VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) engine to provide three stages of valve timing (low-speed, high-speed, and cylinder idle mode), combined with a compact and efficient electric motor, Honda’s IMA (Integrated Motor Assist) system. Together with highly efficient CVT transmission, the system provides nearly 47% enhanced fuel efficiency than a regular 1. 8L Civic AT without compromising on driving performance.
The Civic Hybrid can deactivate all four of its cylinders and operate using only the electric motor in certain steady-state cruising situations. In addition, the internal combustion engine is switched off when car comes to a stop while the brake pedal is pressed. These factors contribute greatly to the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions, particularly in city traffic. Apart from sleek, aerodynamic exteriors and new-age luxurious interiors, Honda Civic Hybrid offers the best in safety technology, including Active Headrest and four SRS Airbags (driver, assistant and side air bags), besides other safety features.
The Civic Hybrid is imported from Japan as a completely built unit and is available in two colours – exclusive Premium White Pearl and Alabaster Silver. [pic] HONDA CIVIC HYBRID [pic] ? COMPANY OVERVIEW: Toyota Motor Corporation is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and currently the world’s largest automaker. Toyota employs approximately 316,000 people around the world. In 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product Type A engine and in 1936 its first passenger car the Toyota AA.
The company was eventually founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father’s company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Toyota currently owns and operates Lexus and Scion brands and has a majority shareholding stake in Daihatsu Motors, and minority shareholdings in Fuji Heavy Industries, Isuzu Motors, and Yamaha Motors. The company includes 522 subsidiaries. Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City and Nagoya (both in Aichi), and in Tokyo. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its division Toyota Financial Services and also creates robots.
Toyota Industries and Finance divisions form the bulk of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world. ? HYBRIDS IN TOYOTA: Toyota is one of the largest companies to push hybrid vehicles in the market and the first to commercially mass-produce and sell such vehicles, an example being the Toyota Prius. The company eventually began providing this option on the main smaller cars such as Camry and later with the Lexus divisions, producing some hybrid luxury vehicles. It labeled such technology in Toyota cars as “Hybrid Synergy Drive” and in Lexus versions as “Lexus Hybrid Drive. The Prius has become the top selling hybrid car in America. Toyota, as a brand, now has three hybrid vehicles in its lineup: the Prius, Highlander, and Camry. The popular minivan Toyota Sienna is scheduled to join the hybrid lineup by 2010, and by 2030 Toyota plans to offer its entire lineup of cars, trucks, and SUVs with a Hybrid Synergy Drive option. The Hybrid Synergy drive is the most widely rolled-out environment-friendly system in the automotive industry to date. More than 1,000,000 units have been sold.
Toyota’s CEO has committed to eventually making every car of the company a hybrid vehicle.  . Lexus LS 600h hybrid sedan. Lexus also has their own hybrid lineup, consisting of the GS 450h, RX 400h, and launched in 2007, the LS 600h/LS 600h L. Toyota has said it plans to make a hybrid-electric system available on every vehicle it sells worldwide sometime in the 2010s. Toyota and Honda have already said they’ve halved the incremental cost of electric hybrids and see cost parity in the future (even without incentives) ? TOYOTA HYBRID MODELS: [pic] |[pic] |[pic] | |TOYOTA PIRUS |HYGLANDER HYBRID |CAMMRY HYBRID | |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] | |LEXUS RX HYBRID |LEXUS GX HYBRID |LEXUS L S HYBRID | [pic] ? COMPANY OVERVIEW:
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational corporation and the world’s fourth largest automaker based on worldwide vehicle sales, following Toyota, General Motors, and Volkswagen. Based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit, the automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford, Lincoln, and Mercury brands, Ford also owns Volvo Cars of Sweden, and a small stake in Mazda of Japan and Aston Martin of England. Ford’s former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover were sold to Tata Motors of India in March 2008.
In 2007, Ford fell from the second-ranked automaker to the third-ranked automaker in US sales for the first time in 56 years, behind General Motors and Toyota. Based on 2007 global sales, Ford fell to the fourth-ranked spot behind Volkswagen. Ford is the seventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2007 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2007 of $172. 5 billion. In 2007, Ford produced 6. 553 million automobiles and employed about 245,000 employees at around 100 plants and facilities worldwide. Also in 2007, Ford received more initial quality survey awards from J.
D. Power and Associates than any other automaker. Five of Ford’s vehicles ranked at the top of their categories and fourteen vehicles ranked in the top three. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Henry Ford’s methods came to be known around the world as Fordism by 1914. ? HYBRIDS IN FORD: Ford did improve fuel efficiency during 2005, with the introduction of the Hybrid-Electric Escape.
The Escape’s platform mate Mercury Mariner was also available with the hybrid-electric system in the 2006 model year—a full year ahead of schedule. The similar Mazda Tribute will also receive a hybrid-electric powertrain option, along with many other vehicles in the Ford vehicle line. In 2005, Ford announced its goal to make 250,000 hybrids a year by 2010, but by mid-2006 announced that it would not meet that goal. Other hybrids to come out will be the Ford Fusion and Mercury Milan Hybrid version in 2008. There are also plans for hybrid versions of the Ford Edge and Lincoln MKX. FORD HYBRID MODELS: |[pic] |[pic] |[pic] | |MERCURY MARINER |FORD ESCAPE HYBRID |MAZDA TRIBUTE | [pic] ? COMPANY OVERVIEW: Mahindra & Mahindra Limited is part of the US $6. 7 billion Mahindra Group, an automotive, farm equipment, financial services, trade and logistics, automotive components, after-market, IT and infrastructure conglomerate. The company was set up in 1945 as Mahindra & Mohammed.
Later, after the partition of India, Ghulam Mohammad returned to Pakistan and became that nation’s first finance minister. Hence, the name was changed from Mahindra & Mohammed to Mahindra & Mahindra in 1948. Initially set up to manufacture general-purpose utility vehicles, Mahindra & Mahindra (M&M) was first known for assembly of the iconic Jeep in India. The company later branched out into manufacture of light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and agricultural tractors, rapidly growing from being a manufacturer of army vehicles and tractors to an automobile major with a growing global market.
At present, M&M is the leader in the utility vehicle (UV) segment in India with its flagship UV, the Scorpio (known as the Mahindra Goa in Italy). M&M is India’s largest SUV maker. ? HYBRIDS IN M&M Mahindra & Mahindra has introduced India’s first micro-hybrid technology. The new technology is introduced in Mahindra’s most successful cars, Scorpio M2DI and Bolero SLX BS3 variants for the Indian car market. This innovative technology is designed and produced by Mahindra in association with the leading auto components manufacturer, Bosch.
The technology enables the car engine to automatically switch off when the transmission is idle or neutral. The engine gets restarted automatically when the clutch is pressed. It is purely based on a simple principle of not wasting and burning fuel when the car is at a stop. The system automatically detects the car motion and helps to conserve fuel, reduce running cost as well as the amount of emissions. It is also known as the FuelSmart technology. The company also has plans to use the technology in its yet-to-be launched car, Mahindra Ingenio.
The innovative product is expected to raise the sales figure of Mahindra cars and establish a niche in the Indian car industry. [pic] ? COMPANY OVERVIEW: Nissan Motor Company, Ltd. , shortened to Nissan is a multinational automaker headquartered in Japan. It was formerly a core member of the Nissan Group, but has become more independent after its restructuring under Carlos Ghosn (CEO). It formerly marketed vehicles under the “Datsun” brand name and is one of the largest car manufacturers. The company’s main offices are located in the Ginza area of Chuo, Tokyo.
In 1999, Nissan entered an alliance with Renault S. A. of France, which owns 44. 4% of Nissan as of 2008. Nissan is among the top three Asian (also known as the Japanese Big 3 Automakers) rivals of the “Big Three” in the U. S. Currently they are the third largest Japanese car manufacturer. It also manufactures the Infiniti luxury brand. The Nissan VQ engines, of V6 configuration, have featured among Ward’s 10 Best Engines for 14 straight years, since the award’s inception. For the truck and bus maker “Nissan Diesel,” it is a separate company from Nissan Motors, please see UD instead. ? HYBRIDS IN NISSAN:
In 2002, Toyota and Nissan agree to tie-up on hybrid technologies, and in 2004, Nissan unveiled the Altima hybrid prototype. [pic] NISSAN ALTIMA IV. FINDINGS: o Hybrid cars are often refereed to as the ‘car of the era’. o In today‘s world, there is competition and so in order to sustain their position various companies are adopting this hybrid technology to offer better quality at competitive prices. o The conventional cars run on a single fuel source such as gasoline, petrol and diesel. The energy efficiency of the cars was insufficient to meet the future needs, in the highly energy depleting situation.
The search for alternative resources is intensive and one of them, electric cars were a success, but its limitation was the inadequacy for a long drive and difficulty for frequent recharges. o Hybrid cars were a better solution since it combines the benefits of both types of cars. Now, most of the hybrid cars use the engine that work in combination of gasoline and electricity. o With the prices of gasoline and fuel always on the increase, car manufacturers have today found a new form of car technology that is fuel efficient and low in pollution. The advantages of the hybrid car are multifaceted since it attributes economical, technical and economical benefits. o Despite of the owner, the country as well as, is benefited from the gasoline saving as the oil prices are steeping very high, and its effects the country’s whole economy. o Among all these cars, TATA NANO is the cheapest but because of its popularity other companies like Nissan etc are trying their hand here also in order to give tough competition to TATA.
But these cars are very costly as compared to the non hybrid cars and moreover they have a complicated system which needs to be taken care of by experienced mechanics only and spare parts are hard to find.. V. CONCLUSION: From the above discussions we can conclude that the hybrid cars are now the need of the hour. Not only environmental issue, but also soaring oil prices have made the all global car manufacturers to think about green cars or hybrid car which are known as eco-friendly cars to fight against environmental issue which is turning out to be a universal issue.
Hybrid cars are gaining popularity now a day. This advanced technology not only saves fuel but also reduces emissions that perforate Ozone shield. Although, some experts have tried to rubbish its fuel efficiency, hybrid cars still remain a pocket-friendly car to own in the times of skyrocketing fuel prices. Different types of hybrid cars use different propulsion systems to get the kinetic energy, most of them are powered by either a petrol or a diesel engine with an electric motor. Petrol remains basic fuel of the car.
In some vehicles, the output produced by an internal combustion engine is fed to a generator which in turn produces electricity to charge the batteries. Some other hybrids get a combined motive power generated by an ICE engine and an electric motor. These are quick on acceleration and emit half the amount of noxious gases and particulates. Realizing the severity of the situation, car manufacturers are giving more importance to less polluting cars than ultra-low coast cars. Recently concluded Auto expo at New Delhi saw a series of hybrid cars being displayed on by many car manufacturers.
Innocent Iii And Fourth Crusade
Innocent III’s Papal Influence over the Fourth Crusade Research Paper Brandon Rosty The Crusades-HIST-239 Prof. Moran Cruz For much of history, the papacy has been viewed as a driving force behind the Crusades, the papacy of Innocent III being a particularly good example. Ever since the days of Gregory VII from 1073-1085, and his early ideas of Crusades, and Urban II’s call for the First Crusade in 1095, the papacy has served as an instigator of plans that have often gone awry. The Fourth Crusade is the perfect example of this. Following his election to the papacy, Innocent III, or Lothar of Segni, began preaching a message of rusade to once again take back the Holy Sepulcher. What would follow his calls for crusade was a series of setbacks that would culminate not in the recapture of the Holy Land, but the sack of Constantinople. What was the actual extent of Innocent III and the papacy’s influence in this crusade? How could the papacy control the events of a foreign venture from Rome? Was Innocent III’s inability to control the crusaders a contributing factor to the failure of reaching the Holy Land? The extent of Innocent III’s influence in the Fourth Crusade must be investigated to gain a sense of how and why the crusade transpired as it did.
Innocent III can be credited as the sole source for the Fourth Crusade, as he himself called for the crusade. Innocent first mentioned the idea of crusade to the patriarch of Jerusalem following his ascension to the papacy in January of 1198, when he announced his intention to strive to deliver the Holy Land from the infidels. By August 1198, Innocent had officially proclaimed the Fourth Crusade and declared himself the crusade’s leader. Innocent took the precedent of personal involvement of the pope from his predecessor, Gregory VII, who hoped to have Emperor Henry IV defend Rome, as he worshipped at the Holy Sepulcher.
Innocent lacked such protection of Rome and widespread interest in his crusade to actually attain personal leadership over the crusading army. This may have been a pie in the sky expectation of Innocent’s, but the Holy Father did wish to someday lead the crusade into the Holy Land. Innocent’s call to crusade was such a mastery of imagery and holy undertones that many described its tone as that of a sermon devoted to the seizure of Jerusalem. Unlike his predecessors, however, Innocent III signaled his intent to manage the crusade through the assistance of two papal legates, Cardinals Peter Capuano and Soffredo.
His official call to crusade, his pursuit of leadership of the crusade, and his attempt at micromanaging the crusade through papal legates demonstrate Innocent III’s strong early involvement in the Fourth Crusade. His devotion toward the capture of the Holy Land raises the further question: how did a crusade that underwent much early planning from the papacy, go so far off course? In the early preparations for the Fourth Crusade, Innocent asked that“ All towns, as well as counts, and barons, should provide crusaders for two years at their own expense according to their resources. ” Innocent left out kings, further illustrating his ntent to keep this crusade under papal control. Innocent also offered indulgences for taking the cross as Geoffrey of Villehardouin explained, “all those who take the cross and serve God for a year in the army would be free from all sins they had committed and confessed. ” A key provision to his indulgences and his call to crusade was the expectation that the crusaders would travel largely at their own expense. This would cost Innocent dearly in his army’s ability to execute their crusade. Innocent pursued many means by which to finance the crusade, such as imposing the first church- ide crusade tax on all clerics, but this would do little to alleviate the financial burden on most crusaders. The Second and Third Crusades were largely financed through kings, but this crusade lacked monarchial support, and Innocent had made clear that the crusaders’ financial responsibility was their own.
The failure to fully finance the Fourth Crusade would ultimately thwart Innocent’s dream of crusade ever reaching the Holy Land. Without sufficient finances, the crusaders would have to pursue diversions such as the Venetian attack on Zara, as well as the sack of Constantinople if they ever hoped to ake the trip into the Holy Land. Although these indulgences were highly enticing, just as the indulgences in past crusades were, Innocent III would have to stand by and watch as his summons for a crusading army was ignored by the European powers. War had broken out between England and France, Germany was split between Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick who both had claims to the throne; and Genoa and Pisa, the two powerful sea forces along the Mediterranean, were also at war. 6 Innocent III’s early preparations attempted to dispel the misgivings of the crusade, but little was being accomplished in ssembling a crusading army. Hope for the Fourth Crusade was decreasing as by March 1199, there had been little response to Innocent’s call to crusade. This did not dissuade Innocent as he reached out to the Fulk of Neuilly in order to increase religious fervor for the crusade. Fulk of Neuilly was already preaching the crusade as early as September of 1198, as Innocent allowed the use Cistercian monks in his campaigns. In his letters to Fulk of Neuilly, Innocent revealed his intention of linking moral reformation, evangelical preaching, and the crusade. Innocent made it clear that the crusade was an offering from
God, an opportunity for salvation, but he also asserted that God’s people had to be worthy of salvation, and the seizure of the Holy land was the perfect offering to demonstrate such worthiness. Fulk of Neuilly’s preaching of religious fervor for the crusade was reminiscent of Peter the Hermit in the First Crusade, and greatly assisted Innocent in his pursuit of a crusade for all Western Christendom. Throught 1198 and 1199, Fulk of Neuilly’s works led him to spread the call of pilgrimage throughout Gaul, where he found great success, while Innocent had trouble reaching out to this area.
Innocent III wished to make the Fourth Crusade the gift of salvation needed for Western Christendom, as he felt the heathen control over the Holy Land displeased God greatly. With fervor increasing, Innocent needed an army for his crusade. Meanwhile, Peter Capuano had also pronounced Innocent’s remission of sins in France, and the crusading army’s first enlistment soon followed at a tournament held by Count Thibaut of Champagne and Count Louis of Blois in November 1199. Innocent III was also attempting to assemble a naval source for the crusading army, and to this end he irected Cardinal Suffredo to Venice as well as a dispatching a delegation to make peace between Venice, Pisa, and Genoa. Andrea describes this as a crucial source for the diversions to Zara and Constantinople, as did Gunther. However, Gunther placed the blame solely on the Venetians instead of on the shoulders of the Papacy. The involvement of the Venetians would continue to plague the crusaders throughout the duration of the Fourth Crusade. Things began to move quickly for the crusade by 1201, as Marquis Boniface of Montferrat and Abbot Peter of Lucedio took the cross in the summer of 1201, while the
Doge of Venice, Enrico Dandolo, accepted the cross a year later in September of 1202. Still, the crusaders needed a maritime vehicle to transport the army across the Mediterranean Sea. Innocent III, with some hesitation, expected the Venetians would provide that source, after the legation to Genoa and Pisa failed. Eventually the crusading army came together through French and Lombard nobles forging an alliance along with the Venetians before October 1202. The French and the Venetians had reached an agreement for transportation and provisions for an army of 33,500. In order to complete the provisions of the reaty and meet the demands of building a fleet capable of transporting this army, the Doge of Venice had to suspend commerce in Venice. With such financial burden on themselves, the Venetians sought a high price from the crusaders. Such a high price would prove too much for the crusaders, and they would have to submit to the whims of the Venetians. Innocent’s insistence that the crusaders act with their own resources and expense seemed to drive the crusading army directly into the hands of the Venetians. Gunther of Pairis, describes, from Abbot Martin of Pairis’ perspective, that the Venetians had deceived the rusaders about the price of the acquisition of such transportation. However, Queller describes that the crusaders knew well the terms of their agreement, and that “no ruler of the time, could raise such a force, certainly not without the very greatest difficulty. ” The envoys who had made the agreement with Dandolo, received their instructions from their principals who included the young counts of Flanders, Champagne and Blois. For the oversight of cost, and for not consulting the papacy on such matters, Queller assigns the blame of the terms of the agreement on these Northern French barons. For their part,
Innocent III and his legates illustrated the difficulty of controlling the crusade from Rome, because they couldn’t assist the barons with their finances or with their dealings with Dandolo. There are several conflicting opinions about Innocent III’s reaction to the treaty with Venice in 1201. Villehardouin reports that the pope seemed very “willing” to confirm the treaty. Innocent III’s clerical biographer states that Innocent agreed “cautiously” to the terms of the treaty, with the provision that no Christians be harmed, unless they harm the crusader mission unjustly. Queller seems to believe that while
Innocent was willing to confirm the treaty, he imposed a common prohibition not to harm Christian lands even if they were owned by the king of Hungary, who was at odds with the Venetians. Even if it seemed Innocent had the foresight to see that the Venetians could use the treaty as a way to attack the King of Hungary’s lands, Innocent was making a prohibition that included any and all Christian lands and there were little grounds to prove Innocent’s hesitation with the Venetians according to Queller Regardless of whether or not the Venetians could be trusted, the crusaders were at their mercy as
Innocent hadn’t provided any other alternative. In the midst of Venetian preparations, Innocent III was still greatly concerned about the impact of the war between France and England on the Fourth Crusade. In May of 1203, Innocent wrote to King Philip II of France, and King John of England, in an effort to make a truce between the two powers so that their supporters could focus on the crusade. These efforts support the idea that Innocent was still attempting to influence the crusade; however, upon close inspection of the letters to the two monarchs, it can be in nferred that Innocent knew little of the crusaders’ position or planned course as he hardly even mentions the crusaders to the monarchs, which supports the notion that the crusade was becoming one largely outside of papal control. Unbeknownst to Innocent, the crusaders were beginning their first siege on Constantinople and had already attacked Zara. Adding to the complications of not being able to control the crusaders, the papal legates and their roles appears to have greatly diminished once the crusaders set out. Robert of Clari and Villehardouin rarely even mention Cardinals Peter Capuano and Suffredo or even Pope Innocent III himself.
Even ancient papal sources suggest that the Venetians were uncomfortable with Capuano acting as a legate and asked that he accompany them as just a preacher. Soffredo had gone on to the Holy Land to prepare the way for the crusade. Without his papal legates, Innocent was powerless in executing his wishes, and the crusading army began to act on its own intentions. Innocent, as with the Venetian treaty, was reacting to events instead of shaping them. Innocent did agree to the election of Boniface of Montferrat as the leader of the crusading army , and he also agreed to the desired attack on Alexandria and Egypt before moving on to the
Holy Land, as was a common practice in the later crusades. At this point, a transition began, as a crusade that was once very much the creation of Innocent III slowly became one of secular interest, the focus of which was not the Holy Land, but diversion after diversion. Cardinal Capuano returned to Rome in July of 1202, with the news that the crusading army was considering the Venetian proposal to sail to the city of Zara and take back the city for the Venetians. Since the crusaders were unable to meet their financial obligations set in their treaty, and were desperate to find a solution that as a lesser evil than breaking up the crusade, an attack on a fellow Christian city, suggested by Venice, seemed to be the only answer. Innocent III sent Capuano back to the crusading army, hoping to dissuade them from the deal with the Venetians and resolve the financial situation. Innocent also sent a stern letter threatening excommunication for such an attack and reminded the crusaders of his prohibition of attacking fellow Christians unless in the most severe and just occasions. 27 The letter arrived after the army had already landed in Zara, and the conquest proceeded without mishap in November 1202. The
Franks sought forgiveness for their actions and dispatched envoys to Rome in order to receive papal indulgence. Innocent granted such indulgence to the Franks, but the Venetians, who felt they had done nothing wrong, did not seek such absolution, and they were promptly excommunicated by Pope Innocent III. 27 Problems with communication between the papacy and the papal legates also contributed to the growing disconnect between Rome and the crusading army. Capuano was seeking direction from Innocent about the excommunicated Venetians and the Franks who would have to travel alongside them, but Innocent could not directly answer is concerns as the situation in Rome in early 1203 was becoming dangerous. The city was divided by factional complications, which was contributing to Innocent’s inability to transcribe his intentions to his legates. By the time his directions about the Venetians were sent off to Capuano, the Cardinal had already decided not to join the Army at Zara. This is confirmed by Gunther, as he describes the Abbot Martin and other associates sent on the papal directives regarding absolution to the army. Without his legate present, Innocent’s orders of not pursuing an attack on Constantinople would be ignored.
In the meantime, his other legate, Cardinal Suffredo, had turned down the election of patriarch of Jerusalem, against Innocent’s wishes, but again Innocent could not convey his position. In a letter to Suffredo in August, 1203, explaining the army’s excursion to Zara as well as plans to continue on to Constantinople, Innocent III concluded that the course of the crusade was completely out of his control. Innocent lost control over the army at the most perilous of times, such as during the events with the Venetian Treaty, the Conquest of Zara and the request of Alexius the Younger to divert to
Constantinople. Before the crusading army set sail in October 1202, the young Byzantine prince, Alexius Angelus, or Alexius the Younger, sought help from Western Christendom against the Emperor Alexius III ,who had blinded and overthrown Alexius the Younger’s father, Emperor Issac II. Alexius originally sought help from Philip of Swabia and from King Philip of France, who had ties to Boniface of Montferrat, the leader of the Fourth Crusade. Gunther also speaks about Philip of Swabia and King Philip’s influence over the Germans and Franks in the crusading army. There was some appeal to the younger
Alexius’s call to retake his throne for Innocent III, as the relationship between Innocent and Alexius III wasn’t ideal. Between 1198 and 1202, eight missions and twelve letters were circulated between the two leaders and little came from them. Innocent sought Byzantine support for his crusade, while Alexius III sought papal understanding about an attack against Phillip of Swabia. Innocent in turn, sought papal dominance over the Greek Church . Alexius’s unwillingness to cooperate wasn’t enough for Innocent to hear out Alexius the Younger’s pleas at his appearance at papal court in February 1202. Innocent idn’t view Alexius Angelus as a credible threat to Alexius III, refusing to support a venture to Constantinople, and condemned such an attack by the crusaders in the “strongest language”. Innocent appeared desperate to regain control over his crusade, and seemed to be using the insistence of not pursuing a siege on Constantinople as means to reassert his authority over the crusading army. In February of 1203, Innocent sent a message through Bishop Nivelon of Soissons, prohibiting the army from traveling to Constantinople. Innocent had no reason to doubt the crusading army as they had accepted his terms of recommunion, hich included the prohibition of attacking Christians unless under the most severe of circumstances. In his responses to them having accepted his recommunion, he began to describe the Venetians as the “enemy of the crusade. ” And even referred to the Doge of Venice as “the Pharaoh” in reference to the story of Moses in Exodus. This was the strongest message yet that Innocent III was still very much in control of this crusade and he demanded that they not pursue an attack on Constantinople. Innocent III’s ability to enforce his prohibition was compromised by his own direction to Cardinal Peter Capuano.
When Capuano asked for his direction on the matter of the crusaders pursuing an attack on Constantinople and the Venetians refusing absolution, Innocent directed him to do “as God inspired him” and continue on to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ” When the crusading army ignored his authority as legate and began to pursue the excursion to Constantinople, Capuano did exactly as directed, and Innocent lost his contact with the crusaders. As described earlier, complications from Innocent’s legates and other miscommunications did little to dissuade the crusaders from assisting Alexius the Younger.
Even with Capuano gone, Abbott Martin, through Gunther’s writing, tells his readers that the army knew of the Supreme Pontiff’s position against the proposed journey to Constantinople. Gunther, however, also discusses Innocent’s distaste for the Greek City and the Church in Constantinople and believed that the Holy Father wished for its capture without catholic bloodshed, but doubted an invasion could take place without the destruction of the army. Sidney Packard concludes, as a result that Innocent sanctioned the diversion: “Innocent III was not the only Pope to be allured by the hope of niting the Eastern and Western Churches, but he is the only one who used frankly military and political agencies for the purpose. ” Whether or not Innocent personally supported the diversion remains to be seen. The only hard evidence that exists points to the contrary. Regardless of Innocent’s views, young Alexius had promised 300,000 marks of silver for the crusading army if he were reinstated to his throne, and this proved to be too much for the poverty stricken army to reject. Gunther also describes that King Philip’s and Doge of Venice’s urging forced their hand, and they felt as though Alexius had been unfairly disinherited.
Because of these assertions, the crusaders “unanimously found in favor of the young man and promised him their aid. ” Innocent had sent mixed signals with his prohibitions, as the crusaders may have viewed the financial burden as extreme circumstances that warranted an attack on Constantinople. Innocent’s past history with Alexius III would suggest that the crusaders could not have possibly known that Innocent was opposed the taking of the city. 35 Ultimately with the insistence of the Venetians and secular leaders that Alexius the Younger retake his throne, the crusaders accepted the ultimate diversion from their quest or the Holy Land. Innocent III eventually stepped aside, ceasing his letters allowing the excursion to Constantinople to take place in July of 1203. Gunther describes that Alexius III attempted to attack the encampment of crusaders, but ultimately failed and fled. Alexius was helpless with the invading Latin invaders and sought flight in his hour of danger. Typical of Innocent’s stubbornness, he and Cardinal Capuano still expected, even with the diversion to Constantinople, that the army to continue their journey to the Holy Land. Innocent’s insistence on the completion of the Holy pilgrimage can be emonstrated by Innocent’s demand that Abbot Martin continue on to the Holy Land even after the sack of Constantinople. Innocent III stood to gain much from the successful placement of Alexius the Younger, now reigning as Alexius IV, onto the throne alongside his father Isaac II. Alexius IV wrote to Innocent in August 1203 that he viewed him as the “ecclesiastical head of Christendom” and that he wished for the submission of the Eastern Church to Innocent. Also with Alexius IV’s promised financial support the crusaders had a new life to pursue the Holy Land. Even so, Innocent III responded to Alexius IV’s notions by tating that without the support of St. Peter his reign would end swiftly. Innocent then directed the crusaders to repent from the sins of departing from the course of his crusade, and even threatened excommunication once again. Innocent called upon them to renew their plan to recover the Holy Land, a prize he valued even more highly than that of the return of the Church of Constantinople. Innocent, in letters to the bishops of Soissons and Troyes, questioned the view that the attack was a genuine attempt by the crusaders to unite the Latin and Greek Churches. Innocent instructed the bishops see to it that the enture into Constantinople ended well, and would not damage the mission of recovering the Holy Land. The Latin position in Constantinople was key to the completion of the crusade. Without the financial support promised by Alexius IV, the crusaders would not have the resources to continue on to the Holy Land. Their position came into question, when on August 19th, 1203, a Greek mob attacked the Latin army. This attack, and the several that followed came from growing frustration with the presence of this foreign army and Alexius’s support for them. The people of Constantinople’s disdain for the Latin nvaders complicated the situation for Alexius IV, because he could not make good on his promises for payment of the crusaders. The Greeks vehemently opposed such payment and his father Isaac II, believed that it was politically impossible to pay the crusaders. Alexius and Isaac could not admit this to the crusaders as without their protection, they would be overthrown. Alexius claimed poverty and sought a delay on his payment to the crusaders. As a result, the prospect of another war with Constantinople was on the rise, and the prospect of its success seemed dim as the city had rearmed itself after the first ttack. The leaders of the crusade began to realize that Alexius had turned on them, and that he would not meet his side of the bargain as laid out in the Treaty of Zara. According to the letters to and from the bishops of Soissons and Troyes, Innocent III was largely in the dark about the situation with Alexius IV and his refusal to pay the crusaders. 48 Innocent’s letters to the young emperor, warning of such actions, demonstrate that he would have been greatly troubled by the actions of Alexius IV. 47 Innocent III’s fears about the diversion to Constantinople were being realized and his crusading army as in great danger, but little is known about the Supreme Pontiff’s actual knowledge of events preceding the second siege of Constantinople. Without such knowledge there was little Innocent could do to shape events. The crusaders sent one last envoy to Alexius IV pleading for him to give them what he had promised, or else they would take what was theirs by force. Alexius IV denied the envoys payment and asked them to leave the city and never return. It appeared that the leader of the anti-Latin factions in Constantinople, Mourtzouphlus, had influenced the emperor to drive away the Latins. This was followed by frequent attempts o destroy the Venetian fleet by the Greeks, but to no avail. Eventually Mourtzouphlus overthrew Alexius IV, and promised his supporters that would rid the Greeks of the Latins within a week’s time. He deceived the crusaders about the death of Alexius IV, but news eventually reached the encampment that their former lord was no longer in control and that Mourtzouphlus ruled. His coup over Alexius IV would not stand as the crusaders prepared themselves for war. Under the cunning leadership of the Doge of Venice, the Venetian Fleet attacked the harbor, destroyed the Greek Fleet, and enabled the crusaders to scale the walls of the city.
They set the city ablaze and with the guidance of the Count of Flanders and the Marquis of Montferrat, the crusaders succeeded in taking the city on April 13th, 1204. The conquest of Constantinople would eventually lead to the disintegration of the Fourth Crusade, much to the disdain of Innocent III, but as is demonstrated throughout the unfolding of events in this second siege, there is little to no mention of Innocent’s involvement. Baldwin I, the Count of Flanders and the newly elected Latin Emperor of Constantinople, took it upon himself to inform the Holy Father in May of 1204 of the ramatic turn of events in Constantinople, promising that after the stabilization of his empire the crusade would continue toward its ultimate goal. Innocent III responded to the conquest of Constantinople with great joy. A Latin leader whom Innocent trusted was on the throne in Constantinople, rather than Alexius IV, whom Innocent distrusted as much as his uncle Alexius III. Innocent responded to Baldwin’s letters without mention of the possible excommunication he had threatened only a year before. Innocent agreed that this victory was a gift from God, and that the crusading army should focus on efense of the Latin empire in Constantinople in order to secure a path to Jerusalem. Innocent, however, reminded Baldwin to protect the ecclesiastical relics that were housed in Constantinople. In his letters to the crusaders in May of 1205, Innocent began to request a delay for the army’s journey to the Jerusalem, hoping to solidify the Latin claim in Constantinople. He even offered indulgences and remissions of sins for those crusaders who stayed to secure Baldwin’s empire. Innocent III had changed direction in his evaluation of events in Constantinople. While he had not condoned the action, he certainly did not condemn the conquest.
This change in position further changed the course of the Crusade, and the prospect of reaching the Holy Land was looking bleak at best. Innocent’s joy over the capture of Constantinople did not last, as he was horrified to learn of the plundering, looting and slaughter of fellow Christians. News of the horrid actions of the crusaders in Constantinople was followed by the realization of “open civil discord among the Christians” in the Holy Land. Bohemond IV, the Count of Tripoli, and King Leo II of Cilician Armenia were at odds over the territory in Antioch. In Adrianople, in April of 1205, a Vlacho-Bulgarian army defeated the crusading army nd Emperor Baldwin was captured. Shortly after, Peter Capuano released those who had defended the Latin Empire an additional year of their obligations with the crusade. With these events the Fourth Crusade quickly died without ever reaching the Holy Land. The failure of the Fourth Crusade can be attributed to a number of factors. Jane Sayers writes, “What was clear from this sorry affair was the failure of the pope and the legates to control the Crusade. ” Sayers is right in concluding this, as Pope Innocent III couldn’t control the crusade from Rome, and his papal legates, Cardinals Capuano and
Suffredo, largely were not present for many of the events of the Crusade. They both eventually left the army and continued on to the Holy Land at the direction of Pope Innocent III. How was Innocent to control the Crusade without his legates present? His miscommunication with his legates as factional strife struck Rome in 1203 also contributed to his inability to control the crusading army. Little to no communication occurred to thwart the diversion to Zara, and Capuano had little authority to actually influence the crusaders, since the Venetians were denying his authority as a legate. The ardiness of Innocent’s letters calling for the abandonment of expeditions to Zara and Constantinople complicated his ability to prevent the diversions. His lack of a clear position on both matters, with the vague provision that only under the most severe circumstances should attacks on fellow Christians be made, forced the crusaders to use their own judgment on conceding to Venetian demands. Another large factor contributing to the failure of the Fourth Crusade was the financial support of the crusaders or the lack thereof. Before the Crusade, Innocent sought a church-wide tax, and scoured all clerical resources in order to upport the Crusade. His inability to provide such resources, as well as his insistence that the crusaders use their own means to finance the Crusade, forced the crusaders to subject themselves to the directives of the Venetians. The crusaders had not the means to pay the Venetians for their naval fleet. Without other options they were forced into the attack on Zara, and heavily swayed into participating in the sieges on Constantinople. Innocent III did call for the Fourth Crusade, and involved himself in much of the early preparations. He also sought personal leadership over the crusading army, but ettled for directing the crusade through his legates. As communication between his legates and Rome dwindled, Innocent lost his grasp over the crusade and the extent of his influence was largely diminished. Innocent could not stop the attack on Zara and he didn’t manage any of the events of the first and second sieges on Constantinople. After the conquest of the city, Innocent could only stand by and watch as his dream of recovering the Holy Land unraveled. The extent of Pope Innocent III’s influence, such as his provisions on attacking Christians and the financial situation of the crusaders, was a ontributing factor to the failure of the Fourth Crusade. His changing positions on Constantinople also contributed to the failure of the crusade, as the crusaders and even Innocent took their eye off the ultimate prize of the Holy Land. Ultimately his inability to control the events of the Fourth Crusade heavily influenced the crusaders’ failure to reach the Holy Land. Works Cited Andrea, Alfred J. “The Registers of Innocent III. ” Contemporary Sources for the Fourth Crusade. Leiden: Brill, 2000. 11-12, 17-33, 39-52, 55-61, 69, 73-88, 90-91, 98-115, & 160-163. Print. Clari, Robert De, and Edgar Holmes McNeal. The Text. ” The Conquest of Constantinople. New York: Octagon, 1966. 38-42, 91-101, & 147-150. Print. Cole, Penny J. The Preaching of the Crusades to the Holy Land, 1095-1270. Cambridge, MA: Medieval Academy of America, 1991. 81-83. Print. Gress-Wright, David Richard. The Gesta Innocentii III: Text, Introduction and Commentary. N. p. : n. p. , 1981. Ch. 84. Print. Gunther, and Alfred J. Andrea. The Capture of Constantinople: The Hystoria Constantinopolitana of Gunther of Pairis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1997. 38-39, 57-100, 106-111, & 116-117. Print. Innocent, Othmar Hageneder, and Anton Haidacher.
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