History Of Post WWII Writing Sample

Introduction

The post WWII years turned to be rather challenging for the world. It became the beginning of the new era of global development, including the escalating confrontation between Soviet and Imperialistic blocks, the beginning of the Cold War with its détentes and escalations. The invention of missile weapons led to the escalating of Cuban missile crisis, and the instance, when the world stood on the edge of the Third World War.

Yet, according to the representatives of the school of realism, the prerequisites of the Cold War, and all the other occasions-symptoms (The Korean War, the Cuban Crisis, The war in Vietnam) were originated during the Yalta conference.

Yalta Conference

Every leader had own plan for the Yalta Conference: Roosevelt claimed for Soviet support in the U.S. Pacific War against Japan, particularly invading Japan; Churchill squashed for free voting and democratic governments in Eastern Europe (specifically Poland); and Stalin required a Soviet sphere of political impact in Eastern Europe, as necessary to the USSR’s national safety.

In spite of the fact, that initially this conference was claimed to settle the peace issues, researchers believe, that it obstructed the further confrontation. The fact is that, leaders of the Allies, thinking about their power and authority initiated the artificial division of the world in two confronting blocks.

The precedence of division of Germany into three, and finally into two parts “for the sake of the future of German people” became the first step of the approaching confrontation. The bright example of it is the 1947 crisis, closely linked with the supply of the provision from Western Germany to Western Berlin. In reality, Germany became the buffer zone, with the help of which Soviet and Western blocks aimed to defend form each other.

The fact is that, the negotiators clearly realized, that after the elimination of the common enemy, the further cooperation between West and Bolshevists would lose any sense, and the aims, achieved during the war and negotiations should be officially stipulated.

The positive inheritance of the Yalta conference is also beyond any doubt. It stated the elimination of any exhibition of Nazism, as its end had been approaching. All the Nazi parties and organizations, regulations and influence had to be eliminated.

Another positive factor was the initiating of the global peace organization – the UNO. It was the attempt to keep the fragile post war peace, and entailed all the positive and negative experience of the League of Nations, which could not prevent the war.

Cuban Missile Crisis

As it has been stated before, the Missile crisis is regarded to be the peak of the Cold War confrontation, which put the world on the edge of another bloodshed war, which would have neither winners, nor losers, taking into account the presence of nuclear missiles from both sides.

After the victory of revolution, with Fidel Castro at the head, Cuba became socialistic state near the US shores. Surely, Soviet Union could not miss an opportunity to maintain the newly formed associate, and not to let a hedgehog into American pants. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev offered to locate soviet mid-range nuclear missiles on the territory of Cuba.

After the satellite, and air photo shooting revealed the presence of the missile grounds on the territory of Cuba, in late 1961, Kennedy arranged Operation Mongoose, a sequence of secret operations against Castro’s government which were to confirm unsuccessful. More openly, in February 1962, the United States started an economic embargo against Cuba.

But all these actions were just to draw the attention from the key US actions: the location of mid-range missiles aimed at Soviet Union in Izmir, Turkey. Nevertheless, this fact became known for Soviet leaders, and Khrushchev publicly expressed anger and personal felony from the Turkish missile location.

The Cuban missile consumption – the first time Soviet missiles were outside the USSR – was his retort to U.S. nuclear missiles in Turkey. Previously, Khrushchev had expressed hesitation to the poet Robert Frost about the willingness of the “liberal” U.S. to struggle over tough matters.

As a matter of fact, the missiles from the both sides were located under the immense secrecy, and it is hard to state, whether the Cuban location was the retort to Turkish one, or vice versa.

Korean War

This war became the indirect confrontation of the two blocks, resulted in another bloodshed, which took place in the country, divided by two ideologies, and struggling for the freedom, safety and flourishing.

On August 10th, 1945, after the Japanese capitulation in the WWII, Korea was divided into two parts, along the 38th parallel, suggesting that the north part will be controlled by the Soviet Union, and the South – by the USA correspondingly.

The elections in the south led to the defeat of leftist powers, which led to their boycott of the held elections, and the authority in the north part was passed to Kim Chen Ir, while South part was under the authority of anti-leftist Syngman Rhee government.

The Korean War injured both Koreas hardly. Nevertheless South Korea languished financially in the decade following the war, it was later able to update and industrialize.

On the contrary, the North Korean economy improved rapidly after the war and until around 1975 exceeded that of South Korea. Nevertheless, North Korea’s economy finally slowed down. Nowadays, the North Korean financial system is virtually imaginary while the South Korean one is increasing.

A heavily safeguarded demilitarized zone (DMZ) on the 38th Parallel still divides the peninsula today. Anti-Communist and anti-North Korea emotion still stay in South Korea today, and most South Koreans are opposing the North Korean government.

Nevertheless, a “Sunshine Policy” is applied by the scheming party, the Uri Party. The Uri Party and President Roh, the South Korean president, have often opposed with the USA in discussions about North Korea, but the Grand National Party (GNP), the Uri Party’s main opposing party, still keeps an anti-North Korea policy today.

Conclusion

The decade, following the WWII turned to be rather challenging for the whole world, and the exam on the peace co-existence was almost failed for several times. The Yalta conference, Caribbean missile crisis and the Korean War as the depictions of the Cold War are the sides of the same coin, as the former inevitably led to the latter.

Role Of Women In Ancient Greece

Ancient Greek society was one of the most highly developed communities of its time. Science thrived, and so did the economy, architecture, literature, art, and many other components of any culture. On the other hand, however developed the ancient Greek society may seem, there was indeed place for certain shortcomings. They came in the form of legal slavery and social inequality.

One may argue that there was almost no place for a woman in the Greek society of that time. Moreover, no member of the community would even think of such possibility. Thus, the women of ancient Greece were not represented in any form of law-making process, nor in any public activities or art forms. Nevertheless, the women held a particular position in that society, which will be analyzed in this paper.

Women’s Rights in Ancient Greece

As stated by Bergh and Lyttkens (2014), “women could not appear in court and were for many purposes treated as the property of their husbands” (p. 295). It may seem outrageous, especially considering how much of an influence women possess nowadays.

Women of ancient Greece, however, were perceived as mere tools to achieve individual goals. Marriage, bringing children to this world, and taking care of them – this is how much a woman’s position in the society was reduced. Although it may seem rather barbaric for a person that lives in our time, such treatment of women rights was not something unusual for ancient Greeks.

Although the work by Bergh and Lyttkens mostly focuses on estimating the institutional quality that ancient Athens possessed, it explicitly states how misrepresented women were in every form of social activities (save for crowding and public entertainment) on multiple occasions.

Furthermore, women did not indulge in any form of art or sciences. Every discovery or literary work, or sculpture produced in ancient Greece is a work of men’s hands and minds. It is not hard to state, that this is not a way to build a society. At least, that applies to the community that exists now.

Furthermore, one may argue that the downfall of ancient Greece was partly due to this conservative approach to evaluating different society members’ contribution to progress. Needless to say, that opinion diversity is almost certainly a flawless component that shapes any culture. The more opinions and people contributing to art, science, and political debates there is, the more chances there are to find a better and more innovative approach to any topic.

Therefore, it is evident that women of ancient Greece possessed little to no rights. They were seen as instruments, a means to an end. Their sole role in the society was to give birth and raise children. Their influence did not even spread as much as to educate their children or take care of them.

Of course, in their earlier years, children and their mothers were inseparable, but then they were mentored by their slave teachers who also made sure that no harm comes to the children for which they are responsible. Under no circumstances would such a model of society prove to be vital nowadays.

Gender Roles in Ancient Greece: Role of Women

An article by Cartwright (2016) dwells on the topic of ancient Greece’s women role in society in a very broad perspective. However, the author notes that “when considering the role of women in ancient Greece one should remember that information regarding particular city-states is often lacking, is almost always from male authors, and only in Athens can their status and role be described in any great detail” (para. 1).

Indeed, there is almost no way to speak about every particular detail of women’s role in ancient Greece in precise details. However, the documented facts are present, and they allow recreating a more or less clear picture of what women’s role was in that society.

Women of ancient Greece were treated in the same manner almost in all of ancient Greece except for Sparta, where women had to undergo physical training, were allowed to possess their land, and could also drink wine as men did. Other than that, women’s role was that of a shopkeepers, prostitutes or courtesans.

However, these roles of ancient Greece’s women are the ones that are much less documented. Nevertheless, there were some exceptions, though rare. Sappho of Lesbos was a well-known poet. Arete of Cyrene was recognized for her philosophical works. Aspasia of Athens and Gorgo of Sparta were trustworthy leaders amongst their fellow countrymen, and Agnodice of Athens was an acclaimed physician.

With the exceptions listed, there is almost no other role that women could fit in ancient Greece. Young women were expected to marry as virgins and then help to raise children and take care of household’s everyday problems. With marriage successfully concluded, woman’s rights fell into the hands of her husband. Therefore, from law’s perspective, married women had no distinctive rights.

Women in Greek Society: Conclusion

It is safe to assume that the modern society has gained a lot of progress society-wise. This may be stated by simply considering how little of importance ancient Greece’s women possessed.

They had little to no rights, were treated as tools, and were mostly restricted from partaking in any form of scientific, political, or artistic activity. However, there were, of course, exceptions and there were social roles that women could play. Such is the picture of a woman in ancient Greek society.

References

Bergh, A., & Lyttkens, C. H. (2014). Measuring institutional quality in ancient Athens. Journal of Institutional Economics, 10(2), 279-310.

Cartwright, M. (2016). Women in ancient Greece

Why And How Did The US Get Involved In The Korean War?

Introduction

The Korean War has been labeled as one of the most significant occurrences after the end of the Second World War. In fact, some political analysts referred to it as a direct replacement of the Second World War. It had an indelible impact on the Cold War that followed immediately after.

The Koreans however felt the full impact of the war as a tenth of the population lost their lives or disappeared completely. There was equally massive loss and destruction of property. By 1949, the Korean gross national product had significantly declined owing to the effects of the war. North Korea suffered even more.

It lost a total of 8700 factory establishments while the south incurred almost twice this loss. People were left homeless and in a state of hopelessness. This research paper seeks to establish the reasons behind U.S involvement in the Korean War as well as the course of the actual war.

Background

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Japan and the Peoples Republic of China had very close ties with Korea and her counterpart Manchuria. This was way back in the 19th century. The cordial relationship made the Soviet Union to have a desire to conquer Korea owing to the fact that they had been traditional cronies for long.

United States counteracted the soviet’s plan by occupying the southern part of the country. Some kind of effective occupation was gaining ground. This ended up with South Korea being run as a nationalist state while the north pursuing a communist ideology.

The Centre Stage of the War

As the Cold War was taking shape and gathering momentum, there were two major concerns which were destabilizing the British-American warm relations namely prisoners who had been victims of war as well as the Indian declaration (Cotton 116). Nevertheless, the Korean War equally erupted with Britain supporting the United States.

This was on 25th June 1950. In fact, the Korean War was a product of this economic, political and social struggle between the Soviets and United States of America. The war was fought from two fronts with U.S supplying its own army as a mediator in the peace keeping force courtesy of the United Nations. However, the soviets did not directly engage in the war.

Neither did they provide any weapons to North Korea to aid them in fighting. The United Nations peace keeping force constituted by U.S was in any case a disguise because it was made up of its own troops alongside a few allies in the pretext of maintaining peace as put forward by Truman (Reiter 86).

At this point in the onset of the war, it was almost conspicuous that the United Nations was like a toothless dog and could be manipulated by U.S at will. Some years later, China grew into a communist state but U.S did not embroil itself much on it. Moreover, U.S did not react substantially even as Eastern Europe became a victim of the iron curtain policy. As a consequence, the United States changed its foreign Policy especially in regard to the Cold War.

South Korea was not necessarily a very pertinent territory to U.S. Her entry into the Korean War was merely a strategy to combat the economic ideology of communism which was spreading very fast. Besides, communism was viewed as a very serious threat and hence its spread to U.S would spell doom.

As an impact to Korean War, the United States of America worked towards heightening its military power and arms ability. This was estimated to have grown up to four times the initial level. It marked the relentless pursuit for military and weaponry supremacy that would culminate in the intriguing cold war.

Truman leadership indeed perfected the art of arms race when his leadership argued that the intended attack on South Korea would be compared to the aggressions of the Second World War (Park 253). This became a very strong reason for U.S involvement in the war.

The Korean War era also witnessed the inclusion of both black and white soldiers into the expansive U.S military troop. Black Americans had never been subjects of importance in regard to the United States military service. This was a pat on the back to U.S as far as civil rights were considered.

As a result of the War, Britain sent troops to maintain peace as part of its peace keeping force required by the United Nations. This further cemented the relationship between U.S and Britain because the latter had agreed to support the former on its foreign policy regarding.

The U.S military troops worked hand in hand with European counterparts to gain military supremacy. The long term impact of this power arrangement was the emergence of China as an important global economy and political power.

Another remarkable impact of the Korean War was seen in the manner Vietnam War was fought (Paige xvi). This war provided a base for skill and competence gaining among the Asian communities. A lot could be shared out between the two Wars.

For instance, the U.S drastically shifted its foreign policy from the one supporting a corrupt system to the eventual support of communism. Indeed, U.S eventually became allies to communist states both in Europe and Asia. This was a paradigm shift in terms of political views held by some of these countries purporting to uphold justice.

In spite of the dramatic events and happenings of the Korean War, the key actors and policy makers did not change much in terms of their tactics. In other words, less was learnt from the Korean War even as the Vietnam atrocities broke out in the 1960s.

The same mistakes were repeated. The present day alliance between South Korea and United States of America is an impact that resulted from the war. For instance, U.S military bases are well established in Southern Korea today in addition to a mutual defense treaty.

Moreover, the stamping of U.S authority and its total presence in South Korea led to the inevitable spread of American culture (Jenkins & Frederick 130). The military bases established radio stations which were used for the sole purpose of information and entertainment to its crew.

In extension, the Koreans got hold of the opportunity to disseminate their news as well as entertainment value for its citizens. Moreover, the U.S system of nationalistic and democratic governance was well established in South Korea while North Korea remained largely under the influence of the soviets and communism.

Conclusion

The Korean War which lasted from1950 to 1953 has been considered to be the first proxy war in which the outstanding superpowers fought by extension and indirectly, intertwining a third party in their conflict. The United States of America mainly got involved in the War as a way of stamping its superpower authority overseas.

Works Cited

Cotton, James, and Neary, Ian. “The Korean War in History.” Manchester; Manchester University Press, 1989.

Jenkins, Charles, and Frederick, Jim. “The Reluctant Communist: My Desertion, Court Martial, and Forty-Year Imprisonment in North Korea.” California; University of California Press, 2008.

Paige Glenn. “1950: Truman’s decision: The United States enters the Korean.” England; Chelsea House Publishers, 1970.

Park Hong-Kyu. “America Involvement in the Korean War.” Society for History Education, 1983. 16(2); 249-263.

Reiter Dan. “How Wars End.” New Jersey; Princeton University Press, 2009.

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