History Of The Imperial Dynasties Of China Free Sample

China is one of the world’s four ancient civilizations with a time-honored, recorded history. The history of China reaches back over 5,000 years. China covers an area of 9. 6 million square kilometers and its continental coastline is 18,000 kilometers. Its population is over 1. 3 billion people. China has created a culture rich in art and philosophy. China is the home of the inventions of amazing products and technologies such as silk, papermaking, movable-type printing, gunpowder, and calligraphy. Over the eras, China has fought hundreds of wars.

It has conquered its neighboring countries, and it has also been conquered by them in return. Because of its 5,000 year recorded history, China can trace her culture back to a blend of small original tribes which have expanded till they became the great country we have today. The first non-mythical dynasty to rule China was the Xia Dynasty in the 21st century B. C. (2200-1700 B. C. ), founded by Emperor Yu. This dynasty marked a change from a primitive society to a slave society. The Xia Dynasty was succeeded by the Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 B. C. ). The Shang Dynasty is the first civilization in China for which there is a written record.

The Shang Dynasty is characterized by its writing system, agriculture and bronze technology, and urban development. In 221 B. C. , Ying Zheng took the throne as the first emperor. He called himself ‘Qin Shi Huang’, which means the first emperor. Zheng established the first centralized, unified, multi-ethnic state in Chinese history. He founded the Qin Dynasty (221-206 B. C. ). During his reign, he began the reconstruction of the Great Wall of China. Ying Zheng is best known for building a large palace/ tomb complex which houses the Terracotta Army. The Qin Dynasty came to an end when Liu Bang, a peasant leader, overthrew it.

Liu then founded the Han Dynasty (206 B. C. -A. D. 220). During the Han Dynasty era, China expanded west as far as India, where it opened trade along the Silk Road. The Han Dynasty was followed by the Three Kingdoms Period (220-265). During this era, China was thrown into a period of anarchy and turmoil. Over the next four centuries, dozens of kingdoms competed for power. It was followed by the Jin (265-420), the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420-589), and the Sui Dynasty (581-618). In 618, the Tang Dynasty (618-907) was founded by a general called Li Yuan. He had the Sui emperor assassinated.

During this period, Chinese art and culture flourished. This period was the height of Buddhist influence in China until its repression in 845. At the end of the Tang Dynasty, China descended into chaos again in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907-960). In 960, a palace guard and general named Zhao Kuangyin took power and founded the Song Dynasty (960-1279). This was an era of significant economic and social changes. It was known for its intricate bureaucracy, urban expansion, technological innovations, and Confucian learning. In the 800s the Chinese invented gunpowder.

They used gunpowder to propel rockets, and to produce incendiary and explosive missiles. In 1206, Genghis Khan unified all the tribes in Mongolia and founded the Mongol Khanate. In 1271, his grandson, Kublai Khan, conquered the Central Plain. He then founded the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), and also made Dadu, which is Beijing today, the capital of China. During the Song and Yuan dynasties, the handicraft industry and domestic foreign trade roared. Many merchants and travelers came from abroad. Great inventions of the Chinese people in ancient times were further developed throughout these dynasties.

These inventions were papermaking, printing, the compass, and gunpowder. China flowered again under the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), creating great art and exploring as far as Africa. The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), was the last Chinese dynasty. The Opium Wars took place during the Qing Dynasty. The First Anglo-Chinese War (1839-1842), also known as the First Opium War, was fought between Great Britain and Ireland, and the Qing Dynasty of China. Its goal was to secure economic benefits from trade in China. In the early 19th century, British merchants began smuggling opium into China in order to balance their purchases of tea for export to Britain.

In 1839, China enforced its prohibitions on the importation of opium by destroying a large quantity of it that they seized from British merchants. Great Britain, which had been looking to end China’s restrictions on foreign trade, had responded by sending gunboats to attack several Chinese coastal cities. China was defeated and was forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing in 1842. This treaty provided that certain Chinese ports should be open to British trade and residence. The Second Opium War broke out in 1856, because the Chinese illegally searched a British registered ship, the Arrow.

British and French troops forced the Chinese to accept the treaties of Tianjin (1858). China agreed to open eleven more ports, permit foreign legations in Beijing, sanction Christian missionary activity, and legalize the import of opium. The Qing Dynasty was eventually overthrown by Dr. Sun Yat-Sen, who led the Revolution of 1911. The Revolution of 1911 ended the Qing Dynasty, and led to the founding of the Republic of China (1911-1949). This revolution started off the Chinese Civil War. Although the war was interrupted for a decade by the Japanese invasion and World War II, it started up again when Japan was defeated.

Mao Zedong and the Communist Peoples Liberation Army won the Chinese Civil War. In 1949, China becomes a Communist nation after a twenty year civil war. The Revolution of 1911 led to Communist Party rule and ended centuries of dynastic rule. China then officially established the People’s Republic of China. During the early years of communist rule in China, mass starvation, disease, and malnutrition were common. Leader Mao Zedong tried to jump-start China’s industrialization and political change by founding the “Great Leap Forward” initiative in 1958.

Mao’s idea had failed, and as a result famine and disease began to spread throughout China again. On October 16, 1964, China exploded its first A-bomb, and on June 17, 1967, China exploded its first H-bomb. On April 24, 1970, China had launched its first satellite. These dates represent important achievements in China’s construction and progression. Between 1966 and 1976, the young people of China rose up in an effort to purge the nation of its old customs and culture. In 1966, leader Mao Zedong began China’s “Cultural Revolution” in order to put a stop to these young people. Zedong punished any person who showed bourgeois tendencies.

The Cultural Revolution made a large impact on most of the people in China, and it also had an impact on a lot of people around the world. The Cultural Revolution was a ten year campaign that threatened China and changed its economic, political, and social systems. The downfall of the revolution marked a new development stage for China. In 1976, Mao died and Deng Xiaoping became China’s leader. This led to economic liberalization but also a policy of government controlled capitalism. Although Xiaoping was communist, he was one of the few rulers of China that believed that some capitalistic programs could help.

Xiaoping was a strong and powerful leader. He made an effort to modernize China as much as possible. The Tiananmen Square protests were a set of national protests in the People’s Republic of China centered in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China. These protests occurred between April 15, 1989 and June 4, 1989. These protests were part of a conflict between the Chinese democracy movement and the Communist Party of China. They started because of the death of the former General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, Hu Yaobang.

Violent suppression of these protests put a dent in the hopes for further political reform and ruined China’s international image. After the Tiananmen Square protests, Jiang Zemin becomes leader. In 1997, Hong Kong returns to China after decades of British rule. This represented a big step forward toward the country’s complete reunification. In October 1999, the 50th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China was celebrated, by the people who appreciated it, that is. On October 15, 2003 China successfully launched its first spacecraft with people on board.

After Russia and the United States, China became the third country to have the ability to carry out manned space flights. At the beginning of the 21st century, China has become a major global force, booming economically. China’s transformation has been blinding, with worldwide impact since it has taken place during globalization. Maintained by cheap labor and capital, China has become one of the world’s fastest growing major economies. China’s economy continues to grow at an average annual rate around 10% a year. Some economists expect China’s economy to overtake the United States economy by the year 2020.

Analize ‘a Bit Of Singing And Dancing’ Analysis

‘A Bit of Singing and Dancing’ Susan Hill CBE (born 5 February 1942) is an English author of fiction and non-fiction works. Her novels include The Woman in Black, The Mist in the Mirror and I’m the King of the Castle for which she received the Somerset Maugham Award in 1971. She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2012 Birthday Honours for services to literature. [1][2] A Bit of Singing and Dancing is a short story collection by British writer Susan Hill. It was published in 1973.

In the story under the title “A Bit of Singing and Dancing” Susan Hill tells us about a woman (Easme Fanshow), whose mother died and she stayed alone. The author narrates her feelings, behavior, plans, and lifestyle. First of all, Easme tried to feel freedom/ She had a lot of plans about different purchases, traveling and other expenses. The woman decided to let one of the rooms in her house. Easme knew nothing about this job and had no impudence to ask. But she became to be bored in the evening. Even after learning that he is dancing in the square for the money to keep him.

The story mainly focuses on the tyranny and freedom. The composition of the story is unusual for its location events. In the beginning, we see a woman, two weeks ago, her mother died. Gradually, the deepening, in the canvas the story, we see how the man was her mother, we see. The narrative is in the third person, including monologues daughter, mother. e her alive. Then again, death and life after her daughter. The action and plot of the story revolve around three main characters. The story is the theme of human relationships, the inner freedom of the person on the example of the life Easme.

Easme – woman 50 years old, spent her life with her mother, she does not have the family or even friends. She dreams of a great life but limits itself by the fact that he thought the mother would say to every action that was forbidden to her. But now she is free. It is true that this freedom is false and she gladly gives it to the first person who came to the house after the death of her mother. Mom Esmy died 2 weeks ago. All her life she had for her daughter everything. She taught her to live, eat properly, and choose the people. She’s a pretty bossy woman. In addition to his own life, and she lived the life of his daughter.

Mister, a person who sells detergent winter and summer dances on the boulevard for the money. Clean and neat gentleman, he likes to read the encyclopedia and it often said that you need to develop your horizons. He was, in many countries, and they learned a lot. It has a nice appearance and manners. The house Easme him well. Maybe because he was tired of a free life. Story structure has an open ending, the reader is the most complete history. By genre can be attributed to a realistic psychological history. The main symbol the product music. Music is in the title, the music sounds in the house Easme, the music lacks after my mother’s death.

Mum loved music and could not imagine my life without her. The music here as a symbol of captivity. You can test all you want, but would not hear the silence and not feel a void. Here, the author discusses the eternal problem of human freedom and human nature in general. The problem of upbringing and life. Many people desire for freedom just like Easme Fanshaw in this story. However, when people are bounded with tyranny for so many years, it’s a challenge for them to have a new life with freedom as they don’t get used to it. In other words, people can not get rid of their old life. [1] It has been described as “a vivid picture of the loneliness of old age” But Easme realized that it would be a useless extravagance and she had to save money for her old age. A neat and spruce gentleman (as she believed) became her longer. Mr. Curry was his name and he traveled in cleaning utensils in wintertime. Everything was all right, their life was rather successful. He worked and paid four pounds a week for his living and one pound for his food. She was cleaning the house and was shopping. In the evening they were reading and talking. But the summer came, and his second seasonable job began.

One day decided to go for a walk, although didn’t walk in summer earlier, because her mother wouldn’t approve it (Easme still was asking mother’s advice and thought what her mother said about this or that action). And during this walk, the woman saw Mr. Curry and understood what kind of job he had. She was angry because he was only singing and dancing on the street and got some money from this occupation. Easme had been humiliated and taken in as she considered, but after some meditations, she understood that she liked a bit of singing and dancing and Easme calmed down.

Indian Railway’s Turnaround For Production And Operation Management


In December 2006, as many as 137 undergraduate students from the universities of Harvard and Wharton gathered to listen Indian Railways minister, Lalu Prasad Yadav at Rail Bhavan. These foreign universities had expressed to know how Lalu converted the loss making Indian Railway into Rs. 20 billion profit making organization within 2 years, without increasing fares.

Mr. Lalu Prasad Yadav explained students in Hindi and his speech was translated in English by his aids. However the students of various countries questioned the sustainability of his model, they asked Lalu why he could not turnaround Bihar in the 15 years rule of Rashtriya Janta Dal (RJD) in that state, while he changed railways within 30 months. Lalu said, ‘Bihar needed an outside push. It had too many problems, while the railways had a lot of potential. It is like an empire’.

Jeffrey Immelt, the chairman of General Electric, who visited Rail Bhavan recently, was surprised that the Rail Bhavan is now talking about unit cost, volume increment and competition. The IR has just become the second most profitable public enterprise after ONGC. Indian Railways is the world’s largest employer, providing 1. 6 million jobs, one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world, carrying 18 million passengers daily. Yet it has, so far, stayed ahead of global recession.

Thanks to Mr. Lalu Prasad Yadav for a job well done. He has surprised many by emerging as one of the top performing ministers in Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s cabinet. He is being credited for the impossible—the turnaround of the monolithic Indian railways. When he took over as Railway Minister in 2004, the 156-year old Indian Railways was dismissed as a hopeless, loss-making organization, with too little revenue, too many problems and too many employees. IR was spending 91% of its income just on salaries and maintaining an aging organization.

In 2001 the Rakesh Mohan Committee headed by former Reserve Bank of India deputy governor Rakesh Mohan, termed India Railways a “white elephant’, with a debt of Rs 61,000 crore ($12. 3 billion) and even predicted fatal bankruptcy by 2015. Now many are surprised by the successive landmarks set by the Indian Railways. In last four years, IR has turned in a cumulative cash surplus before dividend of Rs 68,778 crore ($13. 9 billion). Out of this Rs 15,898 crore has been paid as dividend, Rs 39,215 crore has been invested in rail infrastructure and Rs 13,665 crore has been added to fund balances to reach Rs 20,483 cr.

One of Rakesh Mohan Committee members, IIM’s Professor G. Raghuram, now has all praises for Lalu. IIM Ahmadabad, recognized Lalu’s turnaround of Indian railways, and made it a case study for its students. What did the minister do to turnaround Indian railways? In a nutshell, * Refused to hike fares. Shored up earnings by carrying more passengers and freight. * Increased the load carried by a goods wagon from 81 tonnes to 90 tonnes. This gave an additional earning of Rs 7,200 crore. * Upgraded tickets if seats were going vacant in the upper class.

So, waitlisted passengers could be allotted seats. * Maintained passenger profile so that bogies could be taken off or added to trains according to seasonal demand. Lalu’s Success Secrets The explanation for his success lies in his down-to-earth attitude and rustic wisdom. Lalu puts it in his inimitable style: “My mother always told me not to handle a buffalo by its tail, but always take it by its horns. And I have used that lesson in everything in my life, including the railway ministry. ” Lalu says “I approached the ministry like a common man with no technical expertise.

I was clear about one thing—I would not increase passenger or freight fares. It did not require rocket science to understand that the railways could increase its earnings by carrying more passengers and freight. The solution lay in increasing volumes and not the cost,” he says. We can learn the following management tips from Lalu’s success. Lalu’s Management Tips Choose the right people! Lalu quickly realized that he needs points man (A man who operates railway switches) in the ministry and choose a Bihar-cadre IAS officer, Sudhir Kumar, as his officer on special duty (OSD) and gave him a free hand to xecute his ideas.

A Delhi School of Economics alumnus, Kumar also holds a degree in business management. He has given a professional and workable shape to Lalu’s earthy ideas. But he credits all of it to his boss’s genius. He says Lalu, not only thinks out of the box but also takes bold decisions. Don’t Micro Manage, Delegate your work, take calculated risks! According to his officers, “Lalu has not taken any step that was not known in the railways. Other ministers dithered over various policy changes which could have brought additional revenue.

Quite unlike them, Lalu went ahead and took those risks, but in an extremely calculated manner. He also placed complete trust in his officers, and did not at all hesitate in delegating responsibility and powers”. If you do not milk the cow fully, it falls sick! One of Lalu’s most controversial decisions was to increase the load carried by a goods wagon from 81 metric tonnes (MT) to 90 MT. His logic: “If you do not milk the cow fully, it falls sick. ” He reasoned that wagons were being overloaded anyway—and hence subjected to risk of accidents—and the money being pocketed by corrupt officials.

So why not load it officially? This one decision earned the railways an additional Rs 7,200 crore. Think out of the box Lalu’s decision to upgrade passenger tickets subject to availability of seats in the upper class was opposed by the board’s finance commissioner. The minister and the OSD both explained to the finance commissioner that “An empty wasn’t earning any money. If lower class tickets were upgraded, then more waitlisted passengers could be accommodated, earning additional revenue”. This system was successfully implemented after trying it out on the Delhi-Mumbai Rajdhani”.

Do what makes sense Another decision which met some resistance from the board members was the doing away with the detailed examination of a train at its final destination even after a short run. It was decided that a passenger train would only be examined after every 3,500 km, and a freight train after every 4,500 km. A railway official explains “Laluji saw no logic in the earlier practice. A train from Jammu to Kanyakumari was examined after 3,000 km, on completion of its journey and another train from Jammu to Amritsar, for example, had to be examined after 250 km.

Each train examination takes 16 hours. Lalu’s idea was to save time and have the wagons free to run for a longer time”. Information is wealth if used properly Lalu and his officers have introduced simple but effective techniques. For example, they introduced the passenger profiling system, enabling the railways to increase or decrease the number of coaches in a train according to demand. So a service to Jaipur may need fewer coaches during summers when traffic is low. However, these coaches can be added to a Dehradun-bound train where there is a rush in these months.

Says Lalu: “This was a simple decision to take but nobody was really doing it since it required some changes in the railways computerized reservation system. All the data was available, it only had to be generated and used properly. ” Lalu’s ambition Mr. Lalu Prasad Yadav many times expressed a strong ambition to become the country’s Prime Minister. In his recent interview to NDTV, when asked by newsmen whether he will again become the Railway Minister after the forthcoming elections, Yadav said, “what will happen, where will I go, what God has destined and what is written on the forehead, anything can happen. “But, one day I will become the Prime Minister of the country. I have no ‘maara-maari’ present or future. ”   Lets us hope Lalu will become Prime Minister of India in the near future and turns around every sector to make India a super power.

Question 1

Despite all the recent publicity commanded by Lalu Prasad Yadav and Indian railways about it turn around, railway platforms and train remains overcrowded and filthy, the waiting of passengers awaiting berth confirmation remains long in most instances, and punctuality of train remains as elusive as ever. Can the capacity of Indian railway ever match the travelling population of the Indian masses?

Solution: As per this case Indian railway had turnaround like a miracle. All credit goes to Mr Lalu Prasad yadav. He was the man behind the success story of Indian railway which was a loss making public sector and now is the second profitable public sector after ONGC. Talking about the IR, capacity utilization was the biggest issue which was pushing back IR. As IR is a service sector, maximum and efficient capacity utilization is very important for surviving in this inflationary era.

No doubt, after making many changes still there is a long waiting list of passengers; this situation will soon be handled by IR. For achieving 100% service level IR has to travel a long journey with many constraints and hurdles. As discussed earlier there are 2 avenues through which IR generates it revenues. They are Freight and passenger. Now coming back to question, it is a debatable topic whether IR would be able to match the capacities of travelling population. As per this case it very difficult to justify. The key to this answer is applying more advanced version of rake network which are applied by European countries.

IR should apply some simulation techniques to predict the flow of trains considering speed and turnaround time as a limiting factor. In year 2001 the average number of wagons attached to train were 15 (appx) but now they are planning to increase the capacity to 23-24 wagons per train. Second major point could be reduction in turnaround time as applied by Lalu Prasad Yadav. By reducing the turnaround time frequency of trains can be increased and thus reduction in waiting list of passengers. As mentioned in this case zero base time tables can also be formulated to increase the efficiency in managing the network of rakes.

Following are key points to achieve 100% service level:

  1. Not to hike fares. Shore up earnings by carrying more passengers and freight.
  2. Increase the load carried by a goods wagon.
  3. Upgraded tickets if seats were going vacant in the upper class. So, waitlisted passengers could be allotted seats.
  4. Maintaining passenger profile so that bogies could be taken off or added to trains according to seasonal demand.
  5. Reducing turnaround time of trains.
  6. Augmenting the rakes from shortest possible distances.
  7. Increasing speed of trains so that travelling time reduced.

Though the journey is difficult not impossible, by applying all the points mentioned above IR can definitely reduce the waiting list of passengers and by applying advanced technique to manage traffic it can easily bring punctuality in train timings.

Question 2

Do you think IR is more likely to compromise on passenger comforts in its current drive for better capacity utilization?

Solution: Capacity utilization was the major factor for turning around IR history. By efficient capacity utilization huge amount of revenue was generated by Lalu and his team.

There is a debatable answer for this question too. As capacity utilization turnaround IR, passenger comfort is being compromised. Size of compartments has reduced and lesser space is available in some of the trains. But this is not for all of the case. There are varieties of trains running daily with ot many passengers who are very comfortably travelling to their destinations. Many of them are job people who travel in train. Ladies compartments are made available in trains for safety purpose. There are many factors which can be adjusted so that it benefits both passenger as well as IR.

Trains like garib rath have introduced for middle class people to make their journey cost effective and comfortable. In any case it is not been justified that comfort is compromised by giving importance to capacity utilization. Sometimes mind set of people also matters. Though IR might be providing lot many benefits like senior citizen, ladies compartments and all, passenger always demand more and more benefits. In a nutshell, it is concluded that compromise in terms of capacity utilization is not justified and IR provides comfort facilities for their passengers.

Question 3

The Garib Rath experiment by Indian Railways is for long-distance trains. The low-cost airlines are targeting traditional railway customer primarily on the long routes. In your view, what would be the likely outcome of this Garib Rath experiment?

Solution: Garib Rath name itself says it is cheaper or low cost train. Yes, it is low cost train but it provide all the luxurious facility like air-conditioner, comfortable seat, blanket, pillow etc in 25% less fare as compare to normal air-conditioner train.

For instance, an AC three-tier ticket on the Surat-Delhi Garib Rath costs Rs 800, compared with Rs 1500 on other trains. Before Garib Rath come the low budget airlines like Air Deccan and Jet Airlines taken away railways three-tier travelers. Because it charge almost same as railway charge for three-tier. so it is obvious also every passenger likes to travel in airlines. But after Garib Rath came scenario was totally changed, now every traveler likes to travel in Garib Rath because it charge 25 per cent less as compared normal three-tier AC train and it provide all the comfort also.

Even the cheapest air ticket on budget airlines is linked to the AC three-tier non Garib Rath train. The fundamental principle of Garib Rath was to increase volume and reduce costs. And Indian Railway gets success in it. For destination that can be reached by an overnight journey, trains are usually the first choice as compare to airline.

Question 4

What kind of competition can be posed by the air freight industry in the near future to IR’s freight business, which is its biggest revenue earner?

Solution: As we know rail freight and air freight is very important part of transportation. Air freight is growing sector where as rail freight is already grown up. We can say that Rail freight is biggest revenue earner for Indian Railway. Air freight is growing at very fast rate. In this case we saw that in the past five decades market share of railway has fallen from 90 per cent to 25 per cent in case of freight. Air line industry looking at grabbing the creamy layer of Indian Railway’s freight and passenger.

Following benefits are provided by air freight industry so it can give competition to Indian Railway’s freight business. Due to rail freight only government can earn revenue but due to air freight not only government but private company can also get revenue.  Foreign earnings can increase due to air freight where as only domestic income can increase by rail freight.  Air freight is useful for overseas transactions where as rail freight is only limited to domestic transactions.  Air freight services are characterized by tighter control over its cargo due to short transportation time.

Short transportation time and tight control reduce the cargo exposure to theft and damage. Freight, packaging and labor costs can be saved dramatically with air freight service due to faster delivery and better security.  Insurance premium rate generally is lower for air freight than rail freight.  High performance standards and the flexibility to meet your changing needs is offered by air freight solution. * Air transportation is the best medium for perishable goods.  Access to any destination in the world. Speed of delivery. Transporting bulky and heavy shipment.

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