HIV Literature Review Essay Example For College


Human Immune Virus (HIV) and Acquire Immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), commonly called HIV/AIDS, is a health condition that significantly threatens the human population. The disease is currently incurable, so it is critical for public awareness campaigns of its associated risks and causes. Now, so many people have AIDS in the United States and globally. Every country is affected by AIDS illness. People contract the diseases through various means such as sexual intercourse, injection with needles or sharp objects used by an infected person, blood transfusion, and childbirth. In the United States, AIDS affects many groups, including transgender people, people who inject themselves with drugs, and sex workers. This essay paper focuses on the prevalence of the disease among transgender people, with a particular focus on transgender women in Texas. The essay comprises a comprehensive literature review of the HIV burden among transgender women, the disease vulnerability, and the continuum of disease treatment.

Literature Review

Transgender is a term commonly used to describe a varied population whose gender expression or identity is different from the gender given during birth. Transgender women are people born as males but have acquired female gender expression or identity. Transgender people are at significant risk of contracting HIV due to several risk factors and may also have difficulty accessing good health care. Transgender women undergo a unique and special HIV vulnerability that is usually accredited to a wide range of intersecting factors that affects all the levels or stages of the disease care continuum and treatment. Additionally, transgender women who engage in sexual intercourse with their men counterparts usually engage in anal sexual intercourse. This is usually an efficient way of contracting HIV infection. This literature review critically reviews five relevant books and journals discussing transgender HIV prevalence.

Article 1: Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Transgender Persons: A Systematic Review by Van Gerwen et al., 2020

It is estimated that about 1.5 million adults in the United States identify as transgender. The population of transgender people continues to rise. There is little research about the transgender population in the United States, which marginalizes the population. However, there is increased visibility and concern about transgender people, prompting current investigation concerning the given population. The problem is brought about by several health disparities, such as HIV and sexually transmitted infections. In their systematic review, Van Gerwen et al. (2020) note that current literature incorporates laboratory-attested STIs and HIV in transgender persons. These studies are primarily done on transgender women. The most common HIV prevalence among transgender people is found in transgender commercial sex workers. According to the article, nearly 40% of the transgender women retail sex workers in the States of New York and Texas are HIV positive.

Article 2: Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d)

The Center for Diseases Control and Prevention’s (CDC) (2022) report also notes the high prevalence of sexually transmitted infections among transgender women in Texas, with an average prevalence rate of 42%. Such as herpes and syphilis. These diseases are usually associated with HIV acquisition. According to the CDC, transgender women who, at one point in their lives, underwent genital surgery have a more than average risk of HIV contraction through virginal sexual intercourse.

CDC also notes that reducing the cases of HIV infections among transgender is one of the major HIV prevention strategies for transgender women in the U.S. regions, particularly Texas. The goal can be achieved by implementing three vital approaches for lowering HIV infections. The first strategy is an intensification of prevention efforts in areas where the HIV prevalence is high such as in gays, transgender, bisexuals, and men having sex with other men. In Texas, for example, African or black Americans and Latino or Hispanic transgender women have more HIV prevalence, accounting for up to 57%. The second strategy is the expansion of efforts to minimize HIV infections by employing a combination of evidence-based, effective, and scalable approaches tailored particularly for the at-risk population. The third and last strategy is educating transgender commercial sex workers and the general population of transgender women about the consequences of HIV and preventive measures for the disease.

HIV epidemiology in Texas

Compared to other states in the United States, there is a rapidly growing number of HIV diagnoses and prevalence. Notwithstanding, transgender women’s majority is also highly attributed to various factors, including socioeconomic issues. For example, CDC’s 2017 report on HIV cases in Texas indicated that in one instance, there was a network of eighty-seven people contracting HIV during that time. According to (Mattawanon et al., 2018), many young people have not received much information concerning HIV and how to prevent it. In some instances, transgender is usually afraid to disclose information about their HIV status when they test positive. Comparing Van Gerwen’s article and the CDC’s report on HIV among transgender women, it is inevitably clear that the disease continues to be a real problem not only in Texas but also in the United States. The population has a high disease prevalence accounting for about 40%.

Psychological Factors

The psychological effects of HIV among transgender women are usually the same as emotional and mental illnesses. Mental disorders are one of the leading causes of health-associated disability, affecting nearly 37% of the transgender population (CDC, n.d). Depression is highly prevalent among transgender women. Depression is usually an expected reaction to HIV patients’ medical diseases and is a menace to the lives of transgender patients. Another psychological impact of HIV is isolation and fear. After diagnosis, most patients experience a lot of fear of revealing information concerning their HIV status. As Van Gerwen et al. (2021) note, this is usually a traumatic period as the patients suffer from stigma. They note that support peers and support groups are critical in controlling the impacts of fear. The CDC also reports financial resources, fewer healthcare personnel and resources, and inadequate access to transportation are some barriers affecting transgender women’s access to HIV treatment.

Preventive Strategies

CDC reports indicate that in the current world, an array of tools can be used to prevent HIV. The disease is majorly spread by sharing syringes and having sex. In most cases, substance use among transgender women also contributes to the disease prevalence among the chosen population. According to Van Gerwen, protection during sex by using condoms and abstinence from sharing sharp objects such as needles are some main preventive measures to reduce cases of new HIV infections among the transgender population in Texas and the U.S. The idea conforms to CDC’s preventing actions against the disease, which puts form avoidance of sharing needs and using condoms during sex as some of the main preventive measures.


The HIV/AIDS illness continues to negatively impact most people in the United States, particularly Texas’ transgender women. The various literature reviews concerning HIV prevalence indicate more or less similar findings regarding disease prevalence, population spread, and psychological barriers. A comparison between the two articles regarding preventive measures for diseases highlights two significant strategies – avoidance of sharing sharp objects and the use of condoms during sex. Despite recognizing other preventative measures, the two strategies are critical in reducing the disease prevalence among transgender women.


Mattawanon, N., Spencer, J. B., Schirmer, D. A., & Tangpricha, V. (2018). Fertility preservation options in transgender people: a review. Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders19(3), 231-242.

Sevelius, J. M., Poteat, T., Luhur, W. E., Reisner, S. L., & Meyer, I. H. (2020). HIV testing and PrEP use in a national probability sample of sexually active transgender people in the United States. Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)84(5), 437.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d). HIV and Transgender People

Van Gerwen, O. T., Jani, A., Long, D. M., Austin, E. L., Musgrove, K., & Muzny, C. A. (2020). Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus in transgender persons: a systematic review. Transgender Health5(2), 90-103.

Annotated Bibliography: How Do Performance-Enhancing Drugs Change The Game In Sports? Sample Assignment

Drug abuse is dangerous. The drug is a substance that usually reacts differently upon human consumption. It is always advisable to consult sophisticated health professionals for a prescription before taking it so that it can be beneficial; otherwise, it would be harmful. It is commonly carried out in the sports field during competitions. The utilization of performance-enhancing drugs has both positive and negative outcomes. However, mitigating strategies need to be employed where various stakeholders such as the legal system, health professionals, the education sector, anti-doping organizations, athletes, coaches, fans, and the general public should be engaged.

According to (La Gerche, André, and Brosnan.), Performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) greatly confuse what is regarded as eminent concerning sports. In general, sport is linked with sound health that can be impaired through PEDs toxicities and unexpected outcomes, which enable the body to thrust above common psychological state; consequently, exercise-related challenges like atrial fibrillation increase. Sports should contribute to behavior change aspirations. Sport is a gainful field, and this fund could be utilized to elevate local campaigns about sports exercise without drug influence and act as inspiration. Discussed matters about destructions caused by PED have escalated, lowering the reputation of the sports profession. We advocate that change is significant and that healthcare specialists must be engaged—in anti-doping authorities’ attempts to stay ahead of the PEDs line without success. We call upon new strategies to be contemplated. We propose to align existing policies where all drugs are declared illegal, apart from ones not affiliated with performance enhancement 27.9 (2018): 1099-1104. In brief, change is paramount to developing discourse and cross-examine sports drug challenges.

As stated by (AL-Dafrawi, A. et al.), the use of performance-enhancing medicine (PEMs) in sports is unsuitable as they are connected with a breach of law and constitute legal consequences that increase disciplinary roles and criminal accountability. Breach of law may arise when athletes possess illegal substances and continue to distribute them to others, thus jeopardizing their some sports organizations, athletes are forced to use PEMs to emerge as top winners, which is against anti-doping policies. There is a deficiency in connection with anti-doping principles, where several clauses of the code do not match local nationality laws. The sports l guidelines and processes should implement anti-doping roles globally in a harmonized way. There are other dangers linked with PEMs taking side effects. Consumption of steroid substances in a short period has no effects on the bloodstream and the heart. However, the outcome is said to be inaccurate because pathological danger results take a long period to be detected. PEMs transform into poison and are destructive in time of death. Occurrence of many deaths occurred as a result. In other words, it is proper to state that doping practice upon a human being is contrary to law 4.17 (2019): 48-60. There is a need for reform on the world-antidoping code and other relevant clauses at the world level to reach an amicable compliance solution.

As enumerated by (Lutter, Christoph, et al.), the Selection of sport climbing back in the year 2020 to be part of Olympic sports in Tokyo was meaningful in sports evolution. Despite exciting developments, various coaches, athletes, and sports fans, sport climbing add up to new responsibility—an athlete’s desire to emerge top player result in doping. Current rock climbing advancement originated from climbing mountains. It is anchored in old times when athletes utilized performance-enhancing substances to become winners, especially in dangerous peaks. PEDs are said to lower hypoxemia and the risk of high-altitude illness during the game in high-altitude mountains. Nowadays, rock climbing performance is being boosted by the utilization of substances. It was not allowed in the past, but sports ethics have been altered today. Drugs affect the physical and psychological status of an athlete to improve performance. Climbing federations in the competition have promised to obey anti-doping rules which had been aligned with those of other sports several years back. Lack of awareness, proper doping controls, poor medical apparatus in sports, and lack of correct information in some member countries. National anti-doping organizations may need to be more conversant with the setting and circumstances in the sports field 18.10 (2019): 351-352. Sports ethics have changed; therefore, anti-doping education to relevant parties, sports medicine, a collaboration between stakeholders, monitoring, and anti-doping should be improved.

Truly performance-enhancing drugs constitute merits and demerits; however, combating mechanisms should be established involving different expertise of disciplines such as law, health, sports, education, and the general public to share and find long-lasting solutions. In conclusion, drug usage in sports and its link to well-being brings confusion as drugs bring psychological and physical effects on the body. Despite sports being termed as lucrative fields and gainful field drugs, lower sports professionals’ reputations are caused by criminal acts after doping. Weak policies in the legal system, particularly concerning anti-doping clauses, have been helpless. Lack of awareness has resulted in a violation of athletes’ rights as some are forced to utilize performance-enhancing drugs for them to win the game. The cases of inaccurate laboratory tests endanger life, resulting in death in the long term. Development of sports such as sports climbing is followed by increased responsibility such as winning desire and influencing doping.

Works Cited

AL-Dafrawi, A., et al. “Performance-enhancing medicines in sports: legal discussion.” International Journal of Law, Government and Communication 4.17 (2019): 48-60.

La Gerche, André, and Maria J. Brosnan. “Drugs in sport—a change is needed, but what?.” Heart, Lung and Circulation 27.9 (2018): 1099-1104.

Lutter, Christoph, et al. “Doping in sport climbing: status quo in a new Olympic discipline.” Current sports medicine reports 18.10 (2019): 351-352.

How Does Political Risk In Russia Affect The Operations Of Foreign Investors From China, Germany, And The United States? Essay Example

Russian political risk denotes the risk that happens due to the possible actions of the government and other political powers in and throughout the country. Such risk indicates insecurity regarding possible shifts in government rules and the effect of such regulations on the impending economic situation (Erkekoglu and Kilicarslan, 2016, p. 1). The political risk in Russia is likely to affect the operations of foreign multinational investors from China, Germany, and the United States differently. These possible consequences are due to the different relationships between Russia and these nations. According to Sharyshev (2016), China and Russia have a promising partnership that shares the same interest and can endure global threats while shaping the prevailing world order. In other words, China and Russia have a colloquial treaty to organize economic and diplomatic moves and develop a partnership against the United States. Therefore, a Chinese investor is likely to encounter a favorable political risk such as a small trade barrier in Russia that allows them to increase their operations in Russia.

Additionally, since China and Russia have a good relationship, they may agree to set international standards and policies that favor them (Sharyshev, 2016). As a result, investors from China are likely to expand their operations in Russia, leading to increased profits. According to Shehadi (2022), Russian political risks, such as its invasion of Ukraine, have negatively affected foreign investors by forcing them to withdraw their operations from Russia. However, foreign multination from china are still retaining their presence and operations in Russia, as Shehadi (2022) states. Their continued existence is because of the alliance between Russia and China. It is also due to the socio-political barriers that prevent Chinese investors from pulling out of Russia.

Similarly, Russia considers Germany as its top European partner; thus, Russia is a vital trading associate for Germany. As highlighted by Umland (2022), Russia and Germany have maintained their partnership since the cold war era. Therefore, the political risk in Russia is likely to favor investors from Germany, enabling them to expand their operations. For example, Russian government interventions such as reducing import and export tariffs create a perfect business climate for German investors to escalate their operations in Russia.

On the contrary, Russia and the United States have a relationship at its lowest point due to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine (Carafano, 2022). Besides, the United States considers the partnership between China and Russia a threat to its regime. Therefore, Russia and the United States have enacted several tit-for-tat measures, entailing diplomats’ dismissal and setting constraints on various diplomatic personnel permitted to labor in each other’s nations. Thus, since the Russian and American governments are at odds with each other, investors from the United States are most likely to be negatively affected by political risk in Russia. For instance, such investors may encounter huge trade barriers preventing them from effectively conducting their operations in Russia. As a result, it could lead to reduced revenues or even withdrawal of their operations from Russia.

Moreover, since Russia has good relations with China and Germany, United States investors are more likely to suffer the outcome of political risk in Russia than investors from Germany and China (Sharyshev, 2016). Political risk such as Russian government intervention prevents foreign multinationals from the United States from operating fully in Russia, leading to the termination of their activities in Russia. For instance, Russia could implement a policy limiting foreign investors in strategic sectors. Such an approach could result in an absurd circumstance where foreign investors from the United States are prevented from increasing their operations in Russia.


Carafano, J., 2022. America and Russia Are in a New Kind of War. [online] The Heritage Foundation. Available at: <> [Accessed 22 July 2022].

Erkekoglu, H. and Kilicarslan, Z., 2016. Do Political Risks Affect the Foreign Direct Investment Inflows to Host Countries?. Journal of Business Economics and Finance5(2), pp.218-232.

Shehadi, S., 2022. The presence of Chinese and Indian companies in Russia shows the future of the country’s investment flows. [online] Investment Monitor. Available at: <> [Accessed 22 July 2022].

Sarychev, A.V., 2016. The strategic partnership between Russia and China: importance and sustainability of bilateral relations. Сравнительная политика, (2 (23)), pp.112-117.

Umland, A., 2022. Germany’s Russia Policy in Light of the Ukraine Conflict: Interdependence Theory and Ostpolitik. Orbis66(1), pp.78-94.