HIV Treatment Compliance And Social Support Homework Essay Sample

Abstract

This research focuses on the way HIV treatment compliance is influenced by social support among African American women with HIV. This paper reveals some background information about the issue (statistics about HIV prevalence, risk factors, and justification for the study). It will focus on the sample represented by African American women with HIV. Inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample size, and recruitment peculiarities are discussed. Finally, selection bias and the ways to minimalize it are mentioned.

Background

Today, the issue of HIV is rather critical all over the world. Many people are diagnosed with it every year and even more cases remain unnoticed. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the majority of the population affected by this virus is represented by African Americans. It was indicated that these people constitute about 13% of the US population, which is a relatively small number of individuals (Galvan, Davis, Banks, & Bing, 2008). Even though today, professionals believe that the most affected population is gay people and men, in particular, women accounted for about 63% of all HIV cases in 2005 (Edwards, 2006). However, the number of African American women with HIV does not reduce greatly so that this issue could be considered to be solved and ignored. Two years ago, almost 45% of African Americans were diagnosed with HIV. It comprises 12% of the whole US population, which means that the number of cases has reduced only by 1% during almost 10 years (CDC, 2016). Even though African American women comprise only 26% of all cases, this number remains extremely high in comparison to females of other races (CDC, 2016). Regardless of all improvements, African Americans represent almost a half of all new HIV cases in the USA (CDC, 2016). This issue is difficult to resolve because it is sexually transmitted, and African Americans tend to have partners of the same ethnicity. They also lack awareness of their status so that they do not have any reasons to consult a doctor. The poor socioeconomic condition prevents them from requiring treatment due to its cost. Stigma and discrimination discourage testing (CDC, 2016).

Target Population and Sample Size

Description of Target Population and Sample

The sample gathered for this research will consist of African American women. Inclusion criteria deal with age (25-40 years), participation in social service agencies (the place to recruit them), and positive HIV test (diagnosis made by a doctor). Exclusion criteria focus on age (younger than 25 and older than 40), additional critical healthcare issues that can affect treatment and require substantial expenditures, and experiencing only of those symptoms and complications that can be mistakenly associated with HIV, such as venous thromboembolism that can be caused by long-distance travel (Chandra, Parisini, & Mozaffarian, 2009).

It will be advantageous to utilize convenience sampling strategy. It is a very fast method that does not require a long search for participants, which also means that there is no necessity to maintain long preparations. The nearby population can be easily reached, and the questionnaires can be easily distributed among the participants. In this way, the data can be collected just in several hours, which allows spending more time on its analysis. It is readily available for collection so that there is no necessity to increase research expenses and travel to other locations. Cost effectiveness is rather a critical advantage because the funds for this research are limited (Brodaty et al., 2014).

Taking into consideration the fact that sample is represented by African American women with HIV, it can be stated that this population is hard-to-reach. The thing is that they tend to remain anonymous because of the HIV stigma and fear of other people’s negative attitudes. Thus, following the ideas of Aglipay, Wylie, and Jolly (2015), the leaders of the population will be addressed from the very beginning so that they encourage others to participate when receiving more information about the study. It is also possible to provide the leaders with questionnaires so that they distribute them and bring back without researcher’s involvement. In this way, the targeted population is likely to be more willing to participate.

Sample Size Considerations

The size of a sample for this research can be relatively small because it is focused only on two variables and does not presuppose extreme diversity. Taking into consideration the fact that the similar research study with the same sampling type included 283 participants from three different social service agencies and the one with a purposeful sample had 33 participants, this research should attract about 150 individuals to gather the most objective data.

Recruitment

Recruitment strategy will be utilized when gathering the sample, which will provide an opportunity to collect primary data right from African American women with HIV, which is rather advantageous for research and its value. Following the example of senior professionals, potential participants will be collected at social service agencies with the help of nonprobability methods. Respondent-driven sampling will be used to ensure that participants feel comfortable and remain anonymous. In addition to that, leaders tend to be more likely to agree to participate so that the rest of the population follows their example. The potential participants will be contacted as soon as the research instruments are prepared.

The data will be collected with the help of written questionnaires. They will be distributed in a printed version and a digital one so that the participants can find the most convenient for them the way to fill them out. It is expected that from the very beginning up to 10 leaders will be contacted, including social service agencies’ personnel. The researcher will address them by a telephone call and ask for an appointment for a face-to-face meeting. Then, the information will be distributed further with their help.

Selection Biases

Unfortunately, it is impossible to claim that there will be no bias during the design and conduct of this study. Some systematic errors often occur and the only thing professionals can do about them is to minimalize them (Szklo & Nieto, 2014). Selection bias deals mainly with the errors in the sampling. These are some statistical mistakes according to which some populations are involved more often than others. Scientists are constantly trying to prevent the occurrence of selection bias so that their research studies become more valuable. Still, it is impossible to analyze the whole reality (Knottnerus & Tugwell, 2014). The fact that this research is focused only on African American women with HIV is rather beneficial in this perspective because it provides an opportunity to reduce the actual number of the larger population significantly. Thus, it can be claimed that the sample selected for the study represents this kind population adequately. As the participants will remain rather diverse, they will meet the overall requirements. Of course, the reality may differ to some degree, but main tendencies can be discussed based on the obtained information.

To minimize selection bias, the population was identified so that the group that represents appropriately can be reached. The researcher will ensure that the exposure of the population is reflected. Questionnaires will make it easy to contribute and the time and location selected for the study will be convenient for the sample. In addition to that, they will have a chance to use printed and digital versions.

References

Aglipay, M., Wylie, J. L., & Jolly, A. M. (2015). Health research among hard-to-reach people: six degrees of sampling. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 187(15), 1145-1149.

Brodaty, H., Mothakunnel, A., de Vel-Palumbo, M., Ames, D., Ellis, K. A., Reppermund, S.,… Sachdev, P. S. (2014). Influence of population versus convenience sampling on sample characteristics in studies of cognitive aging. Annals of Epidemiology, 24(1), 63-71.

CDC. (2016). HIV among African Americans. Web.

Chandra, D., Parisini, E., & Mozaffarian, D. (2009). Meta-analysis: Travel and risk for venous thromboembolism. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(3), 180–190.

Galvan, F., Davis, M., Banks, D., & Bing, E. (2008). HIV Stigma and Social Support among African Americans. AIDS Patient Care STDS, 22(5): 423–436.

Knottnerus, J. A., & Tugwell, P. (2014). Selection-related bias, is an ongoing concern in doing and publishing research. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 67(10), 1057-1058.

Edwards, L. (2006). Perceived social support and HIV/AIDS medication adherence among African American women. Qualitative Health Research, 16(5), 679-91.

Szklo, M., & Nieto, F. J. (2014). Epidemiology: Beyond the basics (3rd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Criminal Justice Technology

Introduction

Advances in criminal justice technology is one of the most important factors that assists law enforcing agencies as well as service providers to enhance safety and give critical lifesaving assistance to victims of crime. Hence, it is worth noting that embracing modern technology in the cranial justice system is indeed a necessity that may not be overlooked at all costs. Scholars almost unanimously concur that the availability of high-end technology equipment reduces the overall time employed in processing an offenders’ time bearing in mind that it facilitates quicker availability of various details that are needed in a criminal offense and associated law suit. In addition, a well developed technological platform is quite crucial since it provides real time notification about criminals (Kinkade & Leone, 2004). This paper provides an in-depth research analysis of the article entitled preparing for high technology crime: An educational assessment of criminal justice and criminology academic programs by Myers and Myers. The aforementioned article seeks to evaluate the importance of technological improvement in criminal justice with special reference to incorporating this knowledge in the criminology academic programs. This publication further analyzes how modifying the academic curricula will benefit students in investigating complex technology crime.

Methodology

Research purpose

Use of modern and more sophisticated technology in criminal justice is the most effective method of addressing some of the modern and dynamic forms of crime in society. This is mainly due to the fast changing technology and organization of crime and the need to maintain the highest possible levels of social order which is indeed effective for growth and development. Smit, Van-Eijk and Decae (2012) point out that over the last decade, the demand for modern and improved techniques in criminal justice organization and administrations has become part of its major quest as the world is directly threatened by the forces of modern consumerism and globalization. The authors of this research study are quite categorical that this has led to the need for incorporation of this knowledge in the criminal justice curricula for students in this field to enhance their ability and skills in solving crime. It is against this backdrop that the purpose and key objectives of this research study has been drawn.

The research design for the study

The overall research design study for this paper is appropriate and meets the objectives that were set earlier. The research design study which has been adopted in the article to gather data on the need to incorporate criminal justice and technology in undergraduate education is qualitative design. Myers and Myers (2002) have used a multiple survey method administered to one hundred leaders of criminology and criminal justice programs in the United States of America. In the survey, a presentation of the occupational information network (ONET) has been done to survey respondents. The latter was found to be necessary since a representative sample would be needed to carry out the research study. Besides, an eight point scale has been used on survey respondents to determine the element of knowledge required to prosecute, investigate and detect high technology crime. A holistic description has been given to provide adequate information as well as any other necessary details that may be required when addressing aspects such as location, context and survey participants. At this point, it is quite evident that this qualitative study is quite holistic especially in regards to the design used which ensures that all important factors are taken into consideration.

Population and sampling

In the research study to determine the number of students who were exposed to technology in criminal justice; a total of one hundred academic leaders were used as the target population. Myers and Myers (2002) indicate that this population was necessary and of extreme importance for the study since they were well aware of the numerous challenges that technology was posing to society. In addition, they were responsible and professional individuals leading curriculum programs within their respective organizations. This population was a sample that accounted for about 54.5% of the total 28018 sample size of graduates who took part in the study.

Findings and discussions

From the study, it is evident that advances that have been made in technology act as a key factor in facilitating effective resources deployment in the criminal justice units. Therefore, this recent development has called for the need to incorporate technological competences in the entire criminal justice curriculum. Since the onset of the 20th century, technological improvements have led to key changes that seek to effectively match the extended criminal outset. For example, the use of two-way radio system and finger prints technology have been largely employed to create effective counter crime efforts in society. However, findings obtained from the research study indicated that the absence of incorporation on the aforementioned technology in the curriculum among others, may impact on future procedures in handling criminal cases.

It is also arguable that the modern high-tech crime which is also dynamic appears to be moving quite fast ahead of the security agencies’ ability to establish counter systems. It is clear that as law enforcement agencies assimilate new technologies with time, they will demand effective backing in addition to adequate workforce that is well trained on criminal justice technology. If the latter is not well executed, then it is quite definite that the dynamism of the growing crime wave may as well catch up with the ability of crime administrators to effectively deal with the menace. As a matter of fact, it is expected that the number of criminal law suits will definitely increase in future and therefore the much needed speed in processing such offenses. Moreover, findings from the study indicated that there is reduced capacity in training security officers in the field especially in areas of modern technology systems bearing in mind that it requires continuous re-evaluation. This has been found to take more time than it is necessarily. As a result, such delays have been providing thriving ground for proliferation of high-tech crime. This training usually takes time and therefore rendering innovation in the security system less effective Though its is agreeable that the current equipments being used by the US security agencies for training are high tech in nature, there is greater need for innovation and creativity that can be attained when this is incorporated into that criminal justice curriculum.

In addition, the findings also indicated that technological improvement has remained a critical consideration in resource deployment in criminal justice system. While it is necessary to embrace modern technology in criminal justice system, it is worth noting that sufficient resources are needed to execute the same. This may be in form of human resource capability or direct financial needs in acquiring a working system. Willis (2012) indicates that the improvements that have been fostered by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) have culminated to widespread use of computers and information technology software products in the police unit. It is also notable that when information technology is incorporated into the criminal justice curriculum, it will facilitate centralization of criminal justice operations. Other technologies such as concealed weapon detection technology and DNA testing when introduced to the curriculum will culminate to hefty resources being channeled towards criminal justice agencies. According to Gould (2004), this will certainly reduce the seemingly growing levels of crime in modern society.

DNA technology is a modernistic method employed in criminal justice for precise detection of an individual through matching biological genetic information. Findings fro this research study documented that though this technology has been recently developed, its use has increasingly been assimilated in facilitating justice where physical evidence is not enough for judgment to be finalised. Following the critical role played by DNA in the determination of high profile cases, it is increasingly being referred as the most important tool to bring justice in the society. As such, there is need for knowledge on DNA to be included in the curriculum to enhance ability of the justice department in solving biologically related cases.

In their view, Broomhall (1997) and Gould (2004) are quite unanimous that criminal identification has remained a very crucial component in the entire cycle of criminal justice system. Furthermore, gaining knowledge on automated fingerprint identification system (AFIS) presents students as well as criminal justice officers with an effective system of fast detecting a criminal by counterchecking the matches with those electronically stored in the department of justice database. Findings indicated that to further promote a holistic capacity in tracing criminal records, a study on fingerprint identification via technology will aid students in employing special exchange and responses that use matching algorithms.

Concealed weapons detection technology has emerged as one of the most critical parameters in identifying individuals carrying weapons that are hidden under their clothes (Willis, 2012). The research findings noted that knowledge on passive millimeter wave technology will enable criminal justice students and officers to search for weapons though natural emissions without employing physical search. Besides, an understanding on electromagnetic fluxgate magnetometers technology will further aid them in the identification of weapons through radiation reflected back to special detectors and them compares them with legal weapons database in the department of justice.

Recommendations

The authors of the article acknowledge that improvement in technology has been very critical in facilitating effective resources distribution in the criminal justice system. They recommend that knowledge elements in technology be incorporated in the curriculum of criminal justice students. They strongly support the need for better technology application in criminal justice, a factor that requires adequate training in colleges and not in the field while on duty. It is clear that the modern high tech criminal activities are not just a threat to the United States of America alone, but to the whole world. Therefore, there is indisputable need for devising new curriculum which may offer learning programs on how to tackle dynamism in crime through effective application of technology in criminal justice system in addition to maximum cooperation among different law enforcement agencies.

References

Broomhall, B. (1997). Developments in criminal law and criminal justice. Criminal Law Forum, 8(2), 317-334.

Gould, J. B. (2004). Consider the lawyers: Law schools lessons for criminal justice education. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 15(1), 45-60.

Kinkade, P., & Leone, M. C. (2004). Criminal justice education in relation to law school expectation: A failure of confidence. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 15(1), 33-44.

Sena, B. (2006). Criminal justice technology in the 21st century, second edition. Security Management, 50(9), 198-200.

Smit, P., van Eijk, A., & Decae, R. (2012). Trends in the reaction on crime in criminal justice systems in Europe in 1990-2007: A comparison of four European regions. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 18(1), 55.

Willis, J. J. (2012). Bridging the normative gap in graduate criminal justice curricula: Teaching theories of justice. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 23(1), 81.

Electronic Health Record Overview

Introduction

The electronic health record (EHR) has currently become popular due to effectiveness and efficiency associated with it in provision of health care services. This technology creates a support system that serves as a source of evidence, thus providing quality management of patients’ information and care (Ball 204). More so, the support system helps the health practitioners to come up with a credible diseases’ surveillance report. The purpose of this paper is to come up with training materials that identify and describe the steps that must be taken to develop a plan for selection and implementation of an electronic health record.

Background

The health care workers have an obligation of keeping a wide range of information pertaining to their clients [patients]. This health information is critical since it serves the role of monitoring the patients’ health status such as the clinical progression and the results of the diagnosis tests. More so, this information helps to explain the patients’ heath status to the next caregiver either in the same health care setting or in another health care facility. Using paper work in conveying such information is ineffective since it is vulnerable to errors that normally emanate from handwriting, wrong prescriptions of drugs, and billing errors, among other factors.

Manual for Change

Common barriers to institutional changes can be avoided by employing training materials that identify and describe the steps that must be taken in developing a plan for implementation of EHR. The training materials will facilitate acquisition of basic skills of using electronic health record, acquisition of EHR professional skills, and acquisition of proficient skills for training new health care workers on EHR.

Step 1: Acquiring the Basic Skills of Using Electronic Health Record by Using an Ordinary Computer

The project directors are responsible for dispensing adequate basic skills in using an EHR. The basic knowledge will include exercising comprehensive knowledge on computer skills: typing speed, avoiding typing errors, and ease of perusing the website. This assessment should be done using an ordinary computer since a new computer model takes considerable time to adjust to it, hence end up scaring some workers. Tailored training of these basic skills must then be offered with regard to each worker’s area of weakness.

Step 2: Acquiring EHR Professional Skills through Using Health Care Ethical Principles Materials

This step necessitates acquiring comprehensive knowledge on questions related to health care procedures. Since the goal of an EHR is to enhance the patients’ care, every clinical staff member should be able to know the number of times that he/she is required to update patients’ information (Ball 204). The billing department, on the other hand, should be able to know how to handle patients’ information and how the system works in relation to the billing process. In addition, all the health care workers should be able to distinguish the changes emanating from workflow from the changes emanating from the implementation of EHR (205).

Step 3: Acquiring Skills for Training New Health Care Workers on EHR through Using Tailored Software

The electronic health record coordinator will ensure that all the staff members receive adequate knowledge for training new employees. Skills acquisition can only be achieved through demonstrating how EHR functions and teaching on how patients’ information should be collected. This will be acquired effectively through using demo software, as it will help the healthcare workers to experiment on all areas of the system without fear of loosing any information related to the patients or the administration.

Conclusion

Breaking down this training into three steps and using the relevant material is of paramount importance since the health care workers will be able to substantiate the benefits and obstacles involved in implementing an EHR. An effective training manual calls for timely detection of the factors that facilitate clear translations of results.

Works Cited

Ball, Marion. Nursing Informatics: Where Technology and Caring Meet. London: Springer, 2010. Print.

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