Hochschild: Emotion Management And Negotiations Sample Paper

Hochschild (1) comes up with an emotion management mechanism that illuminates the self, interaction, and structure. Emotion is always regulated by the act of management. Emotion management is wholly embedded in the interactive aspects of emotion. Emotion management enables close-range inspection of the relations among feelings, rules, ideology, emotion management, and emotive experience.

Emotions play an important role in creating and maintaining identity. Lam (1), in his fiction, shows how careers impact relationships. Depending on the nature of the problem, we are at times expected to show care both physically and emotionally. He underscores the need for putting aside our differences in the process of crisis management. Many times we act to reinforce our identities and by doing so, we end up creating a scenario where perceived meanings are synergized with the identity standards. Role identity accounts for alterations in situational meanings and therefore enhances parity at the level of identity standard. Identity verification contributes to elements of orderliness in the social structure where identity emanates. When people you interact with effortlessly notice the personal identity you are trying to convey, your feeling of self-worth tends to increase. Individuals, therefore, become filled with positive emotions. Positive emotions are also enhanced when those close to you keep on reassuring you of your identity. Reassurance makes an individual develop a certain sense of security when executing their actions. These people are therefore able to predict the responses that may come from others. On several occasions, an individual may feel free to express themselves in any way they wish. Positive emotions, therefore, become so prominent in such people. When our identity matches our understanding of identity, positive emotions tend to increase. The feeling of positive emotion makes people feel at peace with themselves and create some sense of happiness. However, individuals are more likely to encounter negative emotions than positive emotions mainly because of misunderstanding of an identity one displays. This is brought about by unavailability of point of convergence between input and output, inability to comprehend the identity under scrutiny, too much focus on one identity, and inadequate exposure to an identity. Negative emotions come into play when a person’s identity is misconstrued. The individuals becomes angry and infuriated because of what they feel is a misinterpretation of their identity. When an individual does not bother themselves so much with the type of identity they wish to showcase, its reception will not be overwhelming. This is because much of their attention is directed to other aspects of their identity leading to neglection of other aspects. The neglected facets are kind of suppressed; therefore do not receive attention as the individual would have expected. This creates some sense of anger in an individual. When one expends too many resources towards controlling certain aspects of their identity, they expose themselves to negative feelings. This is due to relatedness of aspects of personality. When one facet of personality is not construed as expected, the other aspects of personality will not be showcased. This may lead to realization of identity crisis. This is personified in panic and a feeling of nervousness. If individuals show the identity they wish to display, they will have a sense of negative feeling as people closer to such individual will not relent in showing disappointment in the individual’s character. Show of disapproval eventually makes a person to lose sense of self worth. This may culminate into hostility. Frustrations in an individual are also prompted by irregular responses. If people in your closer social circles are very close to you, they keep on reassuring you of your identity and you will likely develop extreme positive emotions. Nevertheless, criticizing somebody’s identity make them develop negative emotic feelings. Observations made by people closer to you hold so much than those made by those not in your inner circles.

Emotion is sometimes talked of as a dynamic process that coordinates individual relation to the ever changing social world. Emotions embody establishing, maintaining or interfering with the relationship between life forms and the environment on matters of importance to individual. Social and psychological misdeeds recur and occur solely because of interactions occurring between many individuals over time. Emotions are the major agents of interactions. Emotions of one person have a bearing on emotions, perceptions and behavior of others. Emotions are organized into networks that involve the input of different people geared towards instigation of reciprocal influence. Ones feeling are normally evidenced in their facial features, hand gestures, the way they stand, their intonations and myriad physical features. Expression of feelings differs from cultures to cultures and is showcased in different dimensions from facial expressions to gestures. People are sensitive to others feelings and are in a position to decode what these expressions stand for. However, somebody’s expression does not necessarily show his or her actual state. Your feelings may have effect on other people’s emotions, how people perceive you, other peoples conduct, relationships and levels of participation between agent and other people. Ones feeling not only affect him or her as an individual but also affect those able to decode his or her feelings. Emotions can also affect larger social settings like group or team. Emotions are messages that generate feedback mechanisms to the initiator of message. Mechanisms by which ones feeling can evoke emotions in others are Emotion Contagion and Emotion Interpretation. Emotion contagion implies ability of people to mimic non verbal expressions unconsciously. Emotion interpretation enables one to think of another person as having a particular emotion and react in conformity to the persons feelings.

Emotions also play central role in negotiating interactions. In an effort to develop a deeper understanding on the role of emotions in negotiations, it is imperative that we first comprehend the intrapersonal and the interpersonal effects. Intrapersonal effects imply the effects of the arbitrator’s emotions on his or her own negotiation skills. Interpersonal effects mean effects of arbitrator’s emotions on other negotiators prowess. Intrapersonal effects have unfortunately overshadowed interpersonal effects in emotional negotiations. In negotiation an aggrieved person elicits empathy. This may make them to be more cooperative during the problem solving exercise. Emotions portray ones feeling about a situation and their orientation towards other people. Emotions are therefore a valuable way of approving or disapproving of others behavior. This help negotiator to know which of their behaviors will be acceptable to the parties that they intend to pacify. Negative emotions can be remedied by mental or behavioral change where as positive emotions inspire one to continue staying on course. Therefore negative emotions can be used in emotional negotiation to register dissatisfaction with specific state of affairs. This may be perceived by your foe as a frustration to agreement hence development of conciliatory behavior amongst the parties. Positive emotions may be misconstrued to mean that no further negotiations are needed. This may make the opponents to shy away from settling their differences. Positive emotions are thought to enhance negotiators effectiveness and negative emotions decrease effectiveness of the negotiator. Studies conducted involving intrapersonal and interpersonal effects have shown that anger is very important in distributive negotiations. Happiness is imperative in integrative negotiation. In a distributive bargains anger may enhance ones performance where as in negotiation of integrative nature, aspects of positive emotions such as happiness provide platform for collaborative problem solving. Researches that have been conducted on the role of emotions on negotiations have delved into general positive effects and negative effects. Research is currently being conducted on discrete emotions on negotiations which will help in developing a deeper understanding of specific emotion in successful negotiations. Further studies should answer questions relating to whether those with high emotional intelligence are prone to or influenced by opponents emotions. Honest manifestation of emotions in negotiations occasioned by anger, delight, a feeling of anxiety, sense of frustration and sadness is coherent with stakes involved and social relation being practiced.

Emotions can be suppressed immediately after they have been exhibited in negotiations. The length of time that it takes for an emotion to be expressed and the status of mood keep on changing and establishing their presence from inception to the end is pretty difficult. This makes it almost difficult for the researcher to come up with impact of specific effect on particular aspects of negotiation. Emotions are known to interfere with the negotiators ability to arrive at amicable agreements. This is because people’s attentions are normally diverted from tackling substantive issues to engaging in myopic discussions. When we are upset, our judgments are always subjective and are clouded by our emotions. Most of the times we feel that we must respond to acts that we fee are outrageous to us with equal measure of force. Our emotions may reveal the side that we have taken. This may expose one to a lot of manipulation. Our reaction when something happens makes people to know whether we have been disgusted or have been impressed. This may be used by deductive observers to extract information from us. Thinking is subordinated by our feeling. For somebody to fall in love, emotions have to be involved but precise thinking during a negotiation process is complicated by emotional involvement. Unless utmost care is taken emotions can dominate our faculty of thought and interfere with our ability to make wise decisions. To those people who advocate against involving emotion in negotiation process, a negotiator has all the reasons to fear the power of emotions. In negotiation process, emotional involvement is seen as an impediment to a negotiators delivery. However, realistically, it becomes impractical to dispense with emotions in such situations. Negotiators often feel sense of emotions that may be positive or negative reactions to issues of personal significance. Negotiators should not suppress emotions as this may risk worsening the situation. When you suppress resentment the negative emotional experience remain rooted in our system. This may one day blow out of proportion and translate into ugly incidences. Emotion indeed enables on to reach their negotiation goals.

Works Cited

Hochschild, Russell. Emotion Work, Feeling Rules, and Social Structure. The American Journal of Sociology. 85.3(1979): 551-575.

Lam, Vincent. Bloodletting and Miraculous cures. New York: Picador, 2006. Print.

“Thank You, M’am” By Langston Hughes

I have never read anything more touching than Thank You, M’am by Langston Hughes. There are just two main characters in this story: an old woman Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones, and a young boy, Roger, who appeared to be a pickpocket. The last tried to still Mrs. Luella’s purse but failed because was noticed by her.

Mrs. Luella is presented in this story as a generalized character of a strong woman with some disadvantages; however, there are three main important characteristics that make her a unique person among others: she is able to understand, trust and forgive.

Although Mrs. Luella is presented in this story as a reach and strict woman with “a large purse that had everything in it but hammer and nails” (Caroll, 177), it is clear to the reader that she also had a big heart. Instead of taking young thief, who tried to still her purse, to prison, she started talking to him and asking him questions in order to help: “Um-hum! And your face is dirty. I got a great mind to wash your face for you. Ain’t you got nobody home to tell you to wash your face?” (Caroll,178). These actions prove that an old woman definitely had a strong sense of sympathy and understanding.

Mrs. Luella’s ability to trust is, in my opinion, another rare peculiarity she had. She trusted Roger like she knew him for a long time and even pretended like they never had a conflict: after Roger tried to steal a woman’s purse, she just left it on her bed in front of him. Mrs. Luella knew that a young thief could easily still it again and run away, but acted and talked to Roger as he was her son: “You ought to be my son. I would teach you right from wrong. Least I can do right now is to wash your face. Are you hungry?” (Caroll, 178). It was an unusual act of kindness, that Mrs. Luella brought a young poor boy into her wealthy house. Moreover, she gave him a clean towel, explained why it is bad to still personal belongings, and finally, showed Roger her attitude, expressed trust. Furthermore, Mrs. Luella told him stories about her own youth and about mistakes that occurred to her when she was inexperienced. She showed Roger that she is not perfect as well, tried to prove to him that there is always a reason to trust.

Another important thing that impressed me in Mrs. Luella’s behavior is that she was able to forgive and was even more generous than the boy expected. Mrs. Luella gave Roger money. In my opinion, that was the act of forgiveness. Although she was not sure whether Roger is going to spend this money on shoes or on something else, she was not trying to persuade him to buy something else. She just knew that Roger was intimidated and forgave him:

Now, here, take this ten dollars and buy yourself some blue suede shoes. And next time, do not make the mistake of latching onto my pocketbook nor nobody else’s- because shoes that come by devilish like that will burn your feet. I got to get my rest now. But I wish you would behave yourself, son, from here on in (Caroll, 178).

This impressive story is short in size, but there is so much wisdom in it. It made me think about my own actions and behavior, about sympathy, trust, and of course, about forgiveness. Mrs. Luella in this story is a personification of a rare characteristic that many people lack today- kindness. Moreover, she is a generalized character of a wise and generous woman, who is able to forget and forgive.

References

Caroll, Aileen. 150 Great Short Stories: Synopses, Quizzes, and Tests. Portland: Walch Publishing, 1989. Print.

Effective Implementation Of Title IX

Introduction

Title IX as a policy was primarily developed with the bigger picture of issues that are related to gender in mind. It was fundamentally meant to bring a sense of balance when dealing with the gender agenda in learning institutions. Some of the ideas through which we will navigate are: has the balance that Title IX sought to bring about been achieved? What are the challenges that the law faces? Is it important to amend or re-look at the law from time to time to take care of emerging trends? We will also look at. Looking at all these issues may lead us to a conclusion of whether the law ways, or still is, important in our times.

Title IX Implementation- The basics

From a deeper look at the provisions of the law, Title IX tends to develop from the most basic issues that relate to access to institutional facilities for both genders, to a little bit complex issues like sexual harassment. To effectively apply the law, all these phases must be understood. Like any other law, Title IX doesn’t operate in a vacuum and therefore all other factors that may influence the application and the outcome of the law must be put into consideration (Walters & McNeel, 2010).

However, some mechanisms can be put in place to assist in proactively achieving what the law intends to, as far as creating gender harmony is concerned. We can now look at some of these mechanisms and how they may affect or contribute to the effective application of Title IX.

Designated implementer

In recognition of the fact that policy implementation of laws of this nature can be challenging, the law has been keen on emphasizing that there shall be a person designated to oversee its implementation in every institution that is federally funded. This, therefore, means that the individual must be well versed with the law if he or she is to be its keeper. Given that issues of gender equality are clearly outlined in the law this individual is expected to rest at no less than the applicability of the law in totality at that particular education centre (Kuznick &Ryan, 2008).

Monitoring

The purpose of the law is to ensure that a certain order of things is observed. By monitoring how the requirements of Title IX are being effected in institutions, it becomes easy to highlight areas where the law may not be achieving the standards as required therein. If a particular activity tends to exclude or lay more emphasis on one gender than the other, the monitoring mechanism can point out promptly thus avoiding extreme extents, like have been witnessed, which may engage the institution in legal battles. Where a monitoring system of Title IX is in place, chances of there being legal tussles are reduced.

Directed Communication

There must be intensive and deliberate communication to all stakeholders to enlighten them on the demands of the law. A critical instrument in the implementation of any law is its understanding. Gender issues as stipulated by Title IX can be effectively dealt with if all the participants in the education program understand its context, contents and demand. This may thus see the creation of forums, such as workshops and seminars, which will seek to guide the school community on Title IX from time to time. They may be conducted either jointly or separately for the students and staff as the situation may allow. The bottom line is that there should be periodical reminders of the requirements of Title IX if the law is to achieve its intended objective. The main aim of these forums should be to ensure that all stakeholders are equipped to guard and apply the gender equity requirements of the law.

Reading through the law, it becomes clear that there are implications that result from failure to apply it accordingly. Over the years there has been an increase in court cases that emerge from the purported failure of education centres to apply the law as it should be. From one perspective, these legal implications have to be applied to ensure that Title IX s rightly applied. We all know that breaking the law is sometimes easier than upholding it. With checks and balances.it becomes easier to follow it. All the same, the context within which it is applied must be objectively looked into to eliminate the danger of including undeserving stakeholders (Sandler, 2000). For instance, if there are allegations of exchange of sexual favours for better grades, these allegations must be thoroughly investigated and proven beyond reasonable doubts. The result of the whole process of investigating and prosecuting necessarily will allow others to look at their role in applying Title IX.

Title IX and the practitioner

Having looked at some of how application of Title IX can be enhanced, we may say that there will be a collection of other factors that will contribute, influence and even determine its effectiveness both in an application and as a law, or what we may call the challenges of its application and applicability.

First, there is the will of the stakeholders to uphold the law. The existence of a law in writing or any other form doesn’t necessarily guarantee its religious observance. After giving the law to the people, they more often than not determine the course it takes by the precedents they set. Because of this therefore the effectiveness of title IX to maintain gender equity in institutions will largely be dependent on the practitioner to observe it (Rapparport, 2011).

For instance, if in case an institution’s administrative organ is adamant to observing gender equity and the records that show the imbalances are deliberately confined by the system while at the same time portraying an outer picture of great achievements in the application of Title IX, it will require much more to establish where the disparities are. Therefore, besides the requirements of the law, there has to be an internal drive to apply it. This then leads us to the role of the practitioner in enhancing the law as well as giving recommendations and suggestions.

Title IX is a law that directly impacts public institutions and is therefore open to public debate almost at all times. At the epicentre of its effective implementation is the person who may be an administrator, employee or student who acts within the environment where the law is largely applicable. In this regard, the people’s views, feelings, observations must be given preference in making amendments or improvements to the law. This can only be done through having open discussions and an accommodating environment that will take into consideration their suggestions (Eckes & Toutkoushian, 2006). A good example would be the suggestion made by athletics directors stating that by eliminating men’s non-revenue programs they may be able to cater for their budget in a better way.

References

  1. Eckes, S., & Toutkoushian, R. K. (2006). Legal issues and statistical approaches to reverse pay discrimination in higher education. Research in Higher Education,
  2. Kuznick, L., & Ryan, M. (2008). Changing social norms? Title IX and legal activism comments from spring 2007. Harvard Journal of Law & Gender, 31(2), 367-422.
  3. Rapp port, E. (2011). Title IX: the law and its practice. 
  4. Sandler, B. R. (2000). Too strong for a woman’–the five words that created title IX. Equity & Excellence in Education, 33(1), 9.
  5. Walters, J., & McNeely, C. L. (2010). Recasting title IX: Addressing gender equity in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics professoriate. Review of Policy Research, 27(3), 317-332. doi:10.1111/j.1541-1338.2010.00444.x

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