Hofstede’s Framework And Understanding Of Cultures Essay Example For College

Geert Hofstede designed Hofstede Framework in response to the need to understand communication across various cultures. The framework is essential as it depicts the different effects of a given society’s cultural practices on the values held by the members of that society. The model also helps understand how various people’s values relate to their behavior (Vollero et al., 2020). The method used in analyzing various social issues is found from factor analysis, a structured model for understanding the issues under investigation (Vollero et al., 2020). From the experiment conducted by Hofstede, he found out that the theory can be used in different settings and organizations with varied cultures (Vollero et al., 2020). He also observed that companies with more employees from different cultures understand each other and contribute to the company’s overall goal (Vollero et al., 2020). The original theory was tested by surveying IBM workers derived from the whole world from 1967 to 1973. However, the model has been revised and refined to help address any inconsistencies in the expected outcomes, making it more relevant in understanding different cultures in modern settings.

The framework has been reevaluated and redefined over the years to capture new and changing concepts in the social realm. In particular, the framework initially consisted of uncertainty avoidance, power distance, masculinity-femininity, and individualism-collectivism. Later studies by Hofstede have added ideas such as long-term orientation and indulgence versus self-restraint (Vollero et al., 2020). At the moment, these are the significant areas that are attributed to communication within different cultures. Hofstede remains active in cross-cultural psychology and is consulted in this particular field (Vollero et al., 2020). Consequently, since no changes or contradictions have been made against his framework, it follows that the model is significant in understanding cultures.


Vollero, A., Siano, A., Palazzo, M., & Amabile, S. (2020). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and corporate social responsibility in online communication: Are they independent constructs? Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 27(1), 53-64.

The Sociopolitical Perspectives In The “Black Panther” By Ryan Coogler

Black Panther is a 2018 film that is based on Marvel Comics and has an exemplary representation of African perceptive in various issues. The storyline is based on a certain kingdom known as Wakanda where a global revolution under the king by the name T’challa is witnessed after plans to abandon the country’s policies. This paper presents a thesis on the sociopolitical perspectives in the film Black Panther by exploring the major themes relevant to the African diaspora.

The sociopolitical system in Wakanda kingdom is a topic of interest since many interactions depict how the norms and values of the society then attribute to their lifestyle. In one of the representations of the film, pan-Africanism and nationalism are evident, especially in the view of politics (Farr 83). The film perfectly incorporates various relationship that is seen between the Wakanda society in terms of social interaction within black people outside the community. Killmonger shows the world the power of the kingdom and makes viewers realize the greatness which gives the ideology of pan-Africanism. T’challa, the head of the kingdom, maintains the traditions to makes sure the strength and power of Wakanda society are respected (Saunders 141). Killmonger showcases how the world would be better, more so black society globally, when African resources are equally shared with the fellow black community.

The other thought on what Black Panther presents is African identity. The tribes in Wakanda can be seen with traditional grooming styles and emblems. The flashbacks to the black community and Oakland give the traditional perspective when compared to the modern world. Also, the loyalty and allegiance of people in the society are seen, for instance, when Okoye resolves to abide by whoever is the king even if he did not select the person (Glenn 14). When T’challa dies, his family keeps fighting to ensure that Killmonger’s rule is not embraced entirely. It shows that there are still roots of the kingdom by its people and the remaining group wants to make the region have the originality and identity of the culture.

African sovereignty and colonization are also depicted where T’challa is said to have been raised without experiencing the colonial moments. Unlike T’challa, Killmonger is aware because he was raised in the US and was aware of the social injustices happening, such as racism, slavery, and oppression. The perspective of thriving as a secluded country shows Wakanda as a sovereign country (Juan 26). Additionally, Oakland’s mission to get resources and technology in Wakanda shows the avenging ideology from colonial times.

The other representation in the film is on women’s role and appearance. Women are seen in their glory times and have leadership and grace of living away from objection. The beautiful melanin is aesthetically denoted and their natural hair to show self-acceptance on women is still key in the film (Saunders 144). Therefore, the film’s main ideas and themes are centered on the African diaspora’s move towards civilization despite opposing forces that are still witnessed currently.

The film Black Panther is a key masterpiece that many people can learn, especially on the spiritual ties and battles caused by the system of alliances, notions on the progressive nation, and competition on supremacy aspects. The illustrations of characters and their roles are key to symbolize how modern Africa is transforming after the scramble and partitioning of the continent. For any person with a political and social agenda, they can extract some important viewpoints from the film.

Works Cited

Farr, Arnold L. “Viewing the Black Panther Movie Through the Lenses of Liberation Philosophy and Liberation Theology.” The Acorn, vol. 18, no. 1, 2018, pp. 81-85. Philosophy Documentation Centre.

Glenn, Dallas. “The Political Genius of Erik Killmonger in Black Panther.” SSRN Electronic Journal, vol. 21, no. 34, 2018, pp. 11-16. Elsevier BV.

Juan, Zhang. “The Political Messages Embodied in Marvel’s Film Black Panther.” Journal Of Literature and Art Studies, vol. 9, no. 7, 2019, pp. 23-27. David Publishing Company.

Saunders, Robert A. “(Profitable) Imaginaries of Black Power: The Popular and Political Geographies of Black Panther.” Political Geography, vol. 69, no. 6, 2019, pp. 139-149. Elsevier BV.

Using Music To Portray And Emphasize Identity


A cross-cultural universal, music permeates every community on earth in one guise or another. It is a ubiquitous activity present in every known society. Manifestly, individuals demonstrate variable musical preferences that help them portray and emphasize their identity without saying it aloud. Surprisingly, scientists know little about the underlying structure and influence of these individual tastes. Nonetheless, the relationship between music and identity continues to thrive, and an investigation of personal preferences across time reveals a consistent trend.

My Buddy” Henry Burr 1922

Description of the Music

Henry Burr did a rendition of “My Buddy,” originally composed by Walter Donaldson and Gus Khan in 1922. The sentimental song has a poetic appeal with carefully organized lyrics and rhythm. It has a total of four quatrains, two of which are choruses. It is calm and gentle and although the verses have different words, they feature the same melody. There are no bridge sections, and instrumentals occur more predominantly during the transition.

Artist Backgrounds

Henry Burr was born Harry Haley McClaskey on January 15, 1882, in St. Stephen, New Brunswick, Canada, to a tobacco and candy store owner. He had many pseudonyms, including Henry Burr, which he used to produce more than 12,000 recordings, but no one has confirmed this claim. Burr performed in quartets, trios, duets, and individually as a tenor artist. He died on April 6, 1941, in Chicago, Illinois, from throat cancer.

Social Context

The social context of the song is the separation of best friends. The artist laments that, in the book of life, it was written that he and his buddy must part. In the chorus, he admits that he thinks about his buddy all through the day and that nights have become long since they split. The song, though melodic and sentimental, addresses the issue of pain and suffering associated with parting.

Its Significance to Me

The song is significant because it reminds me of people that we once were close but are no longer in contact. Every time I listen to the composition, it gives me nostalgia. I also love the song because its mellow factor, consisting of a smooth and relaxing style, represents my mood when reminiscing about my past. Notably, personalized music is a more central and prominent fixture in many people’s lives (Nave et al. 1145). It is my go-to song when thinking about my childhood years and past life in general.

We Belong Together” Ritchie Valens 1959

Description of the Music

Ritchie Valens released a gentle, natural, and harmonious rendition of Robert and Johnny’s song “We Belong Together.” The original version – an American rhythm and blues (R ‘n’ B) hit was released in 1958. The rendition’s sound has an urban factor defined by percussion and rhythm thanks to its four short, similarly-sounding verses. It qualifies as a refrain because it has the same melody and almost the same words in every stanza. Instrumentals appear in the beginning and during verse-to-verse transitions.

Artist Background

Richard Stephen Valenzuela, commonly referred to as Ritchie Valens, was born in Pacoima, San Fernando Valley, Los Angeles, the USA, on May 13, 1941. Musicians and musical historians generally consider him one of the pioneers of rock and roll and the Chicano rock movement’s forefather. He released the “We Belong Together” rendition aged 17 in 1959. Unfortunately, he died the same year in a plane crash in Iowa.

Social Context

The song is about an artist expressing his feelings to an unidentified person that they are meant for each other. The artist is almost obsessed with the other person, writing that they belong to only them for eternity. He even swears by everything he has that the other person – probably a woman – will always be his.

Its Significance to Me

The song is significant to me because it represents my feelings when I am in love. It is characterized by an outpouring of love and affection bordering on obsession, and I admit to feeling this way sometimes when deeply in love. Indeed, listening to the song during a breakup elicits deep emotional reactions characterized by restlessness and crying. Indeed, it is possible to predict a person’s emotional stability and conscientiousness from music listening behavior (Anderson et al. 8). The work always reminds me that when people fall in love, they should strive to protect their bond rather than have external forces separate them.

My Girl” The Temptations 1965

Description of the Music

“My Girl” is a piece of soul music that The Temptations recorded for the Gordy record label (now Motown Records). It is a combination of rudiments of African-American gospel music, jazz, and rhythm, and blues. Its funky, secular testifying coupled with catchy rhythms and extemporaneous dancing create an urban factor that made it The Temptation’s signature song and their first number-one single in the United States.

Artist Background

The Temptations was founded in 1960 in Detroit, Michigan, by David Ruffin, Melvin Franklin, Paul Williams, Otis Williams, and Eddie Kendricks. Of the five members, only Otis Williams still survives and carries the group’s name. The group was most active in the 1960s and 70s, during which time they released numerous successful albums and singles. Their collaborative work with Norman Whitfield contributed to the evolution of rhythm and blues and pioneered psychedelic soul.

Social Context

The song is about the appreciation of a girl by the artists. It tells the story of an individual mesmerized by a girl that makes him feel he got sunshine on a cloudy day and the month of May when it is cold outside. Although five band members perform the song, the message is personal and affects an individual. The artist further claims that his girl has given him much honey (that the bees envy him) and a sweeter song than the birds in the trees.

Its Significance to Me

The song is significant to me because it expresses a seemingly genuine and heartfelt love confession. The artist is elated by his girl and feels that she gives him everything he ever wants. In this regard, the song expresses my thoughts about love and being in love. The feeling of having a trustworthy partner brings a lot of joy to me.

Purple Rain” Prince 1984

Description of the Music

An iconic power ballad, “Purple Rain” is a title track from an eponymous 1984 album. Prince and the Revolution – his backing band – produced and performed it in 1984. It is on the list of Rolling Stone’s “500 Greatest Songs of All Time.” The song is rich and raucous sounding with a distinct mellow and a somewhat deep shrill. It falls squarely under the soft rock genre, given its rhythm and lyrical appeal.

Artist Background

Prince Rogers Nelson, commonly known as Prince, was born on June 7, 1958, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He was a singer-songwriter, guitar virtuoso, record producer, director, and multi-instrumentalist. Today, most people regard him as one of the most influential musicians of his generation. Music lovers remember him for, among other things, his eclectic work in various genres, flamboyancy, androgyny, and wide vocal range. Because of Prince’s passing, it is difficult to listen to his music without looking through the prism of his absence (Tudahl). He died on April 21, 2016, from an accidental overdose of fentanyl.

Social Context

“Purple Rain” is a love song about a seemingly troubled relationship. The singer admits that he never meant to cause their lover any sorrow or pain. Instead, he wanted to see them laughing in the purple rain and that it is such a shame that the friendship had to end. However, the artist hints at willing to reunite with the estranged friend or lover to guide them back to their happy place.

Its Significance Me

The song is significant because it represents many modern relationships where misunderstandings lead to separation. Listening to it often reminds me of the importance of having good intentions in every relationship and communicating clearly and coherently to avoid doubt and ambiguity. The song also reminds me of the importance of practicing restraints to avoid regrets later. Indeed, prevention is better than cure as some things we do may cause permanent damages.

“American Idiot” Green Day 2004

Description of the Music

A protest song, “American Idiot” is the title track from Green Day’s seventh album. It falls under two general genres; popular punk and punk rock. Written in the A♭ major key, the song has four chords and the I-IV-♭VII-IV-I-♭VII progression. The solo and the chorus share the IV-I-V-I passage.

Artist Background

The American rock band Green Day has existed since 1987 following its formation in California’s East Bay. Members include Billie Joe Armstrong – the lead vocalist and guitarist – and Mike Dirnt – a backing vocalist and bassist. A drummer – Tre Cool – joined the band in 1990 as a replacement for John Kiffmeyer.

Social Context

“American Idiot” is an explicitly political song that contends that public idiocy and paranoia result from mass media activities and cites the cable news coverage of the war in Iraq as an example. The lead vocalist laments that the broadcast of violent content intercut with advertisements crossed the line of effective and responsible journalism. The song was also inspired by “That’s How I Like It,” another piece that seemed to glorify what Joe Armstrong loathes.

Its Significance to Me

I like the song because it is addressing political issues in society. Listening to it reminds me that sometimes we are blinded by the media content we consume. It helps me sieve through information and be more careful about what I believe in or promote.

Works Cited

Anderson, Ian, et al. ““Just the Way You Are”: Linking Music Listening on Spotify and Personality.” Social Psychological and Personality Science vol. 11, no. 5, 2020, pp. 1-12.

Nave, Gideon, et al. “Musical preferences predict personality: evidence from active listening and facebook likes.” Psychological Science, vol. 29, no. 7, 2018, pp. 1145-1158. DOI: 10.1177/0956797618761659

Tudahl, Duane. Prince and the Purple Rain era studio sessions: 1983 and 1984. Rowman & Littlefield, 2018.

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