Hollywood Film Critique: Psychological Disorders Sample Assignment

Dissociative Disorders in Identity 2003

Identity is a 2003 thriller film that was directed by James Mangold that captured audiences due to its characterization as a gripping murder-mystery with various unexpected turns and an unforgettable ending. In addition to its acclamations as one of the best “single-location” film, the movie provides insights into one of the most misunderstood mental illness, dissociative disorders (DID). The primary narrative of the film is set at a motel that is located in the middle of the desert. The story unfolds at night in an endless downpour. In the movie, ten different individuals with different secrets are thrown together in the motel (Mangold, 2003). Soon it is depicted that gruesome murders are taking place and the ten newcomers are being killed one by one.

However, the movie has another plot where a midnight judicial proceeding is taking place. The convicted individual, who was scheduled to be executed the following day, is making a final argument on his defence through the application of the insanity plea. The defence maintains that the client has DID and as such is not legally responsible for the multiple murders that he committed and for which he was sentenced to death because he did not understand what he was doing during the killings (Mangold, 2003). It is almost when the one hour thirty minutes film is about to end does the audience makes a connection between the two plots. It is deductive that the occurrences in the motel are in the mind of the killer, Malcolm Rivers, increasing the audiences desire to establish which of the personalities is committing the murders (Indra, 2017). The killings in the motel are essentially Rivers way of trying to reduce the conflicting personalities in his mind.

Dissociative disorder is a rare mental illness that is diagnosed when an individual’s mind develops and showcases other personalities which can be of different sex, background, intelligence in addition to different body temperature, heart-rate and personal attributes such as hand-writing from that of the principal individual (Gillig, 2009). In most cases, dissociative disorders occur due to experiencing traumatic events, which prompts the body to provide an involuntary escape from real life, therefore, resulting to devastating consequences such as murders as depicted in “Identity.”

There are various arguments on the existence of DID. The supporters describe the mental illness as a disconnection between a person’s thoughts, memories and feelings as such affecting the sense of who they are. They argue that discontinuity in thought is a normal process that each person has experienced for instance through daydreaming. In the case of DID previously acknowledged as multiple personality disorder (MPD), there is evidence of two or more distinct personalities often due to high levels of disconnection due to the intensity of the traumatic event. However, some theorists argue that the diagnosis of DID and MPD are bogus basing their argument on the fact that MPD was reclassified to DID, which in their perception illustrates instability and the controversy associated with both DID and MPD (Gillig, 2009). These theorists argue if cases of DID and MPD exist, they are rare and as such it is necessary for medical professions to explore other explanations such as credible psychological disturbances such as the post-traumatic stress disorder and drug use among others before settling on DID.

While the film provides an in-depth analysis of dissociative disorder in showcasing the capabilities and the adverse consequences of an individual living with such an illness, in my opinion, the use of the multiple personality disorder is somewhat exploitative and unsatisfactory. Undeniably, while the film presents the disease as a condition characterized with versatility, it heavily relies on the clinched and derogatory perception of the mental illness as such increasingly the stereotype and stigma associated with multiple personality disorder. The movie applies dissociative disorder primarily for the intention of driving the plot as such undermining essential aspects related to multiple personality disorder, which is a shame considering the film still attract viewership one and a half decades after its original production.

Personality Disorders – American Psycho

The film American Psycho produced in 2000 depicts a 27 year old man, Patrick Bateman, who showcases symptoms of alternative psychopathic ego. In the movie, Bateman is a banking executive in an investment located in New York. In the film, Bateman expresses the desire to be on top irrespective of the costs. Bateman kills strangers he meets as well as other individuals that he perceives poses a threat to his success. While he is a human being, with flesh and blood and the capacity to feel, Bateman concentrates on his ability to fit in the society since he does not feel human. Bateman portrays the “need” and the desire to kill people in efforts of fulfilling his homicidal tendencies (Ghita, 2014).

There are various scenes throughout the film where Bateman is seen lashing out on others as such showing aspects of abnormal psychology. In the movie, the audience does not see all the scenes where Bateman kills his victims, however, in an attempt to confess, Bateman leaves a voicemail for his lawyer where he details his homicidal activities (Harron, 2000). However, despite his confession, his lawyer does not believe him and laughs the voicemail off maintaining that Bateman is joking. At the end of the movie, Bateman states that he is in pain and does not hope for a better world for either himself or other people in the society, but instead he wishes he would inflict pain to others around him.

In the film, Bateman showcases various characteristics that are consistent with a schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, a borderline personality disorder in addition to exhibiting obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) tendencies. Some of the common attributes associated with SPD include; lack of close confidants, odd, eccentric or peculiar beliefs, opinions and behaviours, paranoid ideation, unusual perceptual experiences, more than average social anxiety and constricted effect (Regier, Kuhl, & Kupfer, 2013). Currently, the diagnosis of SPD is grounded on the exhibitions of more than five of the above symptoms.

Majority of the symptoms associated with SPD are common in antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. OCD, on the other hand, is characterized by two different concepts including obsessions which are recurrent and intrusive thoughts and impulses and compulsions which are overt actions that are done in efforts of reducing anxiety. The psychological analysis of Bateman reveals he is a man without any sense of identity. His day to day activities is characterized by an obsession for acquisition, social status and designated consumption. However, the narcissist is so empty with limited social interaction that he seeks to externalize his inner turmoil by exhibiting sadistic and homicidal tendencies and acts depicting borderline personality where he is executive by day and murderer by night.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition is the most recent publication of mental illness since the fourth edition in 1994. In older versions of the DSM personality disorders had axis classification, however, currently, DSM applies a non-axial methodology of classification. The previously axis one are the most common types of disturbances in the society including anxiety disorders, mood disorders, eating disorders, psychotic disorders, substance use disorders and dissociative disorders (Regier, Kuhl, & Kupfer, 2013). Personality and developmental disorders such as borderline personality were in the second axis. Personality disorders are different from axis one disorders since they are evident since childhood and have the capability of affecting the individual for a lifetime as is the case of Bateman in American Psycho, unlike axis one disorders that are triggered at some point in an individual’s life.

“American Psycho” provides an insight into the reasoning and actions associated with various personality disorders and the consequences of the disease not only to the society but also to the individual with the mental illness. Bateman character convinces that audience to identify with his antisocial tendencies while drawing disgust for his actions simultaneously. In my opinion, the movie convincingly illustrate various personality disorders as such increases the audience understanding of mental illness therefore working to reduce the stigma associated with mental illness in the society.

References

Ghita, C. (2014). Pastiche and Abjection in American Psycho. Thesis and Dissertations, 1-38.

Gillig, P. M. (2009). Dissociative identity disorder: A controversial diagnosis. Psychiatry, 6(3), 24-29.

Harron, M. (Director). (2000). American Psycho [Motion Picture].

Indra, A. R. (2017). An analysis on Malcolm River’s dissociative disorder in identity movie directed by James Mangold. Dissertations and Thesis, 1-34.

Mangold, J. (Director). (2003). Identity [Motion Picture].

Regier, D. A., Kuhl, E. A., & Kupfer, D. J. (2013). The DSM-5: Classification and Criteria Changes. World Psychiatry, 12(2), 92-98.

Do Public Concerns Over Misinformation Affect Or Restore The Credibility Of The Official Media? The Case Of 9/11 Terror Attack Sample Assignment

Introduction

Journalism is currently under a state of flux as new digital platforms unleash innovative practices while at the same time fostering the creation and spread of disinformation and hoaxes. As such, the contemporary societies are under siege as misinformation, post-truth, fake news, and alternative truth increasingly undermine the very core of democracy. Driven by citizen journalism, foreign actors, and the proliferation of cable news and talk radio, West (2017) notes that modern information sources have become contentious, leading to a steep decline in public trust in traditional journalism. The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic has particularly heightened public concerns over misinformation as individuals and scholars continue to struggle to understand the dynamics of the crises that have claimed millions of lives over the last two years (Pennycook and Rand 2021, p.388). While the distortion of facts and truth was disseminated through word of mouth, tapestries, and manuscripts in the past, modern technology has created new vectors, including social media platforms. Although misinformation and fake news are not new phenomena, the technical tools that exist today have proved to be a logarithmic multiplier of the impact of false information (Fernández-Muñoz et al. 2021, p.245). Among the most critical effects created by misinformation is the distrust of the mainstream media. Unfortunately, public concerns over misinformation do not restore official media’s credibility because this traditional journalism significantly fails to meet contemporary consumers’ preferences for immediacy, partiality, transparency, and post-publication corrections. A wide range of psychologists, including Douglas et al. (2017), have noted that conspiracy theories trigger higher emotional arousal compared to factual news, a tendency that lowers the public willingness to turn to official media in case of misinformation. Besides, there is a heightened concern that official media have fallen prey to nuanced efforts by parties such as politicians and business people to throttle their independence.

The case of 9/11 attacks

The current study details how and why public concerns over misinformation adversely affect the credibility of information from reputable news organizations. To achieve this objective, the study draws from a wide range of burgeoning literature and theories on the psychology of misinformation. The literature review findings are complemented by a case study on the 9/11 terror attacks and how misinformation about the event has impacted the credibility of the official media. The 9/11 attacks were a series of suicide attacks and airline hijackings that were committed by al-Qaeda, an Islamic extremist group in 2001 against targets in the United States (Ilardi 2009, p.172). These attacks, which went down as the deadliest terrorist acts in US history, caused extensive destruction, claimed thousands of lives, and triggered enormous efforts by the government to combat terrorism. Kellner (2004) noted that the shocking global event denominated public attention and provoked reams of discourse, publications, and reflection. A May 2002 HBO film, In Memoriam, argued that the attack was the most documented event in history as it was documented by a wide range of parties, including documentary filmmakers, news crews, and amateur photographers and videographers. Conspiracy theories appeared over the internet just a few hours after the attack, and to date activists’ groups such as the 9/11 Truth Movement still argue that some facts were hidden from the public by the official media (Sampson 2010, p.7). The intense and prolonged coverage of the event makes it an ideal case study in analysing how public concerns over misinformation impacts their preference towards official media.

The misinformation effect

Misinformation is broadly defined by scholars such as Loftus (2005) as misleading or false information that is unwittingly shared to mislead or deceive the recipients. Misinformation is disseminated in a number of ways. For instance, Lewandowsky et al. (2012) notes that the timely news coverage of unfolding events creates room for error and occasionally requires corrections. As a case in point, the death toll after the 9/11 attack in the United States was incorrectly reported during the occurrence of the event, and the accurate information could only be reported after the disaster came to an end. Lewandowsky et al. (2012) notes that a piece of information that is considered “correct” at any given point can later turn out to be erroneous. Apart from the errors that result from the piecemeal approach to knowledge construction, there are other various sources of misinformation, including rumours, fiction, and governments and political propaganda. As argued by Lewandowsky et al. (2012), the human culture has traditionally depended on people passing on information, making rumours, myths, and fiction an important source of misinformation. For instance, in 2006, the majority of the Democrats believed that the George W Bush administration either assisted the terrorists or took no action to deter its occurrence despite having critical information on the impending terror attack. Similarly, the Bush administration also juxtaposed the 9/11 attack and Iraq, identifying the nation as the frontline in the “War on Terror” (Reese et al. 2009, p.777). However, these conspiracy theories did not have significant traction in the mainstream media (Lewandowsky et al. 2012, p.108).

Loftus (2005) argues that the misinformation effect often arises when one is exposed to misleading information that impairs their memory. This could be explained by Allport and Lepkin’s (1945) observation that repeated exposure to a statement increases its acceptance as true. The scholars’ classic study on rumour transmission indicated that simple repetition is the strongest predictor of belief during wartime rumours. In the absence of a consensus, the repetition effect tends to create a perceived social consensus, which serves to solidify and maintain belief in misinformation.

Concerns over misinformation

A survey conducted by Pew Research Centre (2016) shows that most Americans are concerned over fabricated news stories, with 64% of them saying that these stories cause a great deal of confusion about the basic facts of the current events and issues. This perception is shared across different demographic characteristics, incomes, partisan affiliations, and education levels. Pew Research Centre (2016) survey of 1002 Americans also indicated that people had a fair amount of confidence in their ability to detect fake news, with 35% of them stating that they often view political news stories online that are made up. A similar study conducted by Kiousis (2001) shows that people are generally sceptical of the news emanating from official media channels but do rate newspapers with the highest credibility, followed by online media and then television. In other words, Kiousis (2001) found that the public opinions on official media credibility are correlated to the media outlet.

In line with a wide range of cognitive ideologies, including the backfire effect, one can argue that public concern over misinformation affects the credibility of the official media. Lewandowsky et al. (2012) notes that in complex real-world situations, people tend to refer more to information in line with their attitudes and become more immune to corrections, such as that retractions may backfire the initially held beliefs. The backfire effect is a cognitive bias that causes one to reject evidence that may counter their beliefs. Due to these biases, people who have been subjected to misinformation may not positively perceive contradicting information from official media. A study undertaken by Prasad et al. (2009) has shown that respondents’ willingness to believe in a particular kind of information is the primary causal agent for misinterpretation rather than the presence or absence of correct information. When subjected to information challenging their previously held beliefs, the participants came up with counterarguments or simply remained unmoved. The backfire effect is not limited to the correction of misinformation, as Byrne and Hart (2009) note that messages intended to promote positive health effects tend to often backfire. Such messages are the campaigns that are often aimed at reducing smoking, which backfire and ironically lead to more smoking rates.

Dowson-Zeidan et al. (2014) are among the scholars who have directly explored whether official media can be trusted amidst the public concerns over misinformation. In their study, these scholars focus on Tunisia and Libya, two countries where state broadcasters continue to dominate in news coverage. The collected data shows that Libyan believe that each broadcaster has an agenda that is at odds with truthful reporting. This means that the public concerns over misinformation adversely impact the credibility of official media. The participants in the study undertaken by Dowson-Zeidan et al. (2014) gave examples of times when programs on the state broadcaster were taken off the air because they were critical to the government and contradicted with ideologies purported by the ruling officials.

Official media in a post-truth environment

Much of the studies on misinformation and fake news revolve around being in a post-truth environment, where contemporary media wilfully engage in misleading, deceptive, and deceitful communication. Gualda and Rúas (2019) note that, in the age of information and manipulation, televised infotainment and fiction provide the audience with a reality constructed according to their desires, cognition, and ideas so that it can be appealing to them. Post-truth journalism entails the manipulation of the truth, shaped and embellished to the taste of the audience (Gualda and Rúas, 2019, p.180). In a post-truth environment, the ability to discern facts from the manipulated narrative is compromised, and therefore public concerns over misinformation may not enhance the credibility of official media. Besides, it’s worth noting that the official media construct reality according to the audience’s desires, particularly in the face of competition from a wide range of other media (Gualda and Rúas, 2019, p.180).

Gualda and Rúas (2019) argued that public concerns over the credibility of information are often influenced by the attribution of quality, perceived trustworthiness of the message, the source or the media, and depends on the simultaneous interaction between multiple dimensions, including bias and precision. In order to become credible to the public, the journalism practice has historically been incorporating science-based observation and verification techniques, including the use of photography, the reporter’s signature, code of ethics, and the policy of correcting errors (Träsel et al. 2019, p.459). This means that the source alone is not an adequate indicator of information credibility, implying that the use of official media does not necessarily increase the perceived credibility of the information. As noted by Träsel et al. (2019), providing evidence to support information credibility is not a necessity but an obligation. This means that official media may not always include supporting evidence or justification for its information, and therefore the concerns over misinformation among the audience may not increase the credibility of the official media.

Conspiracy theories

A wide range of scholars, including Enders et al. (2021), have also attempted to explore the dissemination of conspiracy theories and misinformation by different media. Uscinski (2018) has defined a conspiracy theory as an alternative explanation of a historical, ongoing, or future event, different from what is offered by a certain group of people, such as the ruling government. Most of the conspiracy theories accuse a powerful group of conspiring and hiding some critical information from the public. Conspiracy theories have a variety of explanations of what happened during the 9/11 attack, often involving insider knowledge by President George Bush and his advisors (Hagen 2011, p.3). These conspiracy theories are often spread through social media platforms rather than official media. The first 9/11 conspiracy theories appeared on the internet just a few hours after the terror attacks and argued that the US government staged the attacks with the aim of justifying the decision to launch warfare against Iraq. The fact that the collapse of the World Trade Centre, which was the key target of the attack, was announced in a live report by BBC and CNN has been cited by conspiracy theorists as evidence that the attack was part of an inside-job plot (Griffin 2012, p.4). As noted by Ren et al. (2021), the public tends to be significantly interested in conspiracy theories compared to factual news because these theories trigger higher emotional arousal. This means that the public may not turn to official media in case of misinformation because the conspiracy theories are often shared through social media platforms. Supposedly an official newspaper wrote that the 9/11 attack was carried out by Iraq, while an unofficial media reported that the president secretly plotted that attack and paid an Al-Qaeda group to execute it. While the official post is more likely to be true, the second one is more likely to be engaging and would effectively trigger a reaction and grab the attention of the audience. The study undertaken by Enders et al. (2021) has shown that the more people are likely to see or read conspiracies in all manner of political and cultural events, the stronger the relationship between the beliefs in dubious ideas and the use of social media platforms.

A study undertaken by Gruzd and Mai (2020) has further shown that conspiracy theories and misinformation driven by social media platforms and politics are much harder to root out using fact-checking and directing people to credible sources of information. The study found that the widespread use of #FilmYourHospital on Twitter made the pandemic look like a hoax as people would take pictures and videos at their nearby hospital with no cases of Covid-19. The coordinated propagation of the hashtag and conspiracy theories on the pandemic manipulated the public conversations by making them appear more popular than they were (Gruzd and Mai 2020, p.6). Prominent accounts, including pro-Trump users boosted these tweets, and within a few days, the wave of propagation has spread outside the nation. This expansion occurred despite the fact that official media were offering more accurate information on the Covid-19 pandemic, proving that false and misleading claims that are driven by social media technologies and politics are much harder to root out. As argued by Theocharis et al. (2021), while the internet has always served as a meeting place for conspiracy theorists and fringe groups, social media has added a new layer to this reality. However, Theocharis et al.’s (2021) study has shown that not all social media platforms should be painted using the same brush as Twitter has more adverse effects on conspiracy beliefs than other platforms, including Messenger, WhatsApp, and YouTube.

Media Political Bias

Political bias has been a feature of mass media since its birth, mainly because the official media has significantly been funded by powerful social groups, including political parties. Although media deregulation processes have been focusing on placing the majority of broadcast media in private hands, there stills exist a strong government presence in broadcast media in many countries, including developed nations. Croteau et al. (1997) note that governments serve as the organizing structure in all nations, influencing the activities and freedom of the media. The tension between media agency and structure creates varying political biases. A study conducted by Weatherly et al. (2007) found that the public perceives CNN’s headlines to be more liberal as compared to Fox News’ headlines, which were described as biased towards conservative political positions. Fox News has long been accused of favouring the Republican Party and of right-wing bias, mostly by those on the left. As showed by Weatherly et al. (2007), most people in the country have accused Fox of being too focused on opinion content and not sharing “fact-based” reality. To this end, this group of the audience may not turn to official media such as Fox News for information in cases of concerns over misinformation.

A study undertaken by Bennett and Livingston (2018) has also shown that the declining public confidence in institutions, including those mandated in releasing official information, undermines the credibility of the information and opens the public to alternative information sources. In the case of the 9/11 attacks, the heavily trafficked and networked media linked in and out of broader networks for political foundations, Astroturf and political organizations, think tanks, and political organizers. Bennett and Livingston (2018) have noted that what appears to be misinformation to some people may actually engage a significant part of the public at deeper emotional levels, particularly when linked to sensitive aspects such as racism, welfare nationalism, and anti-immigrant themes. Once established among sizeable populations, this alternative information threatens the centrist democratic order and consequently impacts official media credibility (Bennett and Livingston 2018, p.135).

Information complexity and heuristics

Approximately two decades after the 9/11 terror attack, a search on YouTube related to the attack turns up thousands of hits, while a Google search yields more than 8 million results. For many young people, including students, who have come of age post 9/11, the internet is the first source of information on the event. However, the numerous and varying information and conspiracy theories they are likely to encounter from the internet are likely to be more confusing than helpful in understanding the event. Faced with information complexities, scholars such as Goldstein and Gigerenzer (2002) have shown that people tend to leverage on mental shortcuts or heuristics. A heuristic is a mental shortcut that allows one to solve a problem, pass judgment, or make a decision with minimal mental effort. While heuristics can free up limited cognitive resources and reduce the burden of searching through information complexities, it can also lead people to miss critical information and act on unjust biases, prejudice, and stereotypes (Goldstein and Gigerenze 2002, p.75). Similarly, the challenge of going through and choosing between multiple sources of information creates room for confirmation bias, pluralistic ignorance, halo effects, and motivated reasoning (Newman 2009, p.15). Newman (2009) have argued that people tend to pragmatically construct mental representations that allows them to function in the complex societies. Confirmation bias refers to the tendency among people to believe information that confirms their existing beliefs while rejecting the information that contradicts them. This concept is similar to motivated reasoning, which refers to the tendency to use reasoning skills to believe what one chooses to believe instead of using the skills to determine the truth. This means that people are less likely to turn to official media in case of concern over misinformation because heuristics and similar cognitive biases are easier than conducting complex analyses. The 9/11 attack is uniquely easy to recall, and therefore the public is more likely to rely on media that confirm their beliefs in case of any concern over misinformation.

Conclusion

The in-depth research into the misinformation effect and related phenomena has illustrated how psychologically vulnerable people are to fabricated information, fake news, and entrenched cognitive biases. Unfortunately, a review of a wide range of literature has also indicated that the public concerns over misinformation do not increase the credibility of official media because of the biases, prejudice, and distrust associated with these media. Twenty years after the occurrence of the 9/11 attack, the scepticism that was first revealed by the 9/11 conspiracy theories has been spread through various media, the internet, and metastasized. This case study highlights the failure of the official media to disseminate fake news and conspiracy theories by leveraging on their perceived credibility. Misinformation and fake news tend to spread when people do not trust the media, creating an audience for conspiracy theorists and fake news creators to spread their messages to. In line with a wide range of cognitive ideologies, including the backfire effect, heuristics, cognitive dissonance, and motivated reasoning, one can conclude that public concerns over misinformation affect the official media’s credibility. As radical parties and movements continue to rise in power, fake news and disinformation will, unfortunately, become part of communication strategies for destabilising opponents, and traditional journalism, under the political influence, will critically lose its credibility. This observation emphasizes the need to revise political communication scholarship and theories to problematize dominant assumptions on the flow of information between institutional actors, the public, and the media.

References

Bennett, W.L. and Livingston, S., 2018. The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions. European journal of communication33(2), pp.122-139.

Byrne, S. and Hart, P.S., 2009. The boomerang effect a synthesis of findings and a preliminary theoretical framework. Annals of the International Communication Association33(1), pp.3-37.

Croteau, D., Hoynes, W. and Milan, S., 1997. Media/society: Industries, images, and audiences (p. 424). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

Douglas, K.M., Sutton, R.M. and Cichocka, A., 2017. The psychology of conspiracy theories. Current directions in psychological science26(6), pp.538-542.

Dowson-Zeidan, N., Eaton, T. and Wespieser, K., 2014. After the revolution: Libyan and Tunisian media through the people’s eyes. BBC Media Action: Bridging Theory and Practice.

Enders, A.M., Uscinski, J.E., Seelig, M.I., Klofstad, C.A., Wuchty, S., Funchion, J.R., Murthi, M.N., Premaratne, K. and Stoler, J., 2021. The relationship between social media use and beliefs in conspiracy theories and misinformation. Political behavior, pp.1-24.

Fernández-Muñoz, C., Rubio-Moraga, Á.L. and Álvarez-Rivas, D., 2022. The Multiplier Effect on the Dissemination of False Speeches on Social Networks: Experiment during the Silly Season in Spain. In Combating Fake News with Computational Intelligence Techniques (pp. 245-258). Springer, Cham.

Goldstein, D.G. and Gigerenzer, G., 2002. Models of ecological rationality: the recognition heuristic. Psychological review109(1), p.75.

Griffin, D.R., 2012. The new pearl harbor revisited: 9/11, the cover-up, and the expose. Interlink Publishing.

Gruzd, A. and Mai, P., 2020. Going viral: How a single tweet spawned a COVID-19 conspiracy theory on Twitter. Big Data & Society7(2), p.2053951720938405.

Gualda, E. and Rúas, J., 2019. Conspiracy theories, credibility and trust in information.

Hagen, K., 2011. Conspiracy theories and stylized facts. Journal for Peace and Justice Studies21(2), pp.3-22.

Ilardi, G.J., 2009. The 9/11 attacks—A study of Al Qaeda’s use of intelligence and counterintelligence. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism32(3), pp.171-187.

Kellner, D., 2004. 9/11, spectacles of terror, and media manipulation: A critique of Jihadist and Bush media politics. Critical Discourse Studies1(1), pp.41-64.

Kiousis, S., 2001. Public trust or mistrust? Perceptions of media credibility in the information age. Mass communication & society4(4), pp.381-403.

Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U.K., Seifert, C.M., Schwarz, N. and Cook, J., 2012. Misinformation and its correction: Continued influence and successful debiasing. Psychological science in the public interest13(3), pp.106-131.

Loftus, E.F., 2005. Planting misinformation in the human mind: A 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory. Learning & memory12(4), pp.361-366.

Newman, L.S., 2009. Was Walter Lippmann interested in stereotyping?: Public opinion and cognitive social psychology. History of psychology12(1), p.7.

Pennycook, G. and Rand, D.G., 2021. The psychology of fake news. Trends in cognitive sciences.

Pew Research Center. 2016. 2016 Concerns About Fake News. Many Americans Believe Fake News Is Sowing Confusion. Retrieved from: https://www.pewresearch.org/journalism/dataset/2016-fake-news/

Prasad, M., Perrin, A.J., Bezila, K., Hoffman, S.G., Kindleberger, K., Manturuk, K. and Powers, A.S., 2009. “There must be a reason”: Osama, Saddam, and inferred justification. Sociological Inquiry79(2), pp.142-162.

Reese, Stephen D., and Seth C. Lewis. “Framing the war on terror: The internalization of policy in the US press.” Journalism 10, no. 6 (2009): 777-797.

Ren, Z.B., Dimant, E. and Schweitzer, M.E., 2021. Social motives for sharing conspiracy theories. Eugen and Schweitzer, Maurice E., Social Motives for Sharing Conspiracy Theories (September 8, 2021).

Sampson, S., 2010. Truthers: the 9/11 truth movement and the culture of conspiracy. In Paper at the American Anthropology Association Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA.

Theocharis, Y., Cardenal, A., Jin, S., Aalberg, T., Hopmann, D.N., Strömbäck, J., Castro, L., Esser, F., Van Aelst, P., de Vreese, C. and Corbu, N., 2021. Does the platform matter? Social media and COVID-19 conspiracy theory beliefs in 17 countries. new media & society, p.14614448211045666.

Träsel, M., Lisboa, S. and Vinciprova, G.R., 2019. Post-truth and trust in journalism: an analysis of credibility indicators in Brazilian venues. Brazilian Journalism Research15(3), p.452.

Uscinski, J.E., 2018. The study of conspiracy theories. Argumenta3(2), pp.233-245.

Weatherly, J.N., Petros, T.V., Christopherson, K.M. and Haugen, E.N., 2007. Perceptions of political bias in the headlines of two major news organizations. Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics12(2), pp.91-104.

West, DM, 2017. Digital schools: How to combat fake news and disinformation. Brookings Institution Press.

Does Team Working Impact On Organization Performance? Sample Essay

Literature Review

At the workplace, employees usually emphasize personal achievement and career development to the extent that the concept of teamwork appears to be overlooked by both employees and management. As a result, some managements see less impact of teamwork as a tool of organizational performance and overall productivity (Boakye, 2015). Nonetheless, there is a positive relationship between teamwork and organizational performance. The team’s work builds confidence towards accomplishing the organizational goals through effective team behaviors and morale to tackle new and complex challenges. The convergence of skills, experience, and ideas is arguably the main driving force to higher performance. Agarwal and Adjirackor (2016) describe the concept of teamwork as the process in which a group of people collaboratively work together to achieve a given goal. Teamwork is a basic idea of working together to achieve goals for the organization’s good by improving productivity. Another definition of teamwork is that teamwork constitutes a large group of employees than what the job description dictates. The essence of teams is breaking down the workload into smaller tasks while involving all employment. However, units are subject to internal factors, including motivation, rewards, working conditions, culture, structure, diversity, lines of communication, cohesiveness, leadership style, and individual talents and personalities. Also, external factors including political, social, technological, and economic environments influence team working. Agarwal and Adjirackor (2016) claim that there is a consensus among researchers and scholars that individual and teamwork must exist for the organization’s well-being and its workforce. From a unique perspective, most managers ensure that work gets done individually, but goal achievement is pursued through teamwork. Therefore, teamwork is the very foundation of the successful management of organizations.

On the other hand, Ali (2019) defines organizational performance as a voluntary association of various factors, including physical, capital, and human resources, to achieve a shared goal or common objective. Recent studies have researched the impact of human resources on overall organizational performance. One of the most critical aspects of human capital is a commitment to organizational goals. It calls for the formation of a team spirit to grow labor stab, improve behavior and improve overall performance (Ali, 2019). It synchronizes efforts and provides upwards thrust for higher productivity. Therefore, teams are indispensable when an organization is faced with complex projects and tasks.

Boakye (2015) asserts that group work has been in existence within organizations for as long as one can remember in the form of service teams, management teams, or production teams. However, individual works are more emphasized and perceived as the building blocks of an organization. Team thinking and working reflect the potential of an organization in achieving set objectives. Abuzid and Abbas (2017) concur with Boakye that teamwork components directly positively affect organizational performance. Stiff competition and globalization have compelled organizations to conduct corporate restricting and even reducing employees to adopt innovation and increase efficiency. Abuzid and Abbas (2017) recognize teamwork as an integral component of devising new roles while improving the effectiveness for desired goals. Teamwork integrates seamlessly with both manufacturing and service organizations. The employees in organizations that embrace a team-based approach become more intelligent and more competent due to interdependence in achieving individual and team objectives. As the employees strive to accomplish goals as a team, they gain in-depth knowledge of their area of specialization at the individual level. Abuzid and Abbas (2017) claim that teamwork is prone to reduced motivation, team and personal conflicts, absence of skill and will, and lack of responsibility. These adverse effects have a ripple effect on organizational performance as it stagnates or reduces it significantly.

The cooperative game’s framework can analyze the impact of teamwork on organizational performance. According to Askari et al. (2020), a cooperative approach positively affects the organization’s performance. Therefore, the cooperative game model can help identify factors related to teamwork that influence overall performance. Activities that influence employees’ performance include motivation, interaction, coordination, skill, accuracy, speed, skill, and knowledge transfer (Askari et al., 2020). Interestingly, a collaborative work culture requires the management to conduct a performance assessment based on both individual work and teamwork. According to Griffith (2015), a 360-degree group assessment tool helps the management determine how well the teams perform while providing them feedback for recognition and improvement. In other words, everyone is involved in assessing the other to ensure that the evaluations are not biased.

Organizations encourage performance management to ensure employees improve from one period to another. Organizations achieve progress if their workforce strives to work more intelligently on the individual and group levels. Increased effectiveness in human resources usually leads to efficiency across the department or business units of the organizations. Therefore, performance management is a great tool that helps management monitor and assess the quality of employees’ contributions to the organization’s goals. It is an initiative by the HR management that pushes employees to achieve their personal and group goals. Askari et al. (2020) stress that organizational success largely depends on the interdependence and cohesiveness within teams and how team members perceive and understand their roles and responsibilities toward the organization’s goals. One of the fundamental concepts of game theory is cooperative games which promote team spirit. Von Neumann developed basic game theory concepts that acted as cornerstones of the modern economy in 1944 (Askari et al., 2020). John Nash introduced a new definition of equilibrium in games, especially non-cooperative games. In such games, players appear independently to maximize their interests. Conversely, players tend to make coalitions and groups with mutual benefits to maximize personal benefits. In other words, the players choose strategies that lead to a collective course of action for much better outcomes. Workgroups occur to avoid delays, costs, and different undesirable outcomes. Real-life examples of the cooperative game’s model at play include resource allocation in public organizations such as exploitation of oil fields, water, commercial agreements, and facilitating stock exchanges and international relations. Therefore, cooperative games are the most effective way to promote teamwork for higher productivity, sustainability, and justice. Individuals play a critical role in determining a team’s performance (Bobbie & Paul, 1998). When individuals take their responsibilities in a team seriously, they become more committed to set objectives, and the group becomes infallible.

However, one of the major issues that negatively affect teamwork is conflicts. Such conflicts stem from power imbalances, poor communication, weak leadership, change in management, dissatisfaction, and lack of transparency within the team (Sahar, 2018). Lack of teamwork can be catastrophic since communication lines are broken and synergy to tackle complex tasks. Every group requires effective leadership to ensure that all team members are in the same direction and working towards the same goals (Minahan, 2014). Team leaders tend to align individual goals with group ones to deliver good results. They develop strategies for team members to achieve the desired goals. Poor teamwork is energy-draining and costly due to improper utilization of resources provided to accomplish goals. Nonetheless, Sahar (2018) believes that conflicts and related issues within teams can be resolved through five achievable and realistic strategies. Fast forwards, a team with the potential to achieve goals greater than expectations requires a good and experienced team leader. The leader must have the interests of the company at heart. As a result, such a leader manages to set the tone for the rest of the team members and motivate them. Another critical strategy includes open and transparent communication among team members and teams (Carol & Brenda, 2004). The management clearly defines the company’s objectives while the team leaders persuade the team members to follow them to the latter. Team leaders and members must maintain positive behavior and strive to resolve conflicts amicably without incurring losses or additional costs. Carol and Brend (2004) also demonstrate that time management is critical in ensuring that the teams are more productive and efficient at the same time.

More importantly, team members need to be motivated at all times. Sahar (2018) provides several methods of inspiring members of the group. For a group to remain intact, the management must ensure that the compensation and benefits package of the members match with their level of contribution. The working conditions must be safe, conducive, and pleasant. The goals should be achievable, realistic, and straightforward, while failure to achieve them should not be punished. Trust building within the group is an excellent tool for ensuring that everyone is on board and in the right direction (Minahan, 2014). Besides open communication, two-way traffic should facilitate reporting and feedback. John (2014) further that including team members in the decision-making process shows that they are trusted, and their opinions matter in the organizational development. Therefore, seeking the team members’ views builds trust and employee engagement for the betterment of the organization. Team members are more focused on the organizational goals when they know the areas that require improvement. In this case, job satisfaction at the individual level encourages good teamwork.

References

Abuzid, H. F. & Abbas, M. (2017). impact of teamwork effectiveness on organizational performance vis-a-vis the role of Organizational Support… Journal of Engineering and Applied sciences12(8), 2229-2237.

Agarwal, S., & Adjirackor, T. (2016). Impact of teamwork on organizational productivity in some selected primary schools in the Accra metropolitan assembly. European Journal of Business, Economics, and Accountancy4(6), 40-52.

Ali, M. R. H. (2019). The effect of teamwork development on organizational performance: a case study of tile and carpet center in Kenya.

Askari, G., Asghri, N., Gordji, M. E., Asgari, H., Filipe, J. A., & Azar, A. (2020). The impact of teamwork on an organization’s performance: A cooperative game’s approach. Mathematics8(10), 1804.

Bobbie. T and Paul. A. (1998) Individual and groups in organization (online) London. Revised ed. Sage Publications Ltd. (Accessed 20 December 2013).

Carol A.& Brenda A. (2004) Building intelligent teams; A road map to high performance(online)London. Sage publications Inc. (Accessed 19 June 2012).

Griffith, A. (2015) Working in Teams, moving from High Potential to High Performance (online) London. Sage Publications. Inc (Accessed 08 December 2017).

John E. (2014) Achieving an effective meeting; Mechanics of decision group process (online) 3rd ed. London. Sage Publications Inc. (Accessed 21 December 2015).

Minahan, M(2014). The NTL handbook of organization development and change: Principle practice and perspectives, (online). 2nd ed. Pfeiffer. (Accessed 03 March 2014).

Rubab. S (2018) How to Resolve Lack of teamwork Issue. Available from: http://www.medium.com (Accessed 20 September 2018).

error: Content is protected !!