Homeland Security: Flood Management Free Sample

Hello everyone, and welcome to today’s meeting, where we will discuss the importance of community resilience. In modern society, the effects of both manmade and natural disasters have become widespread, far-reaching, and frequent. Preserving prosperity, security, and safety in the community has become a challenge. The nation’s traditional risk management approach greatly depends on the government’s efforts. However, changing reality in modern society is that all government levels have been affected in terms of efforts to improve the nation’s resilience. Floods are one of the deadly hazards affecting different parts of the United States. Floods can be caused by multiple factors, which include dam failures, ice jams, tidal surges, rising rivers, and sudden accumulation of rain. Flood management needs government and collective efforts from different stakeholders, hence the whole community approach.

Flood, one of the expected hazards in the United States, requires collective efforts from residents, government, non-profit organizations, and the general public. According to (Ghanbari et al., 2021), the recent rash of torrential rainstorms across the United States has cast a bright spotlight on the server problems intensifying flooding events. Provided continued climate change, flooding events may increase in the United States. This means that proactive measures must be implemented to mitigate the flooding problem. In the case of flooding, there are various typical emergence responses and recovery protocols. One response is the flood cleanup response activity whereby gasoline and diesel-powered pumps and generators are used to release carbon monoxide, thus keeping dirt and harmful chemicals outdoors. Wearing high rubber boots with insulation clothing is another flooding response technique. However, this approach is not all-hazard because it is only specific to flooding events. The flood cleanup technique is not an all-hazard approach because it is not applicable in a broad spectrum of emergencies.

Based on the Whole Community approach, there are multiple ways in which floods can be prevented and mitigated to make the United States a more resilient community. Public education is one of the mitigation approaches that must be implemented. According to (Williams, 2016), public education ensures that all relevant stakeholders in the community are informed of the response and preventive measures of the flood. This means that members of the public will be aware of various ways of mitigating the impact of flooding events. This public education on flooding mitigation can be done through social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram. Creating a sponge city is another flood mitigation strategy whereby water can behold, clean, and drain naturally. In addition, community self-assessment tools should be developed to evaluate the extent of preparedness in case of flooding events. For instance, developing the Community Resilience Index help evaluates people’s ability to mitigate the impacts of flooding events. Lastly, building and maintaining partnerships between government agencies and multinational organizations is necessary. Through this partnership, there will be ease of resource mobilization for flood mitigation programs.

In conclusion, flooding is a deadly hazard in different parts of the United States. Government efforts against flooding events may not be enough hence the need for whole community approaches. This means all the relevant stakeholders in the community will be involved in formulating and implementing strategies and programs focused on flood prevention. Thanks, everyone, for your time.


Ghanbari, M., Arabi, M., Kao, S. C., Obeysekera, J., & Sweet, W. (2021). Climate Change and Changes in Compound Coastal‐Riverine Flooding Hazard Along the US Coasts. Earth’s Future9(5), e2021EF002055.

Williams, M. A. (2016). A Whole Community Approach to Emergency Management for the United States Virgin Islands. ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway, PO Box 1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.

Hostos Community College University Essay Example

Hostos community college is a public institution in the Bronx, New York State. As the name suggests, Hostos is a community college, and a community college is not the same as a University. The main difference between a University and a community college is that in a community college, it takes two years to complete most of the degrees offered in the community college. In comparison, it takes four years to complete a degree program offered by the university. Community colleges have good quality academic programs suitable for preparing students for a future career or future transfer to a university. Starting a community college can give an individual a chance to save money since community colleges are not expensive compared to the four-year university, and the community college can give individuals a boost in their academic careers. Hostos community college is not exceptional as it provides two years degree programs and is an excellent start for an individual academic career. Hostos community college was started on April 22, 1968, through an act by the Board of Higher Education. The Hostos community college was created as a response to the demands of Puerto Rican and other Hispanic leaders. They demanded and incredibly pressured the Board of Higher Education to start a college to meet the academic needs of the people of South Bronx in New York State. After about two years, in 1970, Hostos community college admitted its first batch of students.

The college started well since it enrolled six hundred and twenty-three students for its first class. The students’ first enrollment was done at a site that was formerly a tire factory located at 475 Grand Concourse (Hostos CC Course Catalog, 2022). In four years, the enrollment for Hostos community college had significantly grown, and the college had more than two thousand students by June 1974. With the rapid increase in the number of students enrolling at the Hostos community college, the former tire factory space was becoming more and smaller for the large number of students enrolled at the college. To solve the excellent problem that Hostos community college was facing at the time, the state legislature, in response to the problem, passed a bill on acquiring the “500 building,” which is located opposite the former tire factory now the Hostos community college. The passing of the bill by the State legislature to acquire the “500 building” was to ease the space shortage that the Hostos community college was facing since the college’s number of students was rising. Hostos community college was highly favored since in the same year that is in 1974 when it was facing space shortage, and the state legislature passed a bill on acquiring new space for the college, it was given full and unconditional accreditation after a very successful assessment by the Middle States Association (Hostos CC Course Catalog, 2022).

In the mid-1970s, an economic crisis in the United States of America resulted in the thoughts of merging Hostos community college with other established institutions to cut costs and save the college. The idea aimed to caution the Hostos community college from the effects of the mid-1970s crisis. These efforts to merge Hostos with another institution were futile, and the merger did not succeed. The established institutions opposed the merger, and the community opposed the idea of merging the Hostos community college with another vital institution. Hostos community college needed to be protected since there was too much opposition to its merger, and if the college was not protected, then it meant that the college would collapse and be closed due to the mid-1970s economic crisis in the United States of America. The States legislature had to act to protect the Hostos community college. The States legislature was forced to include a guarantee of Hostos community college’s existence in the Landes Act of Higher Education. The guarantee act was passed on June 9, 1976. Due to the rising number of enrollments, Hostos today has six buildings, and out of the six, three are designed to meet the needs of the institutions (Hostos CC Course Catalog, 2022).

Hostos community college is the first institution of higher learning on the mainland to be named after a Puerto Rican, Eugenio Maria de Hostos. Eugenio Hostos was an educator, writer, and patriot. In the Hostos community college, a large population of the students, approximately sixty percent, are Hispanic; therefore, most of the programs offered in Hostos community college are taught in Spanish though the college also provides extensive English language and ESL instructions to the students in the community college. The Hostos community college has significantly grown and has a Hostos Center for Arts and Culture. This is a performing art center which is located within the college campus. The Hostos Center for Arts and Culture consists of a museum-like art gallery, a 367 repertory seat theater, and 900 seats at the main theater. The Hostos Center for Arts and Culture has been a showcasing theater of different dances and music for different artists for the last thirty-three years. The Hostos Center for Arts and Culture was built in the late 1980s to make Hostos a community college to be a cultural force in the Bronx and all over New York City. Today, the Hostos Center for Arts and culture within the community college has genuinely been a cultural force within the Bronx and all over New York City since some renowned artists have performed in the Hostos Center for Arts and Culture. On May 20, 2011, Hostos community college was in the newspaper for its tremendous achievements and growth. The Hostos community college opened a 1.05 million dollar state-of-the-art recording studio to serve students interested in the digital media career (New York Post, 2011). The facility, approved by the City University of New York, will expand the media programs such as media production, digital design, and animation at Hostos community college.

After three decades since the Hostos community college was established, 50.3 percent of the full-time faculty holds a doctorate, while 45.5 percent hold a master’s degree. Although most students at the Hostos community college are Hispanic, the general population of the college is diverse. Nearly all the cultures surrounding Hostos community college are represented (Hostos CC Course Catalog, 2022). Diversity has been instrumental at Hostos community college, as it takes pride in being one of the most diverse institutions of higher learning in New York State. The Hostos community college is one of the seven community colleges in the City University of New York. The City University of New York is one of the nation’s leading urban public universities that serve more than half a million students in its twenty-five different colleges.

Academically, Hostos community college has advanced since it is offering twenty-eight associate degrees and two certificates (Hostos community college, 2022). In addition, Hostos community college is the only community college of the City University of New York offering a degree in Game Design program. Successful completion of most of the degrees offered in Hostos community college allows the students to easily transfer from the Hostos community college to one of the many City University of New York’s four-year institutions or any other four-year institution. During the establishment of Hostos community college, the programs offered were not as many as it has now since the college has been on increasing growth which includes even growth of programs offered at the college. The college also allows dual degree programs where the eligible students graduate with either an Associate in Arts degree or an Associate in Science degree while meeting all the requirements in the student’s area of study, allowing smooth transfer to a four-year university (State University.com, 2022). When Hostos community college was established, it offered physical learning only. There is tremendous growth at the Hostos community college today, and the college offers both physical and online classes smoothly without facing significant challenges. For the last decade, online learning has been expanding, and the Office of Educational Technology provides all the expansion, development, instructional design, and support. In December 2009, the college started implementing hybrid courses, which are partly taught online and partly in class. The hybrid courses started in the fall of 2010. The Office of Academic Affairs invited a team of members from all the participating City University of New York campuses to enable sharing of resources and coming up with the best practices. In 2013 Hostos community college began its asynchronous initiative to ensure and encourage the faculty to develop and teach asynchronous online courses based on hybrid courses (Hostos community college, 2022). In the spring of 2018, many significant steps were made toward improving all online course development and delivery areas. There was an addition of an online learning coordinator. The work of the online learning coordinator is to oversee the instructional designers’ developments, ideas, and contributions. Today, the Hostos community college has very many courses that they offer online over the internet. The courses have been developed and polished such that expert instructors teach the courses. The online courses offered by Hostos community college are affordable, fast, convenient, and fun. Online learning did not replace physical learning at Hostos community college, as the college offers both online and physical learning. Online learning is very convenient to so many individuals interested in learning from the comfort of their homes. The Hostos community college offers more than three hundred courses online (Hostos Community college, 2022), making the college reach so many individuals within the United States territories and outside the borders of the United States of America.

In March 2004, the Hostos community college founded a foundation that is a not-for-profit corporation with the sole purpose of supporting the Eugenio Maria de Hostos community through charitable projects. For the college to start a foundation to help the Hostos community implies that the Hostos community college has grown over the years and saw it wise to give back to the community through a charitable foundation. The Hostos community college foundation encourages charitable support through gifts, scholarships to needy students in the Hostos community, subsidies, grants, and other funds aimed at helping the people of the Hostos community (Hostos community college, 2022). The board members that direct and manage the foundation’s operations actively promote fundraising activities that are in accordance with the foundation by-laws, and the board of managers makes the relevant recommendations for that involving the acceptance of grants, monies, securities and other donations. The Hostos community college also has an award winning division of continuing education and workforce development. An award which was not there when the college was created in 1968. The award winning division shows how the Hostos community college is dedicated to staff development since the award winning division and workforce development offers professional training programs to Hostos community college staff where they are given a certificate after participating in the professional development training courses. In addition, the college has an alumni relations office which was founded back in 2003. The alumni relations office is giving thousands of Hostos community college alumni students a platform to interact and also check on the welfare of alumni students. The alumni relations office encourages all the alumni students of Hostos community college to say in touch with the college and be part of the vast professional network of Hostos community college. The Hostos community college has come up with an alumni identification card that helps the alumni students to continue enjoying the benefits of the college even after they have graduated. For example, an alumni student with the alumni identification card can be able to access library services, recreational activities, computer laboratory, cultural events (Hostos community college, 2022) and the networking activities.

Technology advancement has been on the rise in the last one decade, and every field is competing to reap the benefits provided by the different technology advancements which have been realized within the last ten years or more. Hostos community college has not been left behind since it has a very simple to use website which offers all the necessary information an individual needs to know concerning the community college. This is a typical advancement since the Hostos community college website is an interactive website and at the same time, individuals can make their applications online. When the Hostos community college was started it did not have such a website, but today the college has grown, and it has one of the best websites based on its simplicity to use and adequate information provided in the website. The website even provides a virtual tour of the Hostos community college.

In conclusion, Hostos community college has grown over the years and the college is still going to grow and even become bigger. It is just a matter of time and the college will be like the City University of New York.


Hostos CC Course Catalog. (2022). History of Hostos community college | Hostos CC catalog. https://hostos.catalog.cuny.edu/intro/history

Hostos Community college. (2022). Online courses – Hostos community college. Hostos Community College. https://www.hostos.cuny.edu/Division-of-Continuing-Education- Workforce-Develop/Continuing-Education-Workforce-Development/General- Info/Online-Courses

Hostos community college. (2022). Mission and history. Hostos Social Network – A Learning Community. https://commons.hostos.cuny.edu/online/mission-and-history/

Hostos community college. (2022, March 29). Member benefits – Hostos community college. Make a Gift – Hostos Community College. https://hostos.thankyou4caring.org/member- benefits.

Hostos community college. (2022, May 25). Hostos CC Foundation – Hostos community college. Make a Gift – Hostos Community College. https://hostos.thankyou4caring.org/hostos-cc- foundation

Hostos community college. (2022). About Hostos – Hostos community college. Hostos Community College. https://www.hostos.cuny.edu/About-Hostos

New York Post. (2011, May 20). Hostos community college opens $1.05 million recording studio. https://nypost.com/2011/05/20/hostos-community-college-opens-1-05-million- recording-studio/

State University.com. (2022). CUNY Hostos community college (CUNYHCC, Hostos CC) history and academics – Bronx, NY. USA University College Directory – U.S. University Directory – State Universities and College Rankings. https://www.stateuniversity.com/universities/NY/City_University_of_New_Y ork_Hostos_Community_College.html

How Adolescents Find Their Identity Through Fandoms Sample Paper


This paper explores how fandoms facilitate adolescent identity formation. In the modern world, adolescents spend most of their time on social media. The approach used in this analysis was derived from an investigation into the research carried out over the previous five years. Following an analysis of various literary works, three recurring motifs have become apparent. Among these are an introduction to identities, fandom’s influence on adolescents’ lives, and the construction of identities through participation in fandom. The findings revealed that internet fandoms had captured the interest of young individuals and given them a platform to construct an identity that they cannot express in real life. Different people had different ideas on what it meant to make a “contribution” to one’s SGM identity, as well as how that “contribution” impacted one’s identity and advancement as a whole. On the other hand, the overwhelming majority of participants stated that participating in online fandoms was beneficial to their personal growth. In addition, participation in online fandoms enables adolescents to develop excellent relationships with dependable persons and to engage in thought-provoking conversations with those folks. When young person is a part of a fan base, they can freely express themselves, form relationships with people they would never meet in real life, and create an identity with those people.

How Adolescents Find Their Identity through Fandoms

Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood, characterized by a number of developmental shifts on biological, psychological, and social levels (Brandes et al., 2021). The adolescent years are crucial to the development of an individual’s identity. Throughout the majority of human history, the process of identity formation took place almost entirely within a small community. However, with the advent of the Internet, many new perspectives have become accessible, giving adolescents more freedom when selecting an identity. Fandoms are online social networks that focus on a particular interest, such as a television show, a celebrity, or even a broader online culture. These communities may be found online (Abd-Rahim, 2019). There has not been much research on how different fandoms interact with the process of identity-building. This study or research aims to expand my knowledge and skill set to the point where I can pursue a career in research and eventually work on studies involving adolescents with mental health issues. Consequently, this is the rationale behind selecting this issue of identity building among adolescents. Moreover, I am aware that social media significantly impacts adolescents’ identity construction, as most adolescents spend most of their time on social networking sites. My research question addresses how adolescents form identities when participating in a fandom: How does participation in fandoms participate in forming an identity for adolescents?

Evaluation of Sources

McInroy, L. B., & Craig, S. L. (2020). “it is like a haven fantasy world”: Online fandom communities and the identity development activities of sexual and gender minority youth. Psychology of Popular Media, 9(2), 236-246. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000234

McInroy & Craig (2020) set out to find how fandom participation participated in the identity-development processes for SGMY. The online survey was conducted in 2016 with 6309 American or Canadian 14-29 years old participants. Out of 4,942 who answered “…,” 71% stated that their participation in fandom contributed to their SGM identity. Some limitations of this survey are that it was convenience-based, 81.35% of the participants identified as white, and the average age of the participants skewed on the younger side of 17.77 years old.

Cheong, K. (2020). Online fandoms provide a space for young people to build an identity they cannot express in real life. Debating Communities and Networks XI. https://networkconference.netstudies.org/2020Curtin/2020/05/11/teens-in-social-networking-spaces-and-what-community-means/

Cheong (2020) sets out to find how teens, through participation in internet fandoms, can develop an identity that they cannot express in their everyday lives. Cheong employed research from other prominent authors or scientists such as Erving Goffman in the study. For instance, Cheong utilized Goffman’s model of identity. According to the paradigm, when we introduce ourselves to new people, we act out a role, much like players in a play (Cheong, 2020).

Smutradontri, P., & Gadavanij, S. (2020). Fandom and identity construction: an analysis of Thai fans’ engagement with Twitter. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications7(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-00653-1

Smutradontri & Gadavanij (2020) investigated the relationship between fandom and the formation of identities among Thais. They utilize online media, specifically Twitter, and how Thai fans interact with fan texts on the platform. The study was conducted with tweets and posts from Twitter fans posts sic unit of analysis. More than a million Thais currently utilize this site, making it one of the most visited websites in the country. Twitter is an online service where users can broadcast messages to their followers and interact with other users they admire. Some of the language writings and images posted by fans on Twitter might be considered fan art. So, it is fair to say that Twitter is a gold mine for fan creations. One hundred tweets from four sources were randomly selected, and their analysis suggests five distinct categories of fan tweets. These categories are hypothetical assessment, spectator art, the narrative of anecdotes about the source text; the expression of personal opinions and feelings; and supporter parody.

Introduction to Identities

Self-impression, self-image, self-esteem, as well as uniqueness, are all intertwined with the concept of “identity.” People’s sense of who they are comes from various sources, including their participation in fandoms, their families, their communities, their experiences in formal and informal educational settings, the media, and their friendships. McInroy & Craig’s (2020) survey found that fans were exposed to and perhaps educated on LGBTQ+ identities and phrases that are difficult to find in mainstream media. The survey results demonstrated that the overall background of online fandom engagement and identity advancement was among the unique experiences shaped by the respondent’s specific requirements, interests, and life history. Numerous survey takers noted that fandom was crucial in shaping various facets of their sense of self as an SGM (“They each inform each other, continuously. Without fandom, it would have been impossible for me to describe who I am. Some saw the fandom of others to be less important (“It does not seem to be a big element. Without it, I was still able to embrace my queerness confidently. Importantly, the results show that individuals had varying conceptions of what it meant to make a “contribution” to their SGM identity and how it affected their identity and growth. Most participants noted some positive effects of internet fandom on their personal growth.

Influence of fandom in adolescents’ lives.

According to Cheong, internet fandoms allow young people to develop identities that they cannot express in real life (2020). In the study, Cheong asserts that there is a front stage and backstage where individuals can unwind and no longer care about how others view them. According to Cheong’s thesis, fans like to put on an act in front of others and conceal their genuine interests, and their secret identities can be shared in safe online forums. From this study, the author concluded that most of his resources showed that online fandoms such as Facebook and Twitter help teens develop identity. This is because they can interact more with their fellows. From the study, the author clinched that online communities, also known as fandoms, are groups of people with a shared interest in a particular media entity or celebrity who express their appreciation for one another. This environment is conducive to forming a child’s or adolescent’s identity in a way that may not always be achievable in the “real world.”

Moreover, online fandoms make it possible for teenagers to build significant ties with trusted individuals and to discuss one’s thoughts with those individuals. When young people are part of a fandom, they can freely express themselves and build relationships and identities with people they would never meet in real life. I agree with this theme because, from experience, I can justify that fandoms tremendously impact the youth’s identity formation. A few years ago, when I was a teenager, I used to find comfort in social media because I could air my feelings and thoughts without being looked down upon. Moreover, online fandoms made me develop an identity from those who inspired me.

Fandom and identity construction

Smutradontri & Gadavanij (2020) argue that fandom is crucial in forming individual identities. Nowadays, especially in Thailand, fandom is a social and cultural phenomenon that has emerged from the rise of the Internet. Based on the research conducted, the author concludes that Twitter is one of Thailand’s most widely used social networking sites. Tweets posted by avid followers of a particular media franchise or character. Selected fan tweets showed evidence of numerous fan interpretations of the source text. Findings from this study address the first research question by demonstrating the variety of ways Thai supporters have interacted with fans on Twitter. These include the use of hypothetical interpretation, fan art, narrating anecdotes related to the source text, sharing individual opinions and feelings, as well as fan caricature. “Expressions of feelings and personal sentiments toward source text photos, films, or individual fan experiences” saw the highest levels of engagement. This demonstrates that, rather than a community, Twitter resembles a bulletin board where fans can vent their enthusiasm for their favourite media product. Said, fans utilized Twitter to share their thoughts, feelings, and interpretations of the source material through a wide variety of media, including but not limited to written text, photos, and videos. This allowed fans to establish a sense of self via social media.

Application and Research Vision

I am confident that deciding to focus my Master of Science in Clinical Psychology studies on practical research is the best option for me. The study of adolescence and the development of identity through media is fascinating. Still, studying the brain and neuroscience, my area of concentration in the Bachelor of Science program in Psychology that I am pursuing at Penn State, is of greater interest to me. My goal is to acquire the knowledge and abilities necessary to pursue a career in research and eventually work on studies concerning adolescents who struggle with mental health issues.


This paper has addressed how adolescents form identities when participating in fandom. Moreover, it has deliberated on how participation in fandoms participates in the formation of identity for adolescents. In this paper, I developed three themes that come about as a massive of the vast exploration of literary materials on the fandoms in adolescents’ identity formation. Some topics covered include how personalities are formed, the effects of teen fandom, and the role fans play in shaping adolescent identities. The research showed that young people were drawn to online fandoms and were given a platform to create an identity they could not express in their actual demonstration of this served as proof. Different individuals had various interpretations of what it meant to “contribute” to one’s SGM identity and how doing so affected one’s identity and growth. On the other hand, a resounding majority of participants claimed that participating in online fandoms helped them develop personally. Additionally, involvement in online fandoms enables teenagers to form incredible friendships with trustworthy people and to have stimulating conversations with those people. Young people who are a part of a fan base have the freedom to express themselves, connect with people they would never meet in real life, and forge identities with those people.


Abd-Rahim, A. (2019). Online fandom: social identity and social hierarchy of Hallyu fans. Journal for Undergraduate Ethnography, 9(1), 65-81. https://doi.org/10.15273/jue.v9i1.8885

Brandes, C. M., Kushner, S. C., Herzhoff, K., & Tackett, J. L. (2021). Facet-level personality development in the transition to adolescence: Maturity, disruption, and gender differences. Journal of personality and social psychology121(5), 1095. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000367

Cheong, K. (2020). Online fandoms provide a space for young people to build an identity they cannot express in real life. Debating Communities and Networks XI. https://networkconference.netstudies.org/2020Curtin/2020/05/11/teens-in-social-networking-spaces-and-what-community-means/

McInroy, L. B., & Craig, S. L. (2020). “it is like a haven fantasy world”: Online fandom communities and the identity development activities of sexual and gender minority youth. Psychology of Popular Media, 9(2), 236-246. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000234

Smutradontri, P., & Gadavanij, S. (2020). Fandom and identity construction: an analysis of Thai fans’ engagement with Twitter. Humanities and Social Sciences Communications7(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41599-020-00653-1