Homo Longi: Extinct Human Species That May Replace Neanderthals As Our Closest Relatives Found In China Writing Sample

Anthony Sinclair’s article gives information on fossil species and their historical connection. It speaks of a newly discovered species, Homo Iongi, and its closeness to the human species. There is also a comparison between Homo ILongi and Neanderthals to explain why the former may be the human species closest relative.

  1. Evaluation of the Identification of Homo Longi

Upon discovery, the Chinese, British and Australian researchers established that Homo Iongi could be human’s closest relatives and not Neanderthals, as it has always been known. It came after the Phylogeny family tree was generated and related the two species to modern humans. Sinclair says human evolution regards Neanderthals as human’s closest relatives because of the ancient DNA analysis that reveal the similarities. Anthropology textbooks are of a similar opinion, stating Neanderthals are alike enough to humans to be considered near relatives. The assumption that the entire human evolution process underwent the Neanderthal stage gave rise to the relationship (Relethford p.170). The belief points to the anatomical similarities.

Traces of Neanderthal DNA in humans also justified the close relationship. A suggestion from the Neanderthal genome draft sequence was that Neanderthals account for between 1% and 4% of human ancestry (Relethford p.169). It was believed that they were a distinct subspecies of humans who never strayed far enough from the line to be classified as a separate species, and they could interbreed with modern humans. As a result, Neanderthal ancestry can be found in some modern human populations. However, surviving DNA cannot give standard grounds for historical relationships as it degrades with time. Other evidence must be used to determine evolutionary relationships. The amount of shared derived features, which indicates evolutionary relatedness, generates the most accurate family tree reconstructions (Relethford p.54). They are mainly information about the shape of fossils (morphology), their age, and their origin.

Homo Iongi’s morphology has enabled the team of researchers to classify the species in the human family tree and consider it the closest relative. The skull characterizes an extinct human species that was previously unknown. Its thick brow ridges were also evident when discovered near Harbin City, drawing its similarity to the human species. The size of their brow ridges was used to understand the relationship between human fossils and modern people (Relethford p.143). Brow ridges were used to compare anatomical similarities.

Sinclair’s article shows there is value in fossils regardless of the date difference from when it was discovered to when it bears meaningful research. Therefore, it is naive to assume that future paleoanthropological studies will be entirely or primarily dependent on ancient DNA instead of fossils. Paleoanthropology is an interdisciplinary discipline that must Consider evidence from various sources, including fossils, archaeology, and archaic DNA (Relethford p.175). Knowledge of human evolution relies heavily on fossil data.

  1. Summary of Major Findings and Their Significance.

The research was able to draw conclusive information about Homo Iongi. The first major finding is the identity of the unidentified extinct human species. Fossils of Homo Iongi were first discovered in North-eastern China near Harbin City, Heilongjiang, in 1933. However, no one figured out what the fossil was, even though it is well preserved. Recent research from China, Britain and Australia unpuzzled the mystery behind the fossil and associated it with the Homo Iongi species. The identification provides a better understanding of how humans evolved (Relethford p.40). Due to the discovery, Homo Iongi has a place among the hominin species.

There is a close relationship between the name and the place the fossil was discovered. The species is named Homo Iongi, which means “dragon river”. The name was proof that it came from the Huangshan rock formation in Harbin City’s upper section. This finding illustrates how the human species spread all over the world (Relethford, p.40). Homo Iongi is connected to other species, except for humans. According to the phylogenetic tree, five previously undiscovered fossils from North-eastern China have been linked to Homo Iongi. Neanderthals are not the closest to the human species. The new revelation distances Neanderthals from being considered our closest relatives, allowing easy comparisons between two species.

New techniques can be used to predict dates in the phylogenetic model. Sinclair mentions that the research on Homo Iongi applied Bayesian tip dating to present older estimates. The technique is new as it is rarely used in evolutionary research. Such a technique can predict species divergence’s potential sequence and age based on morphological and molecular data.

Asia is presently at the forefront of human evolution research. Fossils and scientists from Asia are just now being known because of its vastness from the Harbin cranium. Homo erectus was an important evolutionary phase that led to the emergence of all subsequent human species in Asia. Furthermore, we now know that Homo Iongi originated in Asia.

  1. How the Discoveries Refine our Understanding of Human Evolution

Human evolution aims to provide as much information as possible about past human existence. There is always something new to learn from discoveries and research that give clarity. The public’s understanding of human evolution grows as new discoveries are made. For example, old specimens have been reintroduced to active usage thanks to the employment of new analytical techniques. The research of Homo Iongi shows how it was able to provide older date estimates using new techniques. Past evidence opted for commonly used techniques of evolutionary studies, but researchers could not match the dates of the predicted common ancestors of human lineages with the ones for discovered fossils.

Testing different pieces of evidence is helpful to determine evolutionary relationships, especially family tree construction. Genetic analysis can assist us in constructing a family tree by associating genetically related species to a more common ancestor (Relethford, p.54). The new discovery conducted DNA analysis and established that Homo Iongi is closely related to humans and are in the same family tree. Previous evidence focused on morphology and was unable to identify the species; consequently, it could not construct a family tree.

Paleoanthropologists are required to determine the similarities and differences in DNA, bodily structure, physiology, and behavior between humans and other species. They investigate the origins of the physical characteristics and habits of humans. Additionally, know how evolution shapes people’s abilities, preferences, and limitations. Archeologists are also relevant in the research as they will study the structures of the fossil. They will provide the identity of the fossils, authenticate them in comparison to when it was first discovered and predict dates.

Works Cited

Relethford, John H. 50 great myths of human evolution: understanding misconceptions about our origins. John Wiley & Sons, 2017.

Sinclair, Anthony. “Homo Longi: Extinct Human Species That May Replace Neanderthals As Our Closest Relatives Found in China.” The Conversation, 25 June 2021, https://theconversation.com/homo-longi-extinct-human-species-that-may-replace-neanderthals-as-our-closest-relatives-found-in-china-163328. Accessed 1 Feb. 2022.

How Artificial Intelligence Can Be Used To Tackle Climate Change University Essay Example


Climate change is a menace affecting almost every part of the planet, and its impacts are devastating. Several factors lead to climate change, but human beings’ activities are the main contributors. With the current rate of climate change, the survival of future generations is at higher risk unless an effective approach is used to redress the issue of climate change today. Artificial Intelligence can be relied upon to address climate change by providing effective solutions through machine learning on a number of areas deployed to tackle climate change, including looking at how AI is currently applied, how it has been used before on climate change as well as the future application of AI in future to tackle climate change.


The United Nations have defined climate change as a long-term shift in both weather and temperature, which adversely affect the normal weather people rely on to survive. The leading cause of climate change is the application of fossil fuels known for the emission of greenhouse gases (Stein, 2020). These gases interfere with the ozone layer, which protects the earth from direct sun rays, adversely living organisms.

As far as climate change is concerned, artificial intelligence deals with means of applying advanced technology that relies on vast data to control or stop the spread of climate change, improve the environment, and make the world a better place to live. Artificial intelligence is termed as a swift army knife as far as climate change solutions are concerned due to its potential of multitasking and carrying out vital activities like measuring and minimizing emissions while guiding business models on effective means of tackling climate change and hazards (Stein, 2020). Artificial intelligence can be applied widely to control carbon emission by suggesting effective management of the electric grid forecasting things like sunlight and wind based on weather data collected.

History of AI and Analytics in climate change

In the past, Artificial Intelligence has been applied when dealing with the issue of climate change. In the past, researchers have widely used artificial intelligence in spotting cyclones, atmospheric rivers, and how greenhouse gases have been interfering with things like rain precipitation (Zhongming et al., 2018). Furthermore, organizations have applied AI to determine the amount of carbon they emit daily to the environment. Apart from determining the amount, artificial intelligence has been applied to measure the source of carbon, and through carbon tracker, there has monitoring of coal plant emissions using the satellite imagery. In this case, the tracker relies on the data it elicited and thereafter convinces the finance industry concerning the effects of carbon plants that do not lead to profits.

Researchers have greatly used artificial intelligence in coming up with better climate predictions whereby climate informatics relies on data science as well as climate science and deals with several issues like studying hurricanes, climate downscaling, or even socioeconomic effects of weather and climate (Zhongming et al. 2018). Through A. I algorithms, better predictions on both short- and long-term effects of climate change have been made, including the magnitude of damage that is likely to be experienced when a hurricane occurs.

The current state of AI and Analytics in Climate Change

There is the vast application of artificial intelligence today on the issue of climate change with the ultimate aim of improving and minimizing the effects of climate change. Artificial intelligence is used at the movement to optimize clean energy development. Hydropower-dam developers have relied on the AI computational model to seek the best location for dams that generate the lowest greenhouse gas emissions. Apart from clean energy development, artificial intelligence has turned out to be a game-changer today as far as avoiding waste is concerned. Institutions, including organizations and governments, heavily invest and depend on artificial intelligence to manage their waste (Zhongming et al., 2018). The institutions are deploying AI solutions to avoid waste. A good example is minimizing energy waste from buildings and comprehending both supply and demand, an enormous means by which AI empowers climate change mechanisms through reducing waste in terms of materials, capital and time. The concept begins with intelligent garbage bins. A firm can easily monitor trash containers if they are full, hence enabling optimization of waste collection. Therefore, the Internet of Things sensors is relied upon.

Today’s application of artificial intelligence has also favored smart sorting of waste rather than relying on the waste management facility (Huntingford et al., 2018). The waste items are a conveyor belt and a scanner whose cameras rely on the deep learning algorithm in this particular case. Thereafter, robots are applied to pull pick-off items from the conveyer belt. AI does automated sorting, and through AI-powered machines, there is a high rate of sorting and through the application of machines, are able to complete sorting on time.

Future of AI and Analytics in climate change

In the future, the main goal is to eradicate climate change completely and guide human beings on some of the activities to avoid since they adversely lead to climate change.As far as the future application of Artificial Intelligence is concerned, organizations will heavily rely on artificial intelligence to promise the development of sensing devices that assist with both effect and resource decoupling (Victor, 2019). Effect decoupling deals with decreasing environmental damage, including carbon emission per economic output. Therefore, there is the possibility of halting any emission from the energy sector through the AI application to predict both supply & demand of energy in the grid and halt energy emission.

Secondly, in the future, effective means of doing away with things that destroy the environment and cause climate change means relying on artificial intelligence to improve the schedules for renewables and do away with the use of fossil fuels that emit greenhouse gases. Further, artificial intelligence applications will also develop robotics that safeguards and monitors natural resources like forests and curb deforestation. Applications of drones by the security bodies across the world can help in curbing logging and preventing unnecessary deforestation.


Artificial intelligence has been used in the past to handle climate change, still used today to curtail the effects of climate change, and in the future, AI will help to eradicate climate change completely. Indeed, AI has played a critical role in improving how human beings carry out activities that interfere with weather and climate change. Through analysis of gigantic data, AI has the full potential of helping people to live in a better world when climate change is dealt with, and people are guided on how to interact with their surroundings and avoid engaging in activities that contribute to climate change.


Zhongming, Z., Linong, L., Xiaona, Y., Wangqiang, Z., & Wei, L. (2018). Artificial intelligence—a game changer for climate change and the environment.

Victor, D. G. (2019). How artificial intelligence will affect the future of energy and climate.

Huntingford, C., Jeffers, E. S., Bonsall, M. B., Christensen, H. M., Lees, T., & Yang, H. (2019). Machine learning and artificial intelligence to aid climate change research and preparedness. Environmental Research Letters14(12), 124007.

Stein, A. L. (2020). Artificial intelligence and climate change. Yale J. on Reg.37, 890.

How Our Modern Society Has Influenced Our Individual’s Behavior, Decisions, And Place In Society Free Essay


Our culture impacts how we work and play, as well as how we see ourselves and others in relation to one another. It has an impact on our values and our perceptions of what is good and wrong. This is an example of how our choices are influenced by the culture in which we live. On the other hand, our choices can have an impact on others and, ultimately, transform our society. A range of personal variables, including age, health, sickness, pain, and the effect of a medication or treatment, may affect behavior. Personal and emotional characteristics include things like one’s personality, beliefs, expectations, emotions, and mental health, to name a few examples. In addition, life experiences – family, cultural, societal, and personal – contribute to one’s identity. This article describes how our modern society has influenced our individual’s behavior, decisions, and place in our society.

Our culture, which includes the traditions and conventions of our community, starts soon after birth. Known as socializing, this process covers a wide range of activities beyond traditional educational settings (Nichols, 2017). Our culture impacts how we work and play, as well as how we see ourselves and others in relation to one another. In addition, it impacts our values on our perceptions of what is good and harmful. This is an example of how our choices are influenced by the culture in which we live.

On the other hand, our choices can have an impact on others and, ultimately, transform our society. However, modern society has had a big impact on how we behave, how we bring up our children, and how we make present and future decisions. Social influence is how individuals adjust their conduct in response to demands placed on them by a social setting. Compliance, socialization, peer pressure, submission, leadership, persuasion, and sales are just a few of how it presents itself. While social influence is often the result of a specific action, demand, or request, people may modify their attitudes and behaviors in response to what they perceive others to be doing or thinking in the world around them (Van Ouytsel, 2020). As a result, our contemporary culture has had various effects on our actions and social positions.

Influence on adolescents

Our current civilization is primarily defined by social media and the development of new technologies. Communication sources have altered a great deal, and they have impacted almost every aspect of our daily life. As a result of the internet, many people are driven to emulate the behaviors of others (Baker, 2018). If things do not turn out the way they anticipate, this might have bad consequences in the future. First and foremost, contemporary civilization has impacted youth, both positively and negatively. According to research, the vast majority of teenagers in the United States have access to the internet. As a result, individuals can browse any website they like, even pornographic ones. For instance, your child learns more about human sexuality from movies and Netflix series than from high school’s required sex education class or family discussions around the dinner table. As a teenager in 2020, they almost certainly have more knowledge about sex and sexuality than you had when you were their age. What is the reason behind this? Because of the normalization of sex promoted by the entertainment and media industries, most parents are unable to keep up with it (Baker, 2018). Once these kids see such acts, they are enticed to participate. As a result, many of them end up developing sexually transmitted illnesses or even becoming pregnant without their parents’ consent. As a result, our contemporary civilization has played a part in exposing our kids to early sexual situations, which has impacted their conduct and decision-making in the future.

In addition, teens are prone to peer pressure from their adults, fellow teens, and what they watch on TVs. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in media available. It is currently available in various formats, including cinema, television, video games, social media platforms, and radio broadcast (Baker, 2018). Their combined influence on your growth throughout your teenage years is considerable. It is possible that if the latter see extensive violence against members of one race, they may acquire compassion for the oppressed or hatred against those who oppress them. Assuming, however, that the same news media began presenting those same victims as wicked individuals, they will very likely develop an intense dislike for everyone who belongs to that particular race. That is how racism has managed to persist for so long. In some cultures, the media plays a significant role in developing a feeling of superiority (Baker, 2018). Teens form opinions based on what they see in the media, influencing their actions.

Influence on Adults

Society has changed from a rural and agricultural situation to a secular, urban, and industrial one, which may be traced back to industrialization in many ways. Individuals have grown more literate and significant as civilization progresses, and they have progressively displaced the family, the community, or the occupational group as the fundamental unit of society. It has also been used in institutions that have grown more highly specialized due to industrialization, which is indicative of this process (Nichols, 2017). Instead of being ruled by tradition or custom, society has evolved to be guided by abstract concepts that have been developed specifically for this reason. Traditional religious beliefs have subsequently lost their significance, and distinguishing cultural characteristics have been lost as a result. The majority of social norms have been altered due to these changes in society. For example, many individuals have relocated from rural regions to metropolitan cities in quest of better work possibilities. In addition, women have made significant strides and have begun to assert themselves in leadership positions in national administrations, something that was previously unheard of.

On the other hand, most people have been said to have suffered unfavorable consequences as a result of contemporary civilization. Depression has been linked to social media and technology. The majority of individuals spend a significant amount of time on social media and mimic different habits and lifestyles they see on social media platforms. According to a study conducted by the University of Pittsburgh’s School of Medicine, chronic use of social media is associated with depression among young people (Nichols, 2017). A recent study found that people who checked their social media accounts often were 2.7 times more likely to develop depression than those who checked them less frequently. Moreover, a quarter of those who took part in the study exhibited elevated levels of depressive indicators.


Our society highly influences our behavior and choices. Teenagers learn a great deal from their surroundings, but they also imitate some behaviors from the internet due to their exposure to social media sites. If teenagers’ exposure to social media is not monitored, they may mimic negative behaviors such as aggression, drug misuse, or even exposure to sex life at a young age. Adults, on the other hand, have been impacted by contemporary culture. The majority of women have been empowered and are now in leadership positions in government agencies. By contrast, social media has had a detrimental effect on individuals. Social media has been identified as a significant contributor to mental illness. The majority of young people are replicating negative behaviors from social media platforms, which has a detrimental effect on their mental health.


Nichols, H. (2017). How modern life affects our physical and mental health.

Baker, F. (2018). How Does Society Influence One’s Behavior?.

Van Ouytsel, J., Ponnet, K., & Walrave, M. (2020). Cyberdating abuse: Investigating digital monitoring behaviors among adolescents from a social learning perspective. Journal of interpersonal violence35(23-24), 5157-5178.