How AI Through NLP Is Revolutionizing The Healthcare Industry Free Sample

Abstract

In today’s digital environment, computers cannot comprehend the human language we use on a daily basis. Humans and computer systems are unable to communicate effectively because of this. So, researchers came up with a novel method of obtaining data from digital machines. A branch of AI known as NLP has a significant influence on how computers and humans interact. Human-to-digital communication has been made much easier because of advances in natural language processing (NLP). To that end, this report examines the necessity for NLP technology in modern computing and the many techniques and applications that may be found within. Health care institutions may employ NLP to improve their competitiveness.

Introduction

Human language, as you are aware, is very complex. To comprehend this, a system must grasp grammatical rules, meaning, context, and slang and acronyms used in the language. Natural language processing (NLP) assists computers by simulating how people read and interpret language (Iroju & Olaleke, 2015). As presented by Iroju & Olaleke (2015). NLP is a vital discipline in which a system analyzes data and extracts information from settings. The system then displays the input data in a variety of ways. Natural language processing (NLP) is a method for computers to comprehend, interpret, write, or modify the natural language. The study of text and speech, on the other hand, is referred to as natural language. In comparison, a machine catches or identifies the meaning of input words via ordered output. Natural language processing is a critical part of AI. NLP was developed to enable individuals who do not know how to write computer code to get relevant information from a computer (Tvardik et al., 2018). Tvardik et al. (2018) confirm that in 1968, a film called “A Space Odyssey” popularized this kind of communication. NLP can also understand the information in emails, video files, and other unstructured stuff.

NLP may be applied in various ways in the healthcare business; however, these are just a few examples. These are things that can be checked. Treatment strategies are being put together to improve the patient’s experience. Many healthcare professionals and practitioners are using natural language processing (NLP) to assist them in making sense of the huge amounts of unstructured data included in electronic health records (EHR). This enables them to give their patients a more comprehensive level of care. It is estimated that the natural language processing (NLP) market in healthcare and the sector concerning matters of life will reach $3.8 billion by 2025, with a compound annual growth rate of 21 percent (Kocaman & Talby, 2021). In this essay, I will go into deep detail on the application of NLP in the healthcare field. In addition, I plan to learn more about NLP, how it operates, and how healthcare practitioners can benefit from this very wonderful technology in the future.

Problem

When an electronic health record’s usability is compromised, it takes longer to explore charts and input or retrieve data using typical keyboard and mouse interfaces (EHR). While EHRs promise to save and retrieve data fast and conveniently, they now suffer from usability issues that make them inefficient and unsatisfactory. These usability issues jeopardize a critical expectation for the EHR, which is that it should make it simple for people to swiftly obtain the information they need to give treatment (Kocaman & Talby, 2021). Because users were so worried about the usability of their EHRs, Meaningful Use incentives were diverted toward usability enhancements. Despite this, usability testing revealed that a large number of regularly used EHRs were not approved by the Office of the National Coordinator and failed to fulfill usability testing guidelines.

One usability issue with EHRs is the slowness of a keyboard and mouse navigating between interfaces and records. In a paper record, a clinician used to dealing with paper records may more rapidly locate and manually modify a patient’s list of medical concerns than in an EHR. Often, healthcare practitioners cannot utilize the EHR concurrently with patient care. Previously, Natural Language Processing Artificial Intelligence was employed to develop healthcare voice assistants capable of transcribing patient visit information into their electronic health records (EHR) (Kocaman & Talby, 2021). This technology is intended to reduce clinicians’ time on paperwork. This implies that professionals may devote more time and resources to direct patient care, which can help healthcare institutions become more efficient and sustainable.

Evidence

One solution would be to apply human-augmented machine learning to provide an informative, patient-specific story to address the issue. Natural Language Processing (NLP) can interpret the free-format text (also known as “unstructured data”) in Patient Notes and integrate it with the information contained in the tables and charts, resulting in a complete picture (the “structured data”). Work automation is seeing a significant increase in the employment and implementation of newly developed AI technologies to assist individuals in transitioning from paper to electronic records. In particular, this is true for those who work in the healthcare industry. Kocaman & Talby (2021) powerfully suggests that the use of a technology known as NLP may revolutionize how we handle and interact with patient information and enhance the way we care for individuals.

The information is stored in an EHR system at a more extensive scope. A patient’s information may be input into the EHR in one of four ways: by scanning documents, templates, using dictation or voice recognition, or by radiology systems, importing data from external data sources like lab systems, blood pressure monitors, or electrocardiographs. Data may be shown in either organized or unstructured formats depending on the situation (Tvardik et al., 2018). In order to be structured, information must be entered using a restricted number of options, such as drop-down menus, checkboxes, and pre-filled templates. One thing is undeniable: this is an excellent method for individuals to preserve their information. There is a great deal of data compression and loss of context, making them inappropriate for individualizing the EHR and too scattered for intelligent, holistic therapy, achievable with unstructured data, which is possible with structured data (Tvardik et al., 2018). They are simple to search for, collect, analyze, report on, and connect to other information resources because they are well-organized.

In contrast, unstructured clinical data may be available in free text tales, which are a kind of narrative format. Free-form clinical notes are often used to record interactions between providers and patients. It gives a practitioner greater flexibility to record observations and thoughts that are not supported or anticipated by the restricted options that come with structured data when a patient’s health record is filled up using free text. It is crucial to take notice of data that is intrinsically organized (Wen et al., 2019). Various other types of data, on the other hand, are not. At a more extensive scope, it is possible to achieve a satisfactory balance between NLP and free-form text. Some of the text narratives can be transformed into structured data, but the majority of the text may be left as free-form text, but with derived annotation and semantic analytics, allowing the EHR data to more closely resemble real-life circumstances in the future.

NLP systems have grown in popularity over the past several decades, despite the difficulty of implementing them in most hospitals. The words of Lavanya & Sasikala (2021) affirm that the market for NLP is developing steadily and is projected to continue to grow for some time, as indicated in the graph below.

Sample Figure –NPL six years market size

Figure 1: Sample Figure –NPL six years market size

Source: Chart Adapted from (Lavanya & Sasikala, 2021)

According to Lavanya & Sasikala (2021), the NLP market for health care and life sciences is predicted to increase at a 19.2 percent annual pace from USD 1.10 billion in 2015 to $2.67 billion in 2020. Based on the amount of money and the number of individuals who use them, Northern America has been predicted to be the biggest market for NLP solutions in the healthcare and life sciences business.

ANALYSIS

In the face of such a critical environment, the healthcare industry must act quickly to mitigate the negative consequences of the practices discussed thus far and increase their long-term sustainability. In this section, we’ll take a look at three different NPL applications in the hopes of coming up with a suitable/feasible solution:

NLP-Features Extraction Method

The similarity between two bits of text is measured using feature extraction techniques in NLP. Students of computer science and machine learning refer to this process as “natural language processing” (NLP). It ultimately boils down to writing computer programs that can comprehend various human languages. Natural language processing (NLP) refers to a computer’s capacity to interpret and read human language. Machine learning algorithms make predictions about the test data based on a compilation of variables in the training data. (Kocaman & Talby, 2021). They generate predictions about the test results based on these traits. It is difficult for machine learning algorithms to deal directly with raw text in language processing. Consequently, we need ways to transform the text into a properties matrix.

Feature Extraction

Figure 2: Sample Figure – Feature Extraction –

Source: Chart Adapted from (Wen et al., 2019).

The following are some of the most common ways to obtain features:

  • The TF-IDF
  • Bag-of-Words

The TF-IDF

TF-IDF highlights an issue that is critical while uncommon in our corpus. The TF–IFD value increases in proportion to the number of times a word appears in the text and decreases in the proportion of documents in the corpus that use the term. It is divided into two parts:

When a word is used a lot (TF)

TF: s Word frequency tells you how many times a term appears in the whole document. It could be thought of as the chance of finding a word in the text. There should be a relation between the number of words in the review and the number of times used. IDF: s. It is a way to tell if a word is unusual or common in the whole corpus. The inverse document function is a measure of this (Jiang et al., 2017). It looks for key phrases that appear in a small number of texts in the corpus. In simple terms, the rare words have a high rank.

Inverse Document Frequency

The score for IDF. IDF is a log-normalized figure calculated by taking the logarithm of the total number of documents with the term t and fractionating it by the total number of documents with the term D in the corpus.

Bag-of-Words

The following is a list of various phrases and expressions:

Using a Bag-of-Words approach is one of the most straightforward ways to turn a set of tokens into features. Words serve as features for the classifier to learn from when categorizing documents. On the other hand, negative reviews use words like “annoying” and “poor” in the review text if they appear in the review.

Using this model, it is impossible to tell the order in which words appear because we randomly place all of the tokens. That said, the world is not coming to an end as a result of this. Instead of looking at individual words, we can use N-grams (mostly bigrams) to figure this out (i.e., unigrams). This can help keep the words in their proper order in a given context. A table like this would look like this:

good movie movie did not a
1 0 1 0
0 1 1 1
1 1 0 0

Figure 3: Sample Table – N-gram Matrix –

Source: Chart Adapted from (Wen et al., 2019).

Sentiment Analysis Using Natural Language Processing

Sentiment Analysis categorizes a piece of writing as either neutral, negative, or positive, depending on the author’s expressed thoughts on the issue. A text sentiment analysis system provides weighted sentiment ratings to each sentence or phrase for numerous elements, topics, themes, and categories using NLP and machine learning approaches. There are several ways to employ sentiment analysis in big enterprises, including market research, brand, product monitoring, and consumer feedback. Several data analytics firms are integrating third-party sentiment analysis APIs into their client’s social media monitoring platform, customer experience management, or workforce analytics platform in order to provide relevant information to their consumers.

This article will provide an overview of basic sentiment analysis as well as the benefits and drawbacks of rule-based sentiment analysis. Finally, we’ll go through some of the most typical applications for sentiment analysis before proposing some further resources. A document is dissected into its basic pieces to do text analytics. These sections are then examined using natural language processing to determine the content’s entities, topics, attitudes, and intentions (Davenport & Kalakota, 2019). Text analysis is a seven-step procedure. Sentence parsing includes Sentence Breaking, Sentence Chaining, Syntax Parsing, and Tokenization.

Multilayered Text Deconstruction

Figure 4: Sample Figure – Multilayered Text Deconstruction –

Source: Chart Adapted from (Wen et al., 2019).

In sentimental analysis, a sentiment library is used, which is a term that refers to a huge collection of adverbs and phrases that humans have assessed. These collections of words and phrases are referred to as “sentiment libraries (Jiang et al., 2017).” Everyone in this manual sentiment rating approach must agree on its relative strength or weakness to other ratings. The word “bad” has a negative sentiment score of -0.5, whereas the word “awful” has a value of -0.5. Your sentiment analysis algorithm interprets both terms negatively. Computer programmers create a set of criteria (called “rules”) that help the computer evaluate how people feel about a specific item (noun or pronoun) based on how close it is to either positive or negative phrases (adjectives and adverbs). A sentiment analysis engine that supports many languages must be able to accommodate different libraries for each language. Therefore, the libraries must be updated with new phrases, updated scores, and obsolete phrases. Software developers provide recommendations (called “rules”) to help computers assess how humans feel about a particular item (noun or pronoun) by comparing it to positive or negative phrases (adjectives and adverbs).

Utilizing an OCR system (Optical Character Recognition)

Health centers may use an OCR system to scan handwritten or typed text and convert it to an electronic representation. Accepted file types include Word documents and plain text files. You may, for instance, alter the document or incorporate it into another document. This method may now be used to modify the document file. When converting a paper document to an electronic format, which takes more time, OCR is used. It is often used to digitize printed books and papers.

Consequently, text mining, machine translation, and character and word recognition are all possible applications. Three essential OCR processing techniques are discussed in the following sections: Firstly, Pre-Processing: This step generates data that the OCR can analyze rapidly and accurately. Pre-processing is used to improve the image’s quality so that the system can recognize it more precisely. This procedure uses de-skew, binarization, line removal, and other techniques. Secondly, the character image is divided into its component components during the subsequent OCR processing step. According to Hudaa et al. (2019), this is critical because when an excessive amount of space separates the lines in the characters, the recognition rate falls. Lastly, Post-processing: is a step used to correct/detect errors and group data. Spell and grammar checks and comparisons to other specialist information sources assist in refining OCR results. When textual symbols are recognized, they generate a collection of distinct symbols.

Solution

NLP Possible solutions Pros Cons
Extraction of features approach Accurate in the analysis of similarities between text pieces. Possible loss of word order as a vector of tokens is created in random order.
Sentiment analysis Approach Classifies writing into the ether, negative, neutral, or positive. During sentiment examination lexicon system is used, knowing that people express their emotions differently.
Optical character recognition approach Time-saving, accuracy, and minimizes fatigue. Requires highly skilled operators; other errors are unavoidable

Figure 5: Sample Figure –– NLP suggested solution Approach

To provide high-quality results, healthcare natural language processing (NLP) systems must be customized for the task (Reeves et al., 2021), which requires time and effort. Due to the growing openness with which people communicate their thoughts and feelings, sentiment analysis is becoming a critical tool for monitoring and analyzing sentiment in all types of data. Consumer feedback, such as survey responses and social media conversations, may be automatically evaluated so that businesses can better understand what makes their consumers happy or annoyed and improve their products and services. Generally, being aware of customer needs and want gives a company a competitive advantage in its industry since what the company produces is what the customer demands in the market.

Conclusion

Artificial intelligence has the potential to transform healthcare delivery in resource-constrained countries. We may conclude that NLP is an effective method with specific features and a successful communication strategy, i.e., NLP is a set of tools and techniques of knowing that are utilized to accomplish goals and produce results during knowledge discovery. According to this study, artificial intelligence (AI) might be used to address and resolve a large number of health system challenges in these conditions. As a result of widespread smartphone use and greater investment in supporting technology, artificial intelligence (AI) may be used to improve public health outcomes in low-income countries (e.g., mHealth, cloud computing, and EMR). Even though we’ve shown how they’re being used to enhance health outcomes for people living in low-income nations, many more AI applications are being deployed today, and there will undoubtedly be more in the future years.

References

Iroju, O. G., & Olaleke, J. O. (2015). A systematic review of natural language processing in healthcare. International Journal of Information Technology and Computer Science8, 44-50.

Wen, A., Fu, S., Moon, S., El Wazir, M., Rosenbaum, A., Kaggal, V. C., … & Fan, J. (2019). Desiderata for delivering NLP to accelerate healthcare AI advancement and a Mayo Clinic NLP-as-a-service implementation. NPJ digital medicine2(1), 1-7.

Tvardik, N., Kergourlay, I., Bittar, A., Segond, F., Darmoni, S., & Metzger, M. H. (2018). Accuracy of using natural language processing methods for identifying healthcare-associated infections. International Journal of Medical Informatics117, 96-102.

Lavanya, P. M., & Sasikala, E. (2021, May). Deep learning techniques on text classification using Natural language processing (NLP) in social healthcare network: A comprehensive survey. In 2021 3rd International Conference on Signal Processing and Communication (ICPSC) (pp. 603-609). IEEE.

Kocaman, V., & Talby, D. (2021). Spark NLP: natural language understanding at scale. Software Impacts8, 100058.

Reeves, R. M., Christensen, L., Brown, J. R., Conway, M., Levis, M., Gobbel, G. T & Chapman, W. (2021). Adapting an NLP system to a new healthcare environment to identify social determinants of health. Journal of Biomedical Informatics120, 103851.

Hudaa, S., Setiyadi, D. B. P., Laxmi Lydia, E., Shankar, K., Nguyen, P. T., Hashim, W., & Maseleno, A. (2019). Natural language processing utilization in healthcare.

Jiang, F., Jiang, Y., Zhi, H., Dong, Y., Li, H., Ma, S. & Wang, Y. (2017). Artificial intelligence in healthcare: past, present, and future. Stroke and vascular neurology2(4).

Davenport, T., & Kalakota, R. (2019). The potential for artificial intelligence in healthcare. Future healthcare journal6(2), 94.

How An NGO Contributes To Public Health And Safety Improvements Essay Example

How an Organization’s Mission and Vision Impacts the Health and/or Safety Needs of a Local Community

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a United Nations specialized agency that was formed in 1948 to oversee authority for the health issues of the international community. The offices of the organization are spread out worldwide. The major aim of the WHO is to achieve the highest possible level of health for everyone globally (Yadav, 2017). The mission of the WHO is to promote health, keep the world safe and serve the vulnerable, with a measurable impact on individuals at the country level. The WHO has a vision of a world in which all peoples attain the highest possible level of health. This mission and vision guide the activities of the WHO so that it may contribute to public health and safety improvements in various ways.

International health security is threatened by several issues including disease outbreaks of epidemic-prone and novel diseases like the COVID-19 pandemic and the Ebola virus epidemic. These outbreaks are instigated by factors like the misuse of antibiotics. The mission and vision of the WHO help it come up with policies to meet the safety needs of a population. Safety needs include health and personal security. The WHO meets these needs by trying to make appropriate health technology like essential drugs accessible to most people, financing healthcare in poor populations and increasing the numbers of trained healthcare practitioners in these areas (Yadav, 2017). The mission and vision of the WHO enable the organization to establish policies that facilitate quality healthcare for everyone.

Universal health coverage in some countries and medical insurance policies are initiatives that support the mission and vision of the WHO in the promotion of public health and safety. These initiatives ensure that as many people as possible receive healthcare services. The services are made affordable for the beneficiaries of these programs (Schindler et al., 2018). Every member of the community can access healthcare through universal health coverage. These programs also advocate for the delivery of quality health care to the people. These lead to improved health outcomes for the population and decreased morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of some diseases has gone down thanks to the medical insurance schemes that cater for the costs of managing the conditions.

How WHO Impacts the Health and/or Safety Needs of a Local Community

The WHO contributes to public health and safety needs in several ways. It monitors the population’s health and assesses the trends in health issues (Yadav, 2017). It guides health research processes that are done on the people. It regulates health-related issues such as drug and substance abuse and genetic modification of foods. Moreover, the organization formulates norms and standards in healthcare and ensures that these regulations are implemented. It addresses issues that are critical to public health by providing leadership in how to deal with these issues. It encourages the acquisition and adequate stocking of essential drugs in hospitals (CFR.org Editors, 2021). Also, the WHO ensures that ethics are upheld in healthcare and that evidence-based interventions are used.

Impact of Funding Sources, Policy and Legislation on WHO’s Provision of Services

The WHO is funded by voluntary contributions of member states, the private sector, philanthropic organizations and other sources. It is also funded by the payment of agreed membership dues by the member states (Organization, 2022). The membership dues are based on the gross income and wealth of the countries. The funding sources have positively impacted the WHO. It has improved the health systems of the countries by improving evidence gathering and integrating people-centred services. Moreover, it has facilitated the fight against Non-communicable Diseases. It has also enabled the organization to use tools to promote human rights and gender equity in health. The Contingency Fund for Emergencies allows the organization to appropriately respond to health emergencies and disease outbreaks to prevent devastating consequences (Organization, 2022).

Policy and legislation also impact the provision of services by the WHO. The policy on disability enables the organization to provide healthcare that includes people with disability without discrimination. The organization advocates for a consult with people with disability in decisions affecting them. Policy and legislation on ethics enable the WHO to base their decisions and activities on sticking to the required ethics. The organization has defined the consequences of breaching the code of ethics including loss of the contract with the WHO (Organization, 2022).

The Ability of WHO to Promote Equal Opportunity and Improve the Quality of Life

The WHO advocates for equity in healthcare. It encourages the inclusion of people with disability in health reforms. Their opinion on issues affecting them is sought. The organization addresses the different forms of discrimination toward people with disability in the healthcare system. It also advocates for improved accessibility of public facilities for everyone with a disability. It advocates for gender equity in leadership and service delivery in healthcare (Organization, 2022). Its offices are distributed across the world and this enables the inclusion of every race and country in quality healthcare regulated by the WHO. Moreover, it strives to employ individuals from marginalised groups.

References

CFR.org Editors. (2021, January 29). What Does the World Health Organization Do? Council on Foreign Relations. https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/what-does-world-health-organization-do

Organization, T. W. (2022). Funding. World Health Organization. https://www.who.int/about/funding

Schindler, M., Danis, M., Goold, S. D., & Hurst, S. A. (2018). Solidarity and cost management: Swiss citizens’ reasons for priorities regarding health insurance coverage. Health Expectations21(5), 858-869. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.12680

Yadav, Manish Kumar, Structure and Functions of the World Health Organization. (September 5, 2017). IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), Vol. 22, Issue 9, Ver. 1 (September. 2017), Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3032652

How Child Abuse Impact Children Performance In Schools Sample Paper

Introduction and Background

Child abuse is a crime or act of harming a child sexually, emotionally, and physically. It can also be treating the child badly especially forcing him into child labor. It is a pervasive social issue characterized by devastating consequences on the child for their entire lives. Although several stringent measures have been adopted by human rights organization and law enforcement agencies, studies indicate that case of child abuse has increased over recent time. Child abuse takes a lot of forms, like commission and omission. The commission is an act that is related to sexual abuse and physical abuse, while omission involves both physical and emotional neglect. When these two acts happen extremely, they can easily lead to devastating long-term effects on child development, thus influencing their behavioral, cognitive, physical, and psychological development.

Unfortunately, it is a high chance that child neglection and abuse have a high chance of lowing child academic achievement. Also, several studies indicate that children who are suffering from neglect exhibit low academic and those who are abused physically. Many tend to drop out of school even before completion because poor academics cause them to stay longer in school. The cognitive ability and memory to master concepts in class are lower than their friends. Many do not know to understand that child abuse is a serious problem affecting children today. The number of abuses has increased to a level in every ten children there is one who is facing child abuse or has experienced child abuse. Studies have also indicated that sexually abused children aged between 7 to 12 years face academic difficulties, and many repeat a grade severally as their cognitive ability is low. The study will provide both schools administrators and parents with an insight into how child abuse has impacted children negatively academically.

Literature Review

Azi, A. S., & Saluhu, A. I. (2016). The effect of child abuse on the academic performance of school children: Implication on the Nigerian Economy. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts, and Sciences3(3), 23-27.

https://www.academia.edu/download/63045516/APJEAS-2016.3.3.0420200421-54386-19hg89f.pdf

According to the article, child abuse generally can harm a child emotionally, sexually, and physically. Harmful behavior of children’s parents, siblings, peers, teachers, and society in a different form can lead to child abuse which is not a strange issue in Nigeria. Also, Chalk, Gibbons, and Scarpa have noticed that child abuse affects children most physically, behaviorally, and psychologically (Azi et al., p. 23). Asokan and Olatunji’s study indicated that child abuse highly influences the children’s secondary and primary education academic performance. They used a sample of 200 teachers to investigate the impact of child abuse on school performance, and they found out that child abuse child performance in schools is positively related.

The study was done by Augustine Azi and Abubakar Isa Saluhu, who narrates the theoretical study. They examined the impact on academic performance and its implications. The study’s finding indicates that there are three main of child abuse which includes emotional, physical, and sexual or psychological abuse. According to Azi and Saluhu’s findings, abused children commonly perform poorly in class because they find it difficult to remain focused and concentrate on their studies. Additionally, they found out that more than 24.6% of the children in Nigeria face child abuse annually, which has affected their studies as well the economic production of the country (Azi et al., p. 24). They are also recommended different ways to curb the issue; both government, parents, school authorities, and teachers should play their role to help in mitigating this problem.

The source highly articulates the key aspects of the study in our cause by addressing the question in our research. The article has indicated different types of child abuse and listed and discussed the impact on the children’s academic performance. The source has also brought on board recommendations that can be used to mitigate this kind of problem (Azi et al., p. 26). The article can be used when researching as it is reliable. The author holds a doctorate in Education, Art, and Sciences from the University of Jos, Plateau. He has done several types of research on this topic and other topics.

Bosede, Alokan Funmilola, and Olatunji Itunu Comfort. “Influence of child abuse on classroom behaviour and academic performance among primary and secondary school students.” European Scientific Journal 10.10 (2014).

https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.941.4596&rep=rep1&type=pdf

According to Bosede, child abuse has emerged as a major social problem that needs public attention. Like over the world, the children are subjected to child labor, others as beggars in the streets, many are denied education others die because of mistreatment. Several types of research indicate that childhood maltreatment contributes a lot to failure in academic achievement. Bosede and Comfort O.I (2014) researched to determine the relationship between child abuse and their attention in class. To collect sufficient information, they adopted the survey method. The targeted population for the study comprised primary and secondary teachers from both private and public schools from major areas of Nigeria (Bosede et al., np). The sample was comprised of 200 teachers drawn from 10 schools using stratified random sampling. The researchers gave out questionnaires targeting those who have faced abuse. Also, behavior questionnaires were used to collect data related to the performance in class.

To ensure the validity of the content, they used experts to judge the validity of the data collected. A test-retest method was employed to determine the reliability of the data obtained. Therefore the reliability coefficient was found to be 0.72. further analysis of data was done by use of Pearson Product Moment Correlation. After analyzing the data, the information obtained revealed a significant relationship between child abuse and their concentration or attention span in class (Bosede et al., np). Based on the obtained finding, both Alokan and Funmilola Bosede concluded and recommended that child abuse highly affects children’s concentration in class, thus lowering their grades in academic performance. Education forums should be put in place to curb this problem. Also, parents should purpose to always relate with their children with affection, love, and provide for their needs.

The article has discussed in detail the question in our problem by evaluating deeply how child abuse has negatively impacted the educational performance of abused children. The article is done by Aokan, Funmilola Bosede, a Ph.D. holder in the department of guidance and counseling Faculty of education, Etiti State University of Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Together with this journal, he has done many other journals on the same topic and on another topic that has reliable sources of research information and references for many researchers.

Makondo, S. L. D. D. (2017). Effects of child abuse on the academic performance of primary school learners in the Manzini Region, Swaziland. World Journal of Education7(5).

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Davison-Makondo-3/publication/320949519_Effects_of_Child_Abuse_on_the_Academic_Performance_of_Primary_School_Learners_in_the_Manzini_Region_Swaziland/links/5a53a4f3458515e7b72f0aa8/Effects-of-Child-Abuse-on-the-Academic-Performance-of-Primary-School-Learners-in-the-Manzini-Region-Swaziland.pdf

According to Sylvia Lungile and Davison Makondo, child abuse is one of the social catastrophes problems that is recently attracting public attention. In Swaziland, education is one of the fundamental human rights and is highly considered a cornerstone to the development of oneself and the development of the nation at large. In the United States, education is viewed as a basic human right and a tool that helps one achieve social equality in society. Then, the researcher in this article has observed that many children are not attending school as a result of child abuse. Also, the researcher has observed that child abuse in Swaziland has become rampant and sexual abuse is more prevalent in the country (Makondo et al. np). This study selected primary school teachers in Swaziland, which revealed that more than 40% of the population had experienced child abuse.

The study’s main purpose was to investigate the impact of child abuse on academic performance, especially for primary schools students in Manzini, a region of Swaziland. The research was qualitative, and it employed a phenomenological research design to collect data—the main target population of the abused students in Manzini primary. The researchers collected data from 15 abused learners. Purposive sampling was the employed method used in the selection of targeted schools. After the analysis, the findings indicated that the majority of the abused learners have poor academic. Thus, the researcher concluded that child abuse has negatively affected the academic performance of learners who have been abused (Makondo et al. np). Therefore, the study reached the recommendation that all parents, stakeholders, school administrators, and teachers should plan to work hand-in-hand to handle this problem to help the abused kids improve their academic performance and social life.

The journals have detailed every aspect regarding our question in our problem by addressing the effect of child abuse on academic performance, especially for primary learners. It was published in 2017 by Sylvia &Makondo, who have done several other research journals on different topics. The journal can be easily accessed through the website indicated above. They have shared knowledge and information that several scholars can apply and use in their research.

Ada, P. A., & Anake, P. (2015). Child abuse and students’ academic performance in boki local government area of cross river state. British Journal of Education3(3), 34-42.

https://www.academia.edu/download/54911944/Child-Abuse-and-Students-Academic-Performance-In.pdf

According to Ada, child abuse has become an apparent vicious and endless cycle that hurts the social image of a State and more the dignity for those who are abused. He states that child abuse can occur at home, in school, or the community as children tend to interact with each other. He has also categorized child abuse into four sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, physical abuse, and regret. According to the journal, child neglect and abuse can result in death or lead to emotional and physical harm (Ada et al., p. 36).

According to the journal, child abuse is defined as inflicting physical injuries and emotional torture on the child, which might be intentional and could endanger one in terms of health, physical, social, educational, moral, and emotional wellness of a child. The journal has identified factors that contribute to child abuse: poverty and parents’ ignorance. The research in this journal focused on investigating child abuse as it impacts educational performance. To achieve the study’s objective the research formulated two null-hypothesis and a sample of two 200 participants randomly selected to enhance data collection. The selection of the sample was facilitated through the use of a simple random sampling method or technique. In collecting the data, the questionnaire played a key role. The Test re-test reliability was established, and the Pearson product-moment correction analysis was applied as the best tool of statistical technique during the study. Therefore, the researchers used the critical level of 0.5 to test the significance of each hypothesis. The finding of the results indicated that both sexual and physical abuse on children is statistically related to learners’ academic performance (Ada et al., p. 35). The recommendation was made based on the results. They state the importance of having intensified and affectionate campaigns to create awareness regarding the menace of child abuse, both sexual and physical abuse, as it is killing the future of our kinds, society, and family.

The journal has analyzed the question on the research as through its finding, we have witnessed how child abuse negatively affects their academic performance. The scholars of the source make it much more reliable as they have done many other journals on different topics and have sufficient knowledge of the topic (Ada et al., p. 39). They work in the Department of Education Foundations, offering guidance and counseling at the University of Calabar.

Diette, T. M., Goldsmith, A. H., Hamilton, D., & Darity Jr, W. A. (2017). Child abuse, sexual assault, community violence, and high school graduation. Review of Behavioral Economics4(3), 215-240.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/William-Darity/publication/320963302_Child_Abuse_Sexual_Assault_Community_Violence_and_High_School_Graduation/links/5a0f7cba458515cc5aa6a023/Child-Abuse-Sexual-Assault-Community-Violence-and-High-School-Graduation.pdf

According to Timothy M. Diette, the number of youths who managed to through their course in 1900 was very low because there were a lot of different forms of child abuse, either violence or sexual abuse. Community violence and sexual assault caused many students to quit their high school education before graduation. But the number kept growing to 80% by 1970. As per the researcher, the number dropped again by 2010 as many again fell victim to abuse in high schools (Diette et al., p. 220). Timothy has done several types of research that have documented the relationship between childhood sexual abuse, physical violence, and educational performance. In the findings, there is an indication that there is a positive correlation between the numbers of students who manage to graduate and sexual assault, with is one form of child abuse. Throughout their finding, it is indicated that child abuse has contributed to a large share of poor academic grades. Very few numbers of students manage to complete their studies.

Hypothesis Review

For our research question, the best hypothesis; indicates a direct correlation between child abuse and poor school performance. The research variables have been child abuse and poor performance. Reviewing the above-done research in literature, all the findings had a positive correlation between child abuse and poor academic performance (Diette et al., p. 222). When a child is abused, he is affected mentally, thus lowering his concentration in class. Also, many tend to drop out of school. The reviews have detailed how child abuse can negatively affect academic performance by giving some examples in different countries.

Research Methods

Research methods are the tools that a researcher can use when doing research. They can be quantitative or qualitative as well the mix of the two. The quantitative research method examines numerical data, and it requires the researcher to use statistical tools when analyzing the data collected. Some of the best and most convenient statistical tools that can be applied when analyzing data are the t-test, F-test, and regression analysis. The very basic statistical tools are the t-test and F-test. The best research method that can be applied in this research is the quantitative research method, which is often used when dealing with measurable forms and numbers. It gives a systematic way of investigating an issue or a problem (Diette et al., p. 225). Through analysis, it answers questions justifying the relationship between the measurable variables by either explaining, predicting and also how to control the phenomenon. The method suits our research as it helps analyze the relationship between child abuse and school performance. The quantitative research method involves three methods: survey research, descriptive research, and correlation research.

Survey research involves collecting data and information from a sample of individuals through the responses they provide to the given questions. It is a research method that allows for a variety of methods of recruiting the participants to be employed to collect data and also be able to utilize different methods of instrumentation (Azi et al., p. 23). Like in our case, in the course of collecting data, their research might apply this method to collect information from the sample of participants to answer the presented questions.

Descriptive research; is a method that is under quantitative research method. It could be of great help in our research as it is a type of research commonly used to describe the characteristic of the target population. Like in our case, our targeted population of abused children in schools. The researcher might employ the method to collect data that answers various questions like when and how its event occurred. The question in this research method pertains to a particular population and a group.

Correlational research; is another research method under the quantitative research method, which is a convenient method for our research as it helps show the correlation between child abuse and school performance. Using this method, we concluded that there is a positive correlation between child abuse and school performance. The method is a non-experimental research method that mainly focuses on studying the relationship between two variables with the help of statistical analysis. It does not focus on studying the effects of understudy variables’ extraneous variables. For instance, in our case, we focused on the relationship between child abuse and school performance.

We should also remember that research should become useful and valuable only when valid, reliable, and accurate (Azi et al., p. 27). Therefore, to ensure that the data collected is reliable, accurate, and valuable quantitative research method involves the process of analysis before complying with the data. It uses the three methods mentioned above. With the use of descriptive statistics, the researcher will be able to summarize the data and include the measure of variability and averages. This is done through the use of scatter plots, frequency tables, and graphs to help visualize the data and be able to check for any trend of outliers. It also involves using inferential statistics, which helps in making predictions and generalizations based on the data collected for the study. Through that, it helps test the hypothesis and use of the sample to estimate the population parameter of interest in the research.

Personal Response

As I was doing my research assignment, I have learned a lot from beginning to end and have come to some needed concepts. On evaluating the impact of child abuse on academic performance, I have come to understand that apart from the physical and emotional impact that child abuse torture because it impacts individual academic performance, which in the future brings up long term consequences to the nation (Ryan et al., p. 370). I learned that the abused children might even drop out of school, which brought to my thinking that in most countries, we witness a lot of school dropouts, especially in Nigeria. According to research done by Azi & salute (2016), several factors contribute to child abuse in Nigeria and how it has contributed negatively to the education sector. Nigeria is one of the countries that experience many schools, and college drops out because of poverty and others because of sexual assault.

After reviewing different research, I can conclude that my question was well answered. All the five reviewed journals analyzed and answered the question according, as each journal evaluated the effect of child abuse on academic performance (Ryan et al., p. 370). Then, after carrying out the analysis, there was a positive correlation between child abuse and school performance. Journal one done by Azi & Saluhu evaluated the question in our research better than other journals. I can not conclude that the other journal a shall, but according to my perspective and expectation, I found that the journal is done by Azi be more detailed than the others.

The new thing I learned from my topic is that child abuse has both short and long effects on individuals’ lives. I had no understanding that child abuse can deeply impact education, as I have found. And I would like all stakeholders who can help mitigate the problem of child abuse in our society to implement policies that will eradicate the problem with immediate effect because it has become a worldwide disaster. Failure to deal with it, our future generation will be in struggles (Ryan et al., p. 370). The most important thing I learned as I was doing the assignment was that we should live as brothers and sisters because the world is made of us, and loving each other will be an immediate solution to deal with child abuse. Everyone will be a keeper to his peers and a keeper of the entire family, leaving no room for any abuse. The are several challenges I faced while doing the research. One of the challenges I faced while collecting data was that many participants gave wrong information. Even lack of enough funds to facilitate data collection was another challenge.

Work Cited

Ada, P. A., & Anake, P. (2015). Child abuse and students’ academic performance in boki local government area of cross river state. British Journal of Education3(3), 34-42.

https://www.academia.edu/download/54911944/Child-Abuse-and-Students-Academic-Performance-In.pdf

Azi, A. S., & Saluhu, A. I. (2016). The effect of child abuse on the academic performance of school children: Implication on the Nigerian Economy. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, Arts, and Sciences3(3), 23-27.

https://www.academia.edu/download/63045516/APJEAS-2016.3.3.0420200421-54386-19hg89f.pdf

Bosede, A. F., & Comfort, O. I. (2014). Influence of child abuse on classroom behavior and academic performance among primary and secondary school students. European Scientific Journal10(10).

https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.941.4596&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Diette, T. M., Goldsmith, A. H., Hamilton, D., & Darity Jr, W. A. (2017). Child abuse, sexual assault, community violence, and high school graduation. Review of Behavioral Economics4(3), 215-240.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/William-Darity/publication/320963302_Child_Abuse_Sexual_Assault_Community_Violence_and_High_School_Graduation/links/5a0f7cba458515cc5aa6a023/Child-Abuse-Sexual-Assault-Community-Violence-and-High-School-Graduation.pdf

Makondo, Sylvia Lungile Dlamini1& Davison. “Effects of child abuse on the academic performance of primary school learners in the Manzini Region, Swaziland.” World Journal of Education 7.5 (2017).

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Davison-Makondo-3/publication/320949519_Effects_of_Child_Abuse_on_the_Academic_Performance_of_Primary_School_Learners_in_the_Manzini_Region_Swaziland/links/5a53a4f3458515e7b72f0aa8/Effects-of-Child-Abuse-on-the-Academic-Performance-of-Primary-School-Learners-in-the-Manzini-Region-Swaziland.pdf

Ryan, J. P., Jacob, B. A., Gross, M., Perron, B. E., Moore, A., & Ferguson, S. (2018). Early exposure to child maltreatment and academic outcomes. Child maltreatment23(4), 365-375.

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1077559518786815