How Does Freud Understands The Concept On “Narcissism”? Essay Sample For College

Sigmund Freud is an Australian neurologist who has contributed a lot to Psychology. He developed some new therapy techniques focusing more on talk therapy. Freud explains Narcissism as an object of adoration and sexual arousal manifested in the ego and libido. A narcissist is characterized by intense self-love and contempt for others. Narcissism is a personality trait that differs from one person to another and can work against or for oneself. In this paper, the impact of Freud on Narcissism will be discussed.

Freud examines two types of Narcissism: primary Narcissism and secondary Narcissism. Primary Narcissism appears to be a trait shared by all persons beginning at birth. In this type, an individual’s libido is directed to objects (Freud & Hoopla 2014). For instance, kids spend a lot of time licking their thumbs. In growth, this is essential since it provides an important stage of self–image.

Secondary Narcissism occurs once the order of signifiers has been genitalized and invested in important traces but is no longer self-erotical: the individual invests in that physical body part as something attractive to others. In this phase of development, the object-libido is demonstrated in the state of being in love, when an individual tends to relinquish their personality in favor of the other subject (Freud & Hoopla 2014). As a result of trying to impress the people around them, they suffer from low self-esteem. Nevertheless, they suffer from depression and anxiety, embarrassment and relationship difficulties.

Nevertheless, Freud believes Narcissism has several causes like libido and a desire for oneself preservation. He maintains that such needs are the same throughout childhood and cannot be distinguished (Freud 1991). Having said that, Freud demonstrates that this state of ecstasy appears to be unattainable since humans appear to personify each object to fulfill their sexual and emotional demands. Because of this, Freud claims the personal love of objects could represent the insufficiency behind the egos. Such a situation occurs when one fails to acquire their desires. They tend to direct their negative energy towards different things, for instance, to guide their passions to their lovers.

A perfect example is when a person diagnosed with neurosis need to regain narcissistic satisfaction by redirecting all their passions to materials that meet the desires of their optimal ego (Freud 1991). In such cases, the patient skips treatment because they have identified something that comforts or meets their heart’s desires and helps to build their narcissistic satisfaction. Therefore, the connection and availability of that material seem therapeutic to such individuals. Nevertheless, this type of therapy affects the patient to the extent of being obsessive to their partner.

Freud’s classification of Narcissism into primary and secondary has greatly boosted hospitals’ expertise in identifying the narcissistic nature of their clients and how to develop a successful and effective therapy for them. For instance, in primary Narcissism, one directs his affections and passions towards specific objects. Providing them with whatever makes them happy works as therapy since it helps them regain their love. In secondary Narcissism, individuals direct their devotion towards the people they love, such as their immediate families or companions. However, once they truly find the people they love, they will be obsessive, which allows them to regain their lost Narcissism.


Freud, S. (1991). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud: Vol. 4. London: The Hogarth Press.

Freud, S., & Hoopla, D. (2014). On narcissism: an introduction. United States: White Press

Huxley, E, & Bizumic, B. (2016) Parental Invalidation and the Development of Narcissism. The Journal of Psychology,150(130-147) DOI 10.1080/00223980.2016.1248807.

Essay On Frida Kahlo Essay Example

Frida Kahlo was a Mexican painter named for her self-portraitures, agony, emotion, and brilliant colours. Frida is praised in Mexico due to her focus on Mexican and native heritage and by activists for her portrayal of the women equality journey. Kahlo, who battled from polio as a kid, almost perished in a motor vehicle tragedy as a teen. She had many spine fractures, including the clavicle and ribcage, a shattered pelvis, a fractured leg, and a broken collarbone. While rehabilitating in a body cast, she started to concentrate on work of art. She undergone 30 surgical procedures in her lifespan ( 2022).

In Kahlo’s artwork, real-world experience is indeed a prevalent topic. Her emotional and physical agony and her complicated relationship with her lover, painter Diego Rivera, whom she wedded two times, are vibrantly shown on oil paintings. There are 55 self-portraits amid her 143 paintings. The shattered section depicts the destruction of her body due to the bus tragedy. Kahlo is shown half-naked and divided midway, with her backbone portrayed as a shattered decorative structure (, 2022). Nails are sprinkled throughout her skin. She’s also wearing a surgical collar.

Time flies, Kahlo’s second self-portrait is painted folkly with brilliant colours. She is dressed nicely, and the colouring of the artwork are those of the Mexican flag: red, green, and white ( 2022). Throughout her life, Frida Kahlo reverted to the topic of self-portraiture, as artists have traditionally done with their favourite themes.

Kahlo and Rivera’s relationship was stormy, with several relationships on each corner. Self-portrait wearing short hair (1940), Frida dressed in a boys tuxedo, clutching a couple of scissors, and her hair falling over the armchair that which she is seated on. This symbolizes how she could trim Rivera’s hair when he was indulging in sexual relations.

Kahlo’s anguish about her husband’s romance with her younger sibling Christina is depicted in the 1937 work’s memory, the Heart. A big heartbreak shows the depth of Kahlo’s agony at her toes (Portland Art Museum, 2022). In 1939, Frida Kahlo and her husband separated but remarried him afterwards.

Soon after her separation, Kahlo is depicted repeatedly in The Two Fridas (1939). The one Frida dresses a Tehuana outfit to depict the Frida Diego adored, whereas the other Frida dresses a European costume to signify the lady Diego deceived and spurned ( 2022). She later returns to Tehuana in self-portraits as a Tehuana (1943) and self-portraits as a Tehuana (1944),(1948).

Pre-Columbian treasures were prevalent in both Kahlo and Rivera’s homes. Diego retrieved carvings and cultural icons, while Frida gathered accessories; in Kahlo’s works of art, she did wear jewellery from the time frame in self-portrait Time Flies (1926), self-portrait with the monkey (1936), Girl with the Dead Mask (1938), and self-portrait with Braid (1941) ,The Four Inhibitors of Mexico City, and many others. Self Portrait with Small Monkeys (1938) and (1938) all contain pre-Columbian items (1945)

In 1940, Frida Kahlo took part in the “International Exposition of Surrealism” at the Galeria Arte in Mexico City. Her top two paintings are The Two Fridas and The Rounded Table (1940). Andrew Breton Surrealist characterized Fridas surrealistic, a brand she scorned, claiming that she just portrayed her actuality. But, in 1945, Don Jose invited Frida to study and paint her knowledge and perception of Sigmund Freud’s novel Moses and Monotheism. His psychoanalysis studies surrealism is founded. The Portland Art Museum is located in Portland, Oregon (2022). Frida Kahlo drew Moses, and it was awarded second honour at the yearly arts festival in the Artes.

Frida failed to vend numerous artworks during her lifespan; however, she drew a few contract paintings. In her career, she just had a single art exhibition in Mexico in 1953, barely a year until her untimely death of 47. Her art is now quite valuable and sells for a lot of money ( Portland Art Museum. 2022). Kahlo’s Roots, her own portrait was auctioned for $5.62 million at a Sotheby’s bidding, surpassing the previous for even the most valuable Latin American piece ever acquired at the sale, making Frida Kahlo one of the greatest female artists.

Frida Kahlo, together with Marxist innovatory Che Guevara and a little contingent of modern personalities, develop into a cultural representation of the twenty-first decade and has left a inheritance in art olden times that remains to excite the Heart and spirit. 2022) (Portland Art Museum). Frida Kahlo, who was brought into the world in 1907 and died at 47, acquired popularity well beyond Mexican boundaries. During her short existence, albeit nothing like the legendary reputation that would later make her renowned mother of selfies, her indestructible image familiar worldwide.

The Frida Kahlo Museum is a museum dedicated to the artist Frida Kahlo. Her possessions are on exhibition around the residence in Mexico City because she still resided there. Kahlo was raised in this structure, dubbed the Blue House, because of its azure walls (Portland Art Museum. 2022). She resided there with her spouse for several years before passing away. The museum is the largely well-liked in the Coyoacan neighbourhood and one of the among the renowned in the city.

She was a poet as well. “I’d want to draw you,” she writes during her first message, “even though there are no colors since there are so many in my perplexity, the concrete shape of my tremendous love,” she says. It captures the wonder of being in love while being perplexed. Even though truth seems to have put something within The stone, compassion finds a way to resist the truth that one believed was correct. Frida is so enamored with her lover that she is on the verge of losing her mind. Frida had no idea who she should love until she met Diego (Portland Art Museum. 2022). Who’d have guessed a 26-year-old would fall in love with a man her father’s age, but love is life.

The Two Fridas

The Two Fridas ( 2022)


Frida Kahlo: 100 Paintings Analysis, Biography, Quotes, & Art. (2022). Retrieved 26 February 2022, from

Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera, and Mexican Modernism – Portland Art Museum. Portland Art Museum. (2022). Retrieved 26 February 2022, from

Gender Bias In Child Custody Sample College Essay

Gender stereotypes have played a significant influence on child custody decisions throughout history. Despite current gender-neutral legislation, male advocacy organizations allege that custody rulings continue to favor mothers. The media and women’s rights advocates argue that child custody proceedings unfairly target mothers. Mothers were regularly granted sole custody throughout the twentieth century due to the widespread belief in women’s “natural superiority” in child care (Ryznar, 2016). Socially progressive jurisdictions changed their child custody rules to prioritize “the kid’s best interests” in light of the growing issue of conventional gender roles. Is it true that the adoption of gender-neutral legislation has led to more equal custody distributions in reality? Not immediately, at least, based on some data. When it comes to divorce disputes involving minor children, 86.3 percent of the time, mothers are given custody in Brazil and the United States, respectively (Ryznar, 2016). A wide range of factors might cause this disparity: Before the breakup, the bulk of caregiving responsibilities was likely performed by moms. According to a recent poll, women still do more housework and childcare responsibilities than males, even in houses where spouses receive a salary. Second, males are more likely than women to be victims of domestic violence or misuse of substances (Garvin, 2016). When it comes to custody battles and non-litigation judgments, males are more likely to give up their parental rights than moms.

The first article that examined the issue of gender bias in child custody was done by Warshak (2005). The research represented three nations: Argentina, Brazil, and the United States of America. In a pilot study, the researchers employed a sample of 114 participants drawn from two custody cases. After giving their informed permission, the participants watched two videos depicting a divorcing couple arguing over who gets custody of the kids. Vignettes were designed such that one parent was a little cozier than the other to support uneven custody arrangements.

Research question

Is there a lot of gender bias when it comes to child custody cases?

Tests done

The study was done by considering three cases. Participants were asked to compare custody awards in two instances to identical awards with the parents’ names swapped. Even if we were to give two different versions of the same instance (such as Case 1) in succession, participants would be exposed to demand features since our experimental comparison would be made evident. We matched a different case with an extra degree of a better parent in each experiment. One participant saw an issue with a better mother and another with a better father, but they never saw the identical situation again. Using the signed-rank test, we evaluated the data.


A signed-rank test against the scale’s midpoint (z = 10.11, p< .001) indicated that the majority of participants (M = 5.24, SD = 1.02) supported joint custody in the abstract. The research found evidence of a preference for primary control for the mother, which was connected to gender stereotypes. Custody awards showed an imbalance between excellent moms and good dads across matched pairs of child custody cases in Study 1, which examined three distinct cultures and languages. According to Study 2, attributions of affection did not influence custody awards. As a result, rewards to excellent mothers were predicted by warm attributions, but not by warm attributions to good dads. According to the findings of Study 3, feminine nouns are often associated with warmth-related characteristics, which influence custody decisions as well. As a consequence of these findings, it may be concluded that gender and warmth stereotypes, which have been studied explicitly (Study 2) and implicitly (Study 3), have a role in the asymmetry of child custody awards that have been highlighted in the literature (Study 1).

Previous research on the folk psychology of custodial choices stresses the broad support for joint custody, which may conflict with our focus on mother preference. However, a deeper look at the findings of Braver and colleagues indicates that their data also show a maternal preference:

For example, “among those who did not pick the ‘equal living’ choice, much more (28 percent) supported mother main custody than paternal (3 percent), a big and significant difference, t(35) = -3.0, p =.01” in one of their research. According to Braver et al., joint custody was the most preferred solution in all three surveys.

The second article was done by Dotterweich & McKinney (2005). This research used an experimental design for its investigation. Content analysis and in-depth interviews were the primary sources of information. We were able to collect data in a convenient and purposeful way. According to the research, 32 cases from six courts in the United States were examined utilizing a content analysis plan. Researchers looked at the facts, law, and rationale behind decisions to understand the obiter dictum. Case numbers are often used to identify individual legal proceedings. The information included in the instances was deemed personal for this investigation. The examples were assessed based on assumptions about gender and general judgments of the most acceptable internet principles.

Research question

To what extent does the children’s court consider gender when making custody decisions?

Tests done

A descriptive study was conducted. We compared the significant outcomes, such as the satisfaction levels of both genders, to all static factors, including the gender given custody in the previous three years, visiting rights, and children’s ages. Theoretically, these criteria might help determine who gets custody of a kid. Pearson’s chi-squared test was used to examine the differences in dichotomous outcomes. According to the Shapiro–Wilk test, the continuous variable was normal. Growth curve mixture models were estimated using Mplus Version 8 for all other studies.


The hypothesis has an AUC of 0.773, according to the graph. Additionally, two pathways were shown to be the most favorable to ensuring gender equality in custody awards. Finally, this model’s AUC was 0.788, which included men, lower-income, and the age of children as a variable. The data showed that women were given legal custody of the children majority of the time, while males were granted access to visitation privileges. The women were awarded custody of the children because they were young enough to require the mother’s control and nurturing, which they could only obtain from her. On the other hand, it could be shown that the mother had abused or mistreated the children, was sexually promiscuous, intoxicated, or otherwise unable to care for them, then the father would be granted possession. Courts are likely to conduct interviews with children above 10 to gather their thoughts and establish what they want. According to new research, when both parents are granted shared legal custody of their children, the courts issue these directives. According to the study results, males would be granted access or visitation privileges to their children. If the court determines that the father poses a threat to the children, supervised access may be granted. Women’s rights were provided to them in cases when the father had abused them while the relationship was still active, but in most cases, they would use that evidence to deny the father access to his children.

Synthesis and article comparison

For a long time, the problem of gender prejudice in child custody disputes has been studied. There has been a perception that men are overlooked when it comes to child custody. The truth of gender prejudice can only be fully grasped after being introduced to the reality of gender bias regarding child custody issues, though. Looking at our local family court demographics is an excellent place to begin this investigation. In most cases, seven out of 10 are female. This comprises court clerks, the judge, the judge’s staff members, hearing officers, family court clinic personnel, court monitors, and bailiffs. We must first understand how gender roles are played out in a family and what occurs when a custody battle upsets this dynamic to investigate gender prejudice in the court.

It is not always this way for the parents involved in a custody fight. Every parent intends to keep their family together for the benefit of all its members at some point in time. It’s a good idea to think about how this family model functions at its finest. A variety of causes has shaped gender roles. As parents, moms and dads have primarily conform to gender standards for various reasons, both social and institutional. Many people also believe that males are expected to be the breadwinners of the family, while women are expected to be the caretakers due to long-standing gender norms. The maternal characteristic that moms seem to be wired for causes them to gravitate into administrative roles for their children naturally. Mothers and dads are often on the same page when taking care of small children, locating daycare, negotiating with numerous service providers, finishing school registration papers, or transporting the children to the doctor’s visit. Fathers in intact families are often pleased to let their partners take care of such details since they know they don’t have to worry about them because they have faith in their relationship. This also allows men to devote more time to the attributes they are naturally predisposed to, such as providers. Like any other part of fatherhood, the transition into the provider position is a natural progression for fathers. Both papers made their points about this problem quite clear. Both studies included a substantial amount of data about the variables under consideration. Both data collection and analysis processes were well detailed throughout the presentation. This has a significant impact on the accuracy of the results. It’s not ideal that both studies used such a tiny sample and extrapolated their findings to the whole population. In the research, there were no references to ethics. More research should be encouraged, as long as it adheres to generally recognized scientific norms of inquiry.


Gender stereotypes have played a significant influence on child custody decisions throughout history. Despite current gender-neutral legislation, male advocacy organizations allege that custody rulings continue to favor mothers. The media and women’s rights advocates argue that child custody proceedings unfairly target mothers. Confusing and contradictory impressions may be traced back to various factors, including a lack of trustworthy neutral research, anecdotal incidents that the media have popularized, and a biasness among cases that are determined in court. There is no evidence to support gender stereotypes that place women as the significant caregivers, and the primary parent assumption has been deemed a considerable error. Custody reformation should prioritize the children’s needs rather than those of adults.


Dotterweich, D., & McKiney, M. (2005). National Attitudes Regarding Gender Bias in Child Custody Cases. Family Court Review38(2), 208–223.

GARVIN, Z. (2016). The Unintended Consequences of Rebuttable Presumptions to Determine Child Custody in Domestic Violence Cases. Family Law Quarterly50(1), 173–192. Retrieved from

Ryznar, M. (2016). The Empirics of Child Custody. Cleveland State Law Review65, 211.

Warshak, R. A. (2005). Gender Bias in Child Custody Decisions. Family Court Review34(3), 396–409.