How Does Gender Impact Income? Essay Example

Research Question

Gender disparities in income are a significant issue in the United States and worldwide (Abdel-Raouf & Buhler, 2020). Women are often paid less than men for the same job, which significantly impacts the economic well-being of individuals and families. It is essential to understand the factors that cause this gender disparity to develop policy solutions to reduce or eliminate it. This research proposal seeks to identify the factors that impact income disparity between men and women.

My research question is: How does gender impact income? Specifically, does gender have a statistically significant effect on income levels for individuals? My quantitative research question for this proposal is: Is there a statistically significant difference in income levels between males and females? This is an important question to ask in a sociological context because gender roles and their associated expectations significantly affect people’s ability to earn a living wage. By examining how gender impacts income, we can gain insight into how gender roles and expectations influence economic outcomes (Barroso & Brown, 2022). Additionally, this research question can inform social policies and practices that may be necessary to help ensure that all individuals, regardless of gender, have access to the same economic opportunities and rewards.


The literature on gender and income has long established a clear divide between men and women regarding earning power and employment opportunities (Barroso & Brown, 2022). Quantitatively, research has consistently revealed that women earn significantly less than men, regardless of occupation or level of education (Corbett & Hill, 2012). In the United States, the median income for men was almost $60,000 in 2019, while the median income for women was just over $45,000 (Semega, 2022). This discrepancy is even more pronounced when looking at the top earners, where men outnumber women by nearly 3 to 1. This discrepancy in income between men and women is often attributed to the gender wage gap, which results from various factors such as differences in education, working hours, and career paths. Women are more likely to take part-time or casual work and are often excluded from higher-paying positions due to discrimination and systemic bias.

Additionally, research has shown that women are often paid less than men for the same job, even when controlling for education and experience (Hegewisch et al., 2020). This is due to several factors, including the fact that women are more likely to take jobs in lower-paying industries and may be less likely to negotiate for higher pay due to a lack of confidence. The gender wage gap is further exacerbated by a lack of affordable childcare, often preventing women from taking on additional hours or more demanding positions. Finally, women are more likely to take time out of the workforce to care for children or other family members, resulting in a lower lifetime income (Hegewisch et al., 2020).

In addition to this quantitative evidence, qualitative research has revealed patterns of gender discrimination in the workplace. Women are often underrepresented in positions of power and authority, leading to unequal distribution of resources and rewards (Jackson, 2020). Women are also more likely to face gender-based harassment, which can further limit their earnings and professional opportunities. Qualitative research has shown that gender discrimination in the workplace is a pervasive issue. Women are often underrepresented in leadership positions and often overlooked for promotions and pay increases. This unequal distribution of resources and rewards can limit women’s opportunities for career advancement. Women are also more likely to experience gender-based harassment, which can further limit their ability to succeed in the workplace and contribute to feelings of unease and insecurity. This harassment can range from subtle comments to physical advances and can be experienced in the form of jokes, inappropriate touching, or exclusion from team activities. This harassment can make it difficult for women to speak up for themselves and lead to an uncomfortable work environment.

These findings suggest that gender is a significant factor in determining income and that there is a need for further research into the relationship between the two. Further quantitative studies could explore the effects of gender on wages and job opportunities and the impact of institutional and cultural biases on income levels. Qualitative research could also be used to explore women’s experiences in the workplace and the various forms of gender discrimination they may face. To further explore the relationship between gender and income, quantitative studies could look at the effects of gender on wages and job opportunities, taking into account the effects of discrimination. Qualitative research could also provide valuable insights into women’s experiences in the workplace and the various forms of gender discrimination they may face. This could include interviews with women in different industries to explore their experiences of discrimination in the workplace and their strategies for dealing with it. Such research could also examine issues such as the gendered division of labor in the home, which may contribute to women’s lower incomes. By further exploring the relationship between gender and income, we can better understand the barriers to economic equality and develop strategies to reduce gender inequality in the workplace (Hegewisch et al., 2020).

The literature has primarily approached this research question from a gender-based pay gap perspective. This research is often based on data from surveys and other studies that compare the median wages of men and women while controlling for other factors such as occupation and experience (Hegewisch et al., 2020). This research has found a significant gender-based pay gap, with women earning less than men on average. My research question contributes to this literature by examining how gender broadly impacts income. Specifically, I aim to explore how gender affects a person’s ability to access higher-paying jobs, negotiate pay, and receive promotions. My research will also examine how gender roles and perceptions of gender can influence a person’s income. By analyzing gender-based income disparities from multiple perspectives and at different levels of the labor market, I will be able to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of gender on income.

Survey design

The survey questions designed to answer the research question “How does gender impact income?” will include independent and dependent variables (Arevik, 2022). The independent variable in this survey will be gender, and the dependent variable will be income. To measure gender, survey participants will be asked to select either “Male” or “Female” in response to a multiple-choice question. Secondly, survey participants will be asked to enter their annual salary in response to an open-ended question to measure income. These two variables will then be compared and analyzed to explore the impact of gender on income. In addition, the survey will include other questions designed to provide context and further insight into the research question. These questions include but are not limited to inquiries about age, education level, job title, location, and several years in the workforce. Additionally, the survey will include questions that measure other factors contributing to income, such as hours worked, job satisfaction, and time spent in professional development.

The questions included in the survey will follow best practices outlined in the literature. For example, according to the literature (e.g., Dillman, 2000), survey questions should be written to be as clear and concise as possible. Additionally, the literature indicates that survey questions should be tailored to the specific research question (Moser & Kalton, 1986). Therefore, the survey questions included in this research proposal are designed to be as specific as possible to the research question of “How does gender impact income?”

Respondents for this survey would be recruited through a convenience sampling approach. This type of sampling would involve recruiting respondents voluntarily from a large population, such as through online survey platforms, to quickly and easily obtain a large sample size. Convenience sampling can be used in this case because it requires minimal effort to recruit respondents and can provide a large enough sample size to draw valid conclusions. The survey instrument would include a variety of questions related to the impact of gender on income. These questions could include open-ended questions to gather qualitative responses and closed-ended questions to gather quantitative responses. For example, the survey could include questions about the respondent’s gender, income level, occupation, education level, and other factors that may impact their income. These questions should be worded in a way that is clear and concise and framed in a way that makes it easy for the respondents to answer.

The data analysis plan would involve using descriptive statistics to analyze the data collected from the survey. Descriptive statistics would be used to summarize the responses in frequency distributions, percentages, means, and other measures of central tendency (Olah, 2007). Additionally, inferential statistics could be used to compare the responses of different groups, such as male and female respondents, to determine if there is a statistically significant difference in their responses. Finally, regression analysis could be used to examine the relationships between the different variables and determine which factors are the most important in influencing income.

Experimental Design

The proposed experimental design will be a field experiment, as it can allow us to observe the impacts of gender on income in a real-world setting. The experiment will involve a sample of participants from different genders, income levels, and backgrounds (Bell, 2009). The sample will be chosen using a stratified random sampling technique, ensuring the sample accurately reflects the population of interest. The experiment will involve the participants engaging in various tasks and activities. These tasks will be selected to measure their knowledge, skills, and abilities in leadership, communication, problem-solving, and other related areas. The participants will be divided into two groups based on gender.

Once the tasks are complete, the participants’ results will be compared and analyzed for any differences between the two groups. In particular, we will be looking for any differences in income levels between the two groups. The experiment will also involve interviews with the participants to explore further any differences in income levels or other factors impacting the results. The interviews will be conducted via a structured questionnaire, allowing us to collect detailed information on the participants’ backgrounds, experiences, and perceptions of gender and income. After the experiment, the findings will be analyzed to answer the research question of how gender impacts income. The results of the experiment will be used to inform policy and programs to help address any disparities that may exist between genders.

Justification of Design

In this research project, I would choose survey design as the preferred method of gathering data. This decision is based on the fact that surveys are better suited for measuring non-experimental variables, such as gender and income. Additionally, surveys can provide a more comprehensive overview of the population being studied and offer the ability to measure differences in income between genders.

Regarding internal validity, surveys can measure variables of interest reliably and validly. This is because survey responses are often provided in a standardized format, eliminating potential sources of bias (Moss, 2021). Additionally, surveys allow for larger sample sizes, which increases the potential for statistical significance. In terms of external validity, surveys can also provide the ability to generalize the results of the study to a larger population. This is due to the fact that surveys are often distributed to a larger, diverse population, which increases the potential for generalizing the results. In terms of the ability to determine causality, surveys can provide the ability to measure relationships between variables and the impact of certain variables on other variables. This is due to the fact that surveys can measure the correlations between different variables, as well as measure the effect of one variable on another (Moss, 2021)r. Finally, in terms of ethical considerations, surveys are preferable due to the fact that survey respondents can remain anonymous, which eliminates the possibility of coercion or manipulation. Additionally, survey respondents are not exposed to any risks or harms, which further increases the ethicality of the research.

In conclusion, survey design is the preferred method of gathering data for this research project due to its ability to provide reliable, valid, and ethical results. Additionally, surveys can provide the ability to measure the impact of gender on income and the potential for generalizing the results to a larger population.

A quantitative method would be ideal for this research question since it would allow for the collection of data such as income and gender in order to analyze potential correlations between the two. This method would also allow for statistical analysis to determine the strength of the connections between gender and income and to identify any significant differences in income between genders. A quantitative method would allow for an analysis of the data collected and provide a more objective view of the impact of gender on income. It also allows for comparing the data across different groups and provides a more accurate picture of the trends. On the other hand, a qualitative method would provide a more subjective approach, focusing on individual cases and opinions rather than an overall comparison. The benefits of using a quantitative method to research this topic include the ability to measure the relationship between gender and income and make use of statistical methods to identify patterns and differences in the data. The limitations of this method are that it needs to consider the context of the data and may miss subtle differences between genders that may affect income.


Abdel-Raouf, F. and Buhler, P.M. (2020) “The impact of the gender pay gap,” The Gender Pay Gap, pp. 86–109. Available at:

Arevik, A. (2022). Survey Design – Harvard UniversitySurvey Design. Harvard Law School. Available at: (Accessed: December 6, 2022).

Barroso, A. & Brown, A. (2022). The gender pay gap in the U.S. held steady in 2020Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center. Available at: (Accessed: December 6, 2022).

Bell S. (2009). Just a moment... Just a moment…

Corbett, C. & Hill, C. (2012). Graduating to a pay gap: The earnings of women and men one year after college graduation.American Association of University Women. American Association of University Women. 1111 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 800-326-2289; Tel: 202-728-7602; Fax: 202-463-7169; e-mail: ; Web site: Available at: (Accessed: December 6, 2022).

Dillman, D. A. (2000). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Hegewisch, A., Williams-Baron, E. and Williams-Baron, A.H.and E. (2020). The gender wage gap by occupation 2017 and race and ethnicityIWPR. Available at: (Accessed: December 6, 2022).

Jackson, C. (2020). Gender Discrimination in the Workplace: An Analysis of the Literature. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 10(2), 282–294.

Moser, C. A., & Kalton, G. (1986). Survey methods in the social investigation (2nd ed.). Basingstoke, England: Gower.

Moss, A. (2021, June 24). What are survey validity and reliability?

Olah J. (2007, May 24). Descriptive statistics: Definition, overview, types, example. Investopedia.

Semoga, J. (2022) Income and poverty in the United States: Available at: (Accessed: December 6, 2022).

Survey Design – Harvard University (no date). Available at: (Accessed: December 6, 2022).

How Manet Used Intentional Mistakes On “A Bar At The Folies-Bergère” To Have Deeper Meaning Writing Sample

Edward Manet has been regarded as a classic yet controversial historical artist. His classical works have proved to have intentional mistakes that have a deeper meaning. One such art is A Bar at the Folies-Bergère (1881–1882). In a simple description, the painting shows a counter at one of the most popular nightspots located in Paris, where a barmaid has arrived to serve a customer. The man she is doing has wan a top hat and a mustache. On the right side of the portrait is a reflection of exchange in the mirror that covers the entire wall. Even though some people consider the painting ugly, others scholars believe that it is superb and has outrageous taste. The most confusing part is how he has arranged the walkways, chairs, and counters staffed with fiercely roughed women. It is upon these confusion backdrops that this paper aims to prove that such intentional confusion was highly intended to help promote a deeper meaning in the arts field.

Research studies suggest that Manet wanted to use such a form of confusion to create realism and provide a deeper meaning to his artistic work. He aimed to show the globe that a single portrait can have varied meanings, especially when presented well. For example, in the mirror reflection, one can see the audience sitting on the balcony while looking at the stage. The bar has a marble counter with many champagne, beer, and wine. The legs of the trapeze artists are also a clear indication that the show is full of people within the area. Ideally, the main aim of the artist to depict all these items is to show the audience that the raucous event is underway and lively.

This mirror is believed robust in changing every aspect of art into magic. In other words, through the mirror, people can see spectacular things behind her back. Her vintage in the mirror makes her the center of attention, thus proving women a global driving power. Her mega reflection indicates the barmaid’s ability to control almost all activities occurring within the location and beyond. Her reflection suggests that she can provide care for the needs of most customers who have arrived in the lounge. In other, it is a clear indication that these women are dedicated and ready to work to provide for their families.

What is apparent in the picture is that Manet has used the mirror to reflect the world that the barmaid is focusing on. In doing so, he has provided her with a vintage point, thus facilitating her subjectivity. It is an ingenious way of making her the main focus of the painting. In this manner, she becomes not only a subject of discussion but also a subject of her life. The reflection further shows the forms of tuff life; these barmaids may have faced during the work, primarily to serve the high number of attendees. It is most likely to be presented as a prostitute parading her desires to potential clients. The woman’s gaze that she has provided is highly captivating, attracting potential clients, such as the man standing in front of him.

Art scholars proved that Manet’s works are perfect work of art that shows the transience of life, the futility of pleasure, and the certainty of human death. The mirrors were undoubtedly used to indicate the narcissism and strenuous life the women faced to serve their lords who had come to enjoy themselves in the bars. The various varieties of alcohol, beer, and Champaign clearly indicate worldly pleasures that people sometimes take the opportunity to enjoy. Finally, he includes the flowers and fruits in the painting to demonstrate the phenomena of life that are fleeting and short. Thus, though the artwork may seem confusing, it has a more significant meaning in the human desire to enjoy short life. His presentation is a perfect show of all the things most people desire before imminent death.

Manet has bled his work with a traditional motif in a modern setting to continue creating more meaning to the painting. The presented bowl of organs suggests that the lady working at the counter is a slut. The above presentation is a perfect example of discrimination against women. In other words, women have been presented as objects to serve the interest of men, such as sex and pleasure. For example, at the counter, the lady is seen serving the man various varieties of alcohol. On the other hand, the artist has managed to show her cleavage, therefore, exposing her sexual desires to the audience. Even though some people may not understand the implication, the artist’s main aim was to show women’s role as objects of pleasure and sex.

Manet’s brilliance in an artistic presentation can further be lefts to perpetual questioning on how he depicts the barmaid. For instance, the barmaid maintains an ambiguous demeanor that hovers between disenchantment and assertiveness. She stands out to meet the gaze of the audience while at the same time drawing away from it. Some scholars believe that her eye helps keep the work fresh and exciting to the audience, while it is a struggle and unintentional to her. Therefore, the work presents how these ladies who work in the bars sometimes operate against their will. That means, even though the world may be celebrating, in their opinion, they usually have nothing much to enjoy but to submit and get their daily bread. In other words, women working in some of these environments sometimes may not want the work and thus may turn their back, as shown in the mirror.

The painting further provides the details of the milieu and the social class that existed during that period. According to historical records, the 1880s was the peak of a new revolution in Paris. During these times, most people had the opportunity to achieve better education, get jobs and live decent lives. As a result, most the people will take the opportunity to enjoy themselves in the bars within the urban and suburban regions of the city. People would dance, drink their best brands, and enjoy sex with prostitutes. The portrayal of the Champaign is an indication on the improvement of the social economic welfare of these members and improvement on their purchasing power. Further, the modern structure indicates the possible improvement in the structural development in Paris.

The Parisian culture of consumerization also influences Manet’s objectives of using various elements in the painting during the late 1800s. The correlations between the barmaid and the merchandise address the accustomed culture of the male perspective. The renowned artist accomplishes the idea by promoting the proximity of the products and the customer. The trend’s impact is to create a resemblance between the seller and the buyer. By making the women the seller, Manet perfectly manages to prove to the globe the power of men to remain in the discourse of consumerization while the females produce. He works to address the mass industrial production of the products that were created for display during that period. The presentation of the products was aimed at attracting potential customers and advertising them beyond Paris. Further, his artistic work is a perfect show of the region’s improvement in business and commercial operations.

In conclusion, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère has perfectly shown Manet’s powerful skills in presenting various meanings in his artistic work. Through multiple elements, the renowned scholar has offered various issues about the society’s past social and economic position. He has perfectly blended numerous items to show the world the golden talent of painting and its possible effects. Therefore, people should use his case to learn excellent artistic skills and make positive changes to the negative items that have been addressed.


Boime, Albert. “Manet’s ‘Un Bar Aux Folies-Bergère’ as an Allegory of Nostalgia.” Zeitschrift Für Kunstgeschichte 56, no. 2 (1993): 234–48.

Carrier, David. “Art History in the Mirror Stage: Interpreting Un Bar Aux Folies Bergères.” History and Theory 29, no. 3 (1990): 297–320.

Duve, Thierry de, and Brian Holmes. “How Manet’s ‘A Bar at the Folies-Bergère’ Is Constructed.” Critical Inquiry 25, no. 1 (1998): 136–68.

Duve, Thierry de. “Intuition, Logic, Intuition.” Critical Inquiry 25, no. 1 (1998): 181–89.

Howard, Seymour. “Early Manet and Artful Error: Foundations of Anti-Illusion in Modern Painting.” Art Journal 37, no. 1 (1977): 14–21.

How To Promote Sexuality Education In Hong Kong Sample College Essay


Despite its relevance for adolescents’ well-being, sexuality education in Hong Kong’s schools does not get enough attention. Aids Concern found that in 2018, less than half of young people polled had an accurate understanding of contraceptive techniques, demonstrating a severe deficiency in adolescent sexuality education (Isaksen, Musonda & Sandøy, 2020). I think it is essential for the Education Bureau in Hong Kong to update the rules and enhance teacher training to better the quality of sex education in secondary schools. There has to be a set of clear rules for local schools to follow to provide proper sex education that takes into account the most recent societal trends and challenges. According to Leung & Lin (2019), the government released sex education guidelines in 1997, outlining five fundamental principles and associated issues to be taught via a systematic curriculum. While the Education Bureau did not update its instructions on sex education in 2008, it offered a new framework for moral and civic education that briefly touches on the subject. The following recommendations are necessary for promoting sex education in Hong Kong.

Use of workshops

Workshop participants will leave with the necessary information and tools to make safe and responsible sexual decisions. The approach is all-encompassing, age-appropriate, and sex-positive; it covers a wide range of topics related to sexuality, such as human progress, partnerships, decision-making, negotiation, permission, prevention, unwanted pregnancy, and disease prevention (Peter et al., 2019). The framework should be set up so that as students advance through the program, they return to previously covered material and explore it in greater depth each time. Fundamental pedagogical ideas center on making lessons as engaging and relevant as possible for individual students. Instructors should create four short films to supplement the workshop teaching materials and supplement the face-to-face contact with students. Given the delicate nature of sexuality, these films can also be used to train educators to lead seminars on the subject.

Social worker-counselor guidance

This social worker and guidance counselor intervention aim to provide participants with the knowledge and skills necessary to assist adolescents experiencing a sexual health crisis by connecting them with the appropriate community services. Social workers and guidance counselors at schools are often the initial contact points for students with sexual concerns and the conduit through which they may be sent to appropriate sexual health services and counseling assistance. Therefore, it’s crucial to train this personnel to have a sex-positive mentality and a deep understanding of the community’s sexual health resources. It’s important to offer two tiers of instruction, each of which may be tailored to the learner based on their own goals in sexuality education.

Parent intervention

Parents should be provided with resources and encouraged to take advantage of teaching moments to discuss sexual health with their children. Two parent workshops on sexuality, relationships, and maturing will be held at each school. Also, the school will provide letters to parents that expand upon the material provided in the student workshops and offer helpful hints for guardians. When teaching their children about sexuality, parents should take the lead. However, Asian parents are hesitant to talk to their children about sexual concerns due to the taboo nature of the subject and a lack of awareness about sexual health. Therefore, parents in Hong Kong must be made aware of and encouraged to provide their children with sex education.


The Hong Kong government has initiated restructuring sex education curricula in the city’s secondary schools. The Education Bureau’s recently released Value Education Curriculum Framework includes specific sex education topics but provides nothing in the way of specifics for designing a comprehensive sex education curriculum. The department should lay forth recommendations for how many hours should be spent in class, what subjects should be covered at what ages, and how those recommendations are to be implemented. The bureau should consider students’ needs and expectations while developing these recommendations and consult with local sex education organizations and policy papers quoting international norms (such as UNESCO’s International technical advice on sex education). In an ideal world, these norms would be updated every five years to account for shifting cultural norms and views on sexuality and relationships.

Engaging the media

Adolescents may look to the media as a source of sex education. Yet, many of these shows and movies promote harmful sexual practices and relationships while ignoring the need for open dialogue about sexual health. Media Aware is an online resource that promotes media literacy and sexual health awareness among high school students. Its goal is to help young people develop more nuanced, informed responses to the media messages they encounter and to equip them with better communication and sexual health skills. The ability to critically analyze and deconstruct media messages relies on a solid foundation of media literacy education. The communications’ veracity and correctness, as well as any inherent biases or gaps in knowledge, are being assessed, and reliable medical resources are being made available. This course concentrates on the media’s portrayal of sexuality and gender, the health of relationships, sexual assault, and open dialogue. Students engage with the material through peer films, interactive instructional slides, quizzes, and simulations that provide them with opportunities to put what they’ve learned into practice.

Use of communication tools

Teachers in sex education should be encouraged to emphasize the benefits of sex education while communicating with their pupils rather than just relying on the cautionary tone that is often taken. In sex education, it is beneficial to promote interactive communication strategies, including debate, discussion, and role-play. According to Leung & Lin (2019), the curriculum development group should increase the number of textbooks, classroom activities, and other materials available for sex education instructors. Concerning the difficulties in discussing sexuality in the classroom, educators should be provided with in-service training.

Since culture and religion were recognized as barriers to communication, it is crucial to involve the larger community in understanding the value of parent-adolescent sexuality communication and creating treatments to improve communication on sexuality. It is essential to promote frank discussions about sexuality between educators and students (Secretariat, 2018). There should be an effort to provide kids with the knowledge and skills necessary to break down the taboos associated with discussing sexuality. To achieve this goal, it is possible to invite them to participate in “straight talk” programs and seminars (Cheung, Kwan, & Yim 2021). Continuing to use mass media to educate young people about sexuality and break down cultural barriers in this area of communication is crucial. The reasoning goes like this: participants in this study reported hearing about or seeing content linked to sex matters on radio, TV, and film.


To facilitate an open dialogue on the topic of sexuality in Hong Kong, it is essential for both instructors to be well-versed in the subject matter, receptive to students’ questions and comments, and comfortable engaging in frank and honest discourse. It is possible that this method of expression will not find favor with people of different faiths and backgrounds. Nevertheless, the community should be reassured that open dialogue with young people will not prevent them from imposing whatever limitations they see fit. In order to improve dialogue between educators and students on sexuality-related topics, it is necessary to address the concerns voiced here. This will help close the gap between adolescent and teenage sex awareness and the adoption of healthier sexual behaviors.


Andres, E. B., Choi, E. P. H., Fung, A. W. C., Lau, K. W. C., Ng, N. H. T., Yeung, M., & Johnston, J. M. (2021). Comprehensive sexuality education in Hong Kong: study protocol for process and outcome evaluation. BMC Public Health, 21(1), 1-7.

Cheung, S. K., Kwan, J. L. Y., & Yim, K. Y. K. (2021). Pre-service early childhood teachers’ perceptions about sexuality education and behavioural intentions towards children’s curiosity about sexuality. Journal of Education for Teaching, 47(1), 89-103.

Isaksen, K. J., Musonda, P., & Sandøy, I. F. (2020). Parent-child communication about sexual issues in Zambia: a cross sectional study of adolescent girls and their parents. BMC public health, 20(1), 1-12.

Leung, H., & Lin, L. (2019). Adolescent sexual risk behavior in Hong Kong: prevalence, protective factors, and sex education programs. Journal of Adolescent Health, 64(6), S52-S58.

Peter, A., Kumar, P. S., Deana, L., Daniel, M., & Lou, R. M. (2018). Youth, sexuality and sexual citizenship: An introduction. In Youth, sexuality and sexual citizenship (pp. 1-16). Routledge.

Secretariat, L. C. (2018). Sexuality education.