How does shakespeare in julius caesar make the common people appear to be less than noble?
William Shakespear has been known as one of the brilliant and most emotional stage writers in history. He has this incomparable ability to shape a character from quill to a very complex and intricate person. In most of his plays he’s been making characters to look respectable and of high positions in the society through meticulous descriptions in his writings and through vivid metaphors. Carolyn Henly in her online critique of Shakespear’s plays, said that one thing interesting about Shakespear is his trait of looking at various faces of any given situation or problem. This, I think also makes it possible for him to control and manipulate his characters so well.
In his play Julius Ceasar, the lead characters are indeed of high political and economic status in the society that time. These people are the colors and highlights of the play while the commoners or the common people were the accents and the background of the story. The common people tend to look less nobles for that character shall highlight the protagonists’ status in the novel. Shakespear had this style of giving the mirror effect to the readers where they can actually see themselves in the characters of the play (Derrick 1998). Considering that commoners shall also be interested in reading and watching his plays, Shakespear used this tool or effect to leave the message of his characters vivid in his readers’ hearts and minds. Through vivid theatrical metaphors and the ultimate power of the language he made this possible.
v Henly, C. “All are punished”: Studying Varying Loyalties in Julius Caesar
v Derrick, T. (1998) Understanding Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar: A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents p. 3
Mean, Median, Mode
Mean, median, and mode are different values that give information about observations. The mean is used to find the average value of data grouped in intervals. On the other hand, the median determines the middle point of arranged data, while the mode summarizes non-numeric data. To calculate the mean, divide the sum of all values in a set by the number of values in that set. This approach is often used for continuous numbers. Although it may not match any particular value in the dataset, it represents all those values.
The mean salary at a company can be determined by adding up all the salaries and dividing by the total number of salaries. For instance, if we add $50,000 + $56,000 + $54,500, the sum is $53,500. However, relying solely on average figures may be misleading when there is an extremely high or low value present. In this specific scenario mentioned above where three annual salaries are $50,000, $56,000, and $54,500 respectively but the company president’s salary is $260,000; this will cause the average salary to inflate to $105125. Therefore,this figure is twice as much as what lower-paid employees actually earn.
In this case, it is more appropriate to determine the median salary. To calculate the median salary, we arrange the data by value: $50,000, $54,500, $56,000, and $260,000. The middle value would be $55,250.
If I want to understand the distribution of salaries within the company, I would use the mode. By using this approach, I can collect data that shows two out of the four employees earn between $46,000 and $55,000 , one earns between $56 , 000 and $65 , 000 ,and one earns above$66 , 000 . The mode can also help us determine how many of the four employees belong to a specific gender or race.
The Chinese Discovered America
BYLINE: By Amanda Paulson Staff writer of The Christian Science Monitor A new book claims the Chinese discovered America in 1421, but historians refute thesis. To the Norsemen, the Japanese, and the Carthaginians; to the Irish, the Africans, and a long list of others who, it is claimed, crossed the oceans to America long before 1492, add one more: the Chinese. They toured up and down both coasts of the Americas, established colonies, made maps, and left behind chickens. That, at least, is the theory posed by former British naval officer and amateur historian Gavin Menzies.
What is surprising is not so much the claims themselves but the buzz they’ve created in popular culture both here and in Britain – especially given that few professionals in the field find his case convincing. Mr. Menzies’s book, “1421: The Year China Discovered America,” has sold more than 75,000 copies since it hit British shelves in October. It debuted in the US at No. 8 on the New York Times bestseller list earlier this month. Mr. Menzies, who reportedly received an $ 800,000 advance from Bantam, has appeared on TV and radio. He’s been profiled in the New York Times magazine.
A PBS documentary is close behind. “He’s come up with a story people want to believe in,” marvels Gillian Hutchinson, curator of cartography at London’s National Maritime Museum who heard Menzies give a lecture last spring at the Royal Geographic Society. “There was almost a religious fervor in the audience. ” This isn’t the first time a tale of preColumbian discovery has captured the popular imagination. Thor Heyerdahl’s 1950 book “Kon-Tiki” claimed that ancient Peruvians crossed the Pacific by raft – and documented his own attempt to emulate them.
Then there was Harvard marine biologist Barry Fell, who translated scratches on rocks as ogham script, claiming evidence of Asian, African, and Celtic exploration. And many an Irishman insists the first person to reach America was none other than Brendan the Navigator, a 6th-century Irish monk. Before Christopher Columbus was born But Menzies’s tale, which looks at a well-documented voyage by a Ming Dynasty fleet in 1421, is more specific in its assertions than most theories. In his ersion, a fleet led by admiral Zheng He rounded the Cape of Good Hope and then split up. One group explored South America, Antarctica, and Australia, while other ships toured Central and North America, circled Greenland, learned to measure longitude, and established settlements. Menzies says all records of the voyages were later destroyed. For evidence of his theory, Menzies casts a broad net, citing shipwrecks, anchor stones, language, and maps that he says helped guide Columbus and Magellan.
The historian points to a map the Portuguese had by 1428 that suggested some Caribbean islands long before any European was known to have traveled there. Menzies believes the chart was derived from Chinese explorations. The book is more detective novel than history, with Menzies as the Hercule Poirot who pieces together the clues, helped by his navigation experience. “If I have found information that escaped [eminent historians],” he writes, “it is only because I knew how to interpret the extraordinary maps. There’s just one problem:
Mainstream historians consider the book hogwash. “It’s absolutely preposterous,” laughs Donald Blakeslee, an archeologist at Wichita State University in Kansas, referring to one of the book’s claims: that ships with “gilded sterns” had sailed up the Mississippi River and into the Missouri. “A seagoing vessel couldn’t have gotten close to that area. ” Dennis Reinhartz, who teaches the history of cartography at the University of Texas at Arlington and is a past president of the Society for the History of Discoveries, agrees.
There’s a whole genre of this stuff,” he says with a laugh. “People are forever saying this line [on a map] represents this or that … but it’s still shaping a square peg to fit a round hole. ” Much of the evidence Menzies points to – a mysterious tower in Newport, R. I. , for instance, and several 15th-century maps – has been used to support other theories. None of this, however, takes away from the charm of the author or his story. Read it, or better yet, listen to Menzies for a few minutes, and it’s hard to resist his enthusiasm.
Charismatic, with a delightful British accent, he sounds like a kid who’s just worked out the solution to a particularly tricky riddle. “There’s a flood of new evidence,” he exclaims, ticking off a list of clues of Chinese settlements in America. “So, for New York, the first person who got there was Giovanni de Verrazzano, and in trying to find the Northwest Passage he met people he described as Chinese! In Florida, Pedro Menendez de Aviles found wrecks of Chinese junks in the Atlantic. In Peru, Friar Antonio de la Calancha found pictures people had painted of the Chinese cavalry….
He keeps going, enthusiasm unabated. Unconventional theories That exuberance may account for some of the book’s popularity. “It’s a delightful read,” says Nancy Yaw Davis, an independent scholar in Anchorage, Alaska. Dr. Davis understands what it’s like to have academics attack a pet theory. Most dismissed her book, “The Zuni Enigma,” which described the influence of 13th-century Japanese explorers on Zuni Indians. Though disappointed in some of his evidence, Davis admires Menzies. “He was gutsy,” she says, adding, “I was a wee tad envious.
I had hoped my book would generate that kind of recognition. ” What is it about discovery theories that can so capture the imagination? “It’s about rewriting history,” says John Steele, an executive producer of the upcoming PBS documentary, “1421: The Year China Discovered the World. ” Menzies upends Captain Cook’s claim to Australia and Magellan’s claim to the first circumnavigation, he notes. “But the thing that really gets everyone is discovering America before Columbus. ” The Italian-American community, perhaps the fiercest defender of Columbus’s legacy, is used to such challenges. Every nationality claims to have a Columbus,” says Adolfo Caso, author and founder of the Internet-based Dante University. “Regardless of who may have been here before or after, the Europeans met the Indians because of Columbus,” he says firmly. If Menzies is correct – what to do about that well-known rhyme? A visitor to his website, http://www. 1421. tv, offers one suggestion: “In fourteen hundred twenty-one China sailed there before anyone. ” Just don’t look for fifth-graders to be memorizing the couplet anytime soon. http://hnn. us/comments/7973. html (last accessed 13 Oct 08)