How Has The English Language Changed Over Time? Writing Sample

Over time the English language has developed through three main stages; Old English, Middle English and Modern English. Old English is the earliest recorded stage of the English language and is very different to Modern English which we speak today. Native English speakers would find it very difficult trying to understand Old and Middle English. One of the main influences in the change of the English language is invasion. During the 5th century the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes invaded Britain which all spoke similar languages, resulting in the Old English language. Before the invasion people in Britain spoke a Celtic language.

These people travelled north and west when the invaders arrived. Then in 1066 William the Conqueror and the Normans, conquered England bringing a form of French language with them. This became the language of the Royal Court and generally the upper classes spoke French whilst the lower classes spoke English. This class division continued on until the 14th century when English became the main language once again. However the English language had been slightly adapted. The recent invasion and conquering gave a French influence and some French words had been added to the English language, therefore creating Middle English. Americanisms are terms or phrases that were original British Shakespearean terms which now are not common phrases in Britain but are still part of the language in America. An example of this is fall for autumn.

Spanish has also influenced American English when they settled in the west. This therefore also influenced and changed British English. Due to Americas worldwide power a lot of English words are used in technology, music, television and cinema which is used all over the world. Another main cause to the English language changing over the years is down to technology. Due to a mass illiteracy Old and Middle English was a solely spoken language and was learnt by ear and through festivals. There was a lack of standardisation so a person’s dialect or accent would influence the way someone else would hear their words.

This was until 1440 when the invention of the printing press standardised English. This made books cheaper which meant more people were able to access them so more people learnt to read. Also most publishing houses were located in London so the dialect of London became the standard and spelling and grammar became fixed. Around 1500 the Great Vowel Shift begun, this led to a dramatic change in pronunciation; where vowels started to be pronounced shorter and shorter. From the 16th century Britain had contact with people from all over the world. This resulted in new words and phrases entering the English language. At one point the British Empire covered one quarter of the world so again foreign words were entered into the language.

Social networking plays a large part in technology and the way people communicate today. It is easier for people to gain access into other peoples lives from all over the world and from a whole variety of different cultures and see the words or phrases they use. This makes it easier for people to adopt another cultures language into their usual English language, therefore changing the English language. Colloquialisms also help contribute to our ever changing language. No matter where you go in the world every place has it’s own certain slang words which can now due to social networking and the media can be taken all across the globe and vice versa. For example, television shows such as ‘The Only Way is Essex’ is very popular all over the country and some slang words such as ‘reem’ and ‘jel’ which originated from Essex are now spoken all over the country and is even in peoples every day language.

Medicine Study Case Questions

Part I:

1. What vital signs or symptoms does Annie exhibit?

Blurred vision and eye strain, hands ache and feel weak, gasping for air, weakness & Constant fatigue

2. Can you see any common features in Annie’s signs and symptoms? Blurred vision and eyestrain we must look at the optic nerve within the brain. Whenever you don’t see well other factors will play into it, like headaches, soreness, and fatigue. 3. Why is Annie having problems breathing?

Because she has multiple sclerosis, Annie is having degeneration of this area since it is apart of the brain and spinal cord. 4. What are the possible reasons for Annie’s condition?

By having vision problems resulting in weakness, Annie exhibits symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

Part II:

1. What additional vital signs or symptoms does Annie exhibit? Strange sleeping patterns, long sleeps, short of breath more than usual, stressed out, hands and fingers get tired when you type, eye strain and double vision, drooping eyelids 2. From the internet, find a picture that shows the mammalian spinal cord in cross section. Include the url where you found it and a statement of why you feel this is a good example.

3. How could a decline in muscle function contribute to eye strain and blurred vision? When light is refracted into the eye through the lens it hits a point called the fovea centralis, which focuses the light with the use of cones and sends a message to the brain. When the cilliary body doesn’t help the lens to focus and achieve the message signal to the brain, we get double vision.

4. What are the possible reasons for Annie’s condition?

lack of oxygen in the bloodstream which would cause muscle crams and lactic acid buildup or multiple sclerosis which has all of the symptoms expressed.

Part III:

1. According to the conduction test, was Annie’s nerve function normal? Annie’s conduction test said the electrodes stimulated the muscle and had no problems with her nerves 2. According to Annie’s EMG test, was Annie’s skeletal muscle function normal? Annie’s skeletal muscle function was not normal in the EMG test. 3. Considering your answers to Questions 1 and 2, why did activity in Annie’s motor nerves produce a skeletal muscle response that fatigued during repetitive stimulation? Annie’s muscles fatigued after repetitive stimulation because there might be a short in the nerve pathway. This would lead to a closer look at Annie’s central nervous system for possible causes. 4. Create a table that replicates Figure 1 and fill it out completely.

5. Now take each stage in turn and discuss how sustained neural activity could create a dysfunction and result in a decrease in muscle response during repetitive motor nerve stimulation.

If the nerve impulse is not released than it will not cause an action potential. If acetylcholine is not liberated than it would also not cause an action potential which would not cause a muscle contraction. If the calcium and sodium channels remain open, it would cause a uncontrolled muscle twitch.

Part IV:

1. What is the role of the thymus in the body?

It processes the white blood cells T-lymphocytes which add cells in finding and destroying bacteria, viruses, abnormal cell growth and non cell tissues.

2. What is an antigen?

An antigen is anything in the body the is non self which could include bacteria, viruses, chemicals or abnormal cell growth. 3. Go back to Figure 1, look at each stage, and predict where the antibodies in Annie’s blood could act to decrease synaptic function at the neuromuscular junction. The antibodies in the presynaptic terminal are decreasing the rate the calcium is binding and causing a decrease rate of acetylcholine to be released. 4. Neostigmine is one drug that may be prescribed for people with myasthenia gravis. This drug, like the edrophonium chloride injection, will make Annie feel stronger. Go back to the flow diagram, look at each stage, and determine how these drugs could work to increase synaptic performance. These drug increase the function of the voltage gated channels which increase the rate that the acetylcholine is released which causes a action potential and a muscle contraction. 5. In the absence of treatment, what has happened to the amplitude of Annie’s endplate potentials as her disease has progressed? Without surgery to remove the tumor on the thymus, the synaptic firing will decreases rapidly. The antigens will continue to attached the antibodies and her condition will grow worse with possible loss of muscle function and possible loss of vision.

6. Can you account for her progressive weakness?

Her progressive weakness is due to a tumor in her thymus gland

Source: National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science

What Is It Family Genogram For

A genogram is a valuable tool for counselors seeking to analyze family issues and relationships among family members. It aids in identifying the origins of dysfunctional characteristics within a family, as well as observing how each member copes with the dysfunction. Genograms collect and organize important data spanning at least three generations, allowing counselors to gain insight into the multi-generational family system and screen for emerging family problems. The use of genograms proved challenging for the writer, who lacked a family-of-origin due to being in the foster care system. The writer’s lack of stable adult figures in their life resulted in learning mostly from others’ mistakes, as establishing connections was often disrupted by frequent moves to new foster homes.

After terminating my connection with that set, I realized that the ways in which I could utilize the genogram were limited. There may be clients who are unable to complete their genogram due to displacement, adoption, or family death. This made me aware of the personal growth I still need to work on. I have some coping mechanisms that I must distance myself from in order to become a well-adjusted individual according to Butler (2008). When certain issues arise in my life, my immediate response can be instinctive. I must remind myself not to fall back into my old “triangular patterns” as noted by Bitter, Long, and Young (2010). It is important for me to not carry these feelings into counseling sessions with others. Bitter, Long, and Young (2010) defined a genogram as a family map that illustrates both the structure and emotional processes of a family (p. 72). Since I do not have a biological family, the foundation of structure and emotional processes lies within me. As the first generation of my multi-generational family, all dysfunctions either begin or end with me.

Looking back at my actions, my future family members will have the daunting and scary responsibility of determining if I caused any dysfunctions in our family. It is crucial to me that my family chooses to be guided by their thoughts rather than their feelings consistently. According to family systems theory, being a healthy person entails both a sense of belonging to the family and a sense of separateness and individuality (Bitter, Long, & Young, 2010, p. 81). Thus, I want my family to comprehend that they hold ultimate responsibility for their own physical, emotional, and spiritual behavior within the family. As a counselor, closely examining the genograms of the families I counsel will be necessary. Understanding the dynamics of mother-daughter and father-son relationships will pose challenges for me. Being aware that everything I do now will impact future generations motivates me not to disappoint them.

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