An analysis of scholarly sources on a particular subject is known as a literature review. It offers a comprehensive evaluation of the state of the field. It enables the researcher to spot pertinent theories, approaches, and gaps in the available literature. They may then utilize it to help them choose the subject of their article, thesis, or dissertation. Conducting literature reviews is crucial for developing a research perspective, integrating what is known about the issue, identifying knowledge gaps, and figuring out how research might advance understanding.
Additionally, it is essential for securing funding for research. The book review aims to summarize the sources used to learn more about a particular issue and demonstrate to readers how the research fits into a broad field of study. A textual review aims to grasp the most recent arguments and analysis on a particular subject or area of research and to express that knowledge in a written report. A textual review of a book is opposed to a language that moves toward a conclusion for a cause or argument, not just a list that explains or sums up a few pieces. The working thesis of the study is a good literature review demonstrating integration and subject knowledge.
In a written report format, a literature review provides readers with knowledge of the most recent debates and studies pertinent to a particular topic or field of study. Through undertaking a literature study, one can learn more about the subject. It enhances the discovery of critical ideas, investigational strategies, and experimental methodologies employed in a particular field. It aids in understanding how researchers apply the concepts under study in the unit to situations in the real world. As one reads, they have a more excellent grasp of how research findings are presented and discussed in a particular area, which is another fantastic advantage of literature reviews. A more successful student at writing for a specific discipline pays attention to what they read and tries to emulate a similar style.
Research Review helps in recognizing the current situation. The introduction of a research piece will frequently include a literature review. It is because the reader may see where the research community is in its investigation of the subject and the gaps in the body of knowledge. The study article then uses new research to fill those gaps (Western Sydney University, 2017). When put together, one can easily see where the components are lacking and what they would look like. The search for the missing parts might then begin. Researchers undertake a literature review to determine a subject’s elements that still need thorough investigation. They conduct the necessary study when there is a research gap (Western Sydney University, 2017). This is how researchers add to the body of knowledge on that subject.
It helps evaluate the sources; more than just a summary of each reference should be included in a literature review. An annotated bibliography might be a better comparison.
However, it should:
- Compare and contrast each source with other relevant literature on the issue
- Critically evaluate each source
- Indicate how each source advances our understanding of the topic
- Discuss the sources when claiming our level of competence on the topic (Western Sydney University, 2017).
One can structure the literature review report to display the evaluation of the source in terms of how each one links to the other sources and the primary debates on the subject.
Locating the authorities on a given subject is also essential to a research review. It is advantageous because a literature review will quickly find the academics that have written the most about a particular topic and are likely subject-matter experts. A writer of twenty articles on a subject or several related issues is more knowledgeable than a writer of one report (Atilano, 2021). Most other articles written on the same subject will probably reference this author. Based on the number of papers a particular author has written and the frequency with which other authors have mentioned that author, a researcher may infer that the author is an authority on the subject and, hence, a vital source to consult for the current research.
Atilano (2021) suggests that identifying crucial inquiries about a subject necessitates more study. A student can frequently discover unique viewpoints that require more inquiry by examining existing literature. Numerous studies have found that listening to music while doing particular things, like learning, may be beneficial. It is likely that, in this situation, the study has yet to determine which musical genre is preferred above others (Atilano, 2021). Then, a researcher interested in this subject would add to the existing data with a fresh investigation to identify which musical subgenres are most beneficial for retention. It also identifies the methodologies used in earlier studies on the same or similar subjects. Finding the methods that might be most beneficial for developing a topic might be made more accessible by reviewing the study of previous researchers (Yoon Sik Kim, 2018). The analysis of prior results may also aid researchers in developing a novel strategy for their present field of investigation.
For the audience or readers to trust in one’s research, a literature review helps establish a relationship with them. They can be credited for doing their homework because they succeeded in finding and verifying the facts, which is one of the initial duties in any research report. Even though the researcher could be a student and not an authority on a particular subject, providing a thorough review in a research paper can assist the researcher in convincing the readers that they are an expert in the field. Because of this, if the study and knowledge can incorporate a more significant number of books, papers, and other sources in the literature review, it will be viewed as more credible (Yoon Sik Kim, 2018). According to the topic of the study report, each entry may be either lengthy or brief. The entries in a doctoral or master’s thesis can be longer than those in a term paper.
Identifying the research techniques used in earlier studies on the same or relevant subjects. It is frequently essential to assess the types when deciding which techniques might be most helpful in advancing a topic of studies that earlier researchers have conducted (Yoon Sik Kim, 2018). In the same way, reviewing prior research results could inspire new ideas for the researchers’ present field of inquiry.
In summary, after completing the literature review, a researcher should be well-versed in the subject and understand the direction any upcoming research should go. If any additional questions arise throughout the study that needs to be addressed, the researcher will be informed of which specialists to contact. A literature review is an essential discipline since it helps the reader comprehend the new study’s direction. It offers a comprehensive review and summary of the pertinent scholarship from the past to the present.
Atilano, M. (2021). LibGuides: Conducting a Literature Review: Benefits of Conducting a Literature Review. Libguides.unf.edu. https://libguides.unf.edu/litreview/benefits
Western Sydney University. (2017). Literature review purpose. https://www.westernsydney.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/1254786/Literature_review_purpose.pdf
Yoon Sik Kim. (2018, January 11). The Importance of Literature Review in Research Writing. Owlcation; Owlcation. https://owlcation.com/humanities/literature_review
Child And Adolescent Mental Well-Being Sample Paper
Child and adolescent mental well-being is an important and often overlooked issue that has serious implications for the health and development of young people worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 1 in 5 children and adolescents globally suffer from a mental health disorder or condition, which is expected to increase (World Health Organization, 2021). In Qatar, the Qatar National Mental Health Survey reported that about 20.7% of Qatar’s school-aged children and adolescents had experienced mental health issues in the past year (Amin et al., 2021; Mahgoub et al., 2022). This highlights the urgent need for improved mental health services for children and adolescents in the country.
However, it is not just the prevalence of mental health issues that should be of concern; the consequences of not addressing these issues effectively and promptly can be extremely damaging for both the individual and society. Mental health problems in childhood and adolescence can lead to poor academic and social functioning, substance abuse, and even an increased risk of suicide. Moreover, the burden of these issues can be lifelong, as the effects of poor mental health in adolescence can have long-term consequences in adulthood.
Given the prevalence and potential consequences of mental health issues among children and adolescents, we must take immediate action to ensure that all young people have access to the resources and support they need to thrive. This essay will critically evaluate the evidence for biological and social influences on individuality to better understand these factors’ impact on children’s mental well-being. In particular, it will explore developmental theories, the role of nature and nurture, and the evidence for biological and social influences on individual differences. It will also debate and critically appraise the evidence that explores children’s mental well-being to develop a better understanding of the role that biological and social influences play in the development of mental health issues. By critically analyzing the evidence, this essay will provide insight into the factors that contribute to the development of mental health issues in children and adolescents, helping to inform interventions that can improve their mental well-being.
An Overview of Children’s Psychological Development Theories
Several developmental theories are coined to help explain different developmental stages of children’s psychological development. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is widely accepted as the most comprehensive theory of children’s psychological development (Carpendale, Lewis, and Müller, 2020; Perrucci & Kohnstamm, 2017). Piaget believed that children’s cognitive abilities develop through a series of stages, each stage being more complex than the last. The four main stages are:
- The sensorimotor stage lasts from birth to around two years of age, where they learn about the world using their senses and motor skills.
- Between the ages of two and seven is considered the preoperational stage. During this stage, children depict things and occurrences with symbols and language. However, they cannot analyze these symbols.
- The concrete operating stage lasts between the ages of seven and eleven. During this stage, children start to reason logically about real things that have happened. They are unable to reason abstractly, nevertheless.
- The formal operational stage, which lasts from around age eleven forward, is the last stage of development. Children develop their ability to reason logically and abstractly throughout this time (Carpendale, Lewis, and Müller, 2020; Perrucci & Kohnstamm, 2017).
The evidence base for Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is mainly observational, with Piaget carrying out several experiments with children to support his theory (Ph.D., n.d.). However, there are several criticisms of Piaget’s theory, including that his experiments were often conducted on middle-class, Western children and may not be generalizable to other cultures (Ph.D., n.d.). In addition, some researchers have argued that children can think logically about abstract concepts at an earlier age than Piaget suggested.
Whereas Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is a comprehensive theory that looks at how people grow and change throughout their lives. It stresses the importance of identity in personality development and is made up of eight stages, each characterized by a different conflict. The first four stages (trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, and industry vs. inferiority) occur during childhood, and the last four occur during adulthood(Orenstein & Lewis, 2021).
The first stage is trust vs. mistrust, which occurs during infancy. During this stage, the infant develops a basic sense of trust or mistrust in the world around them based on the quality of care they receive from their primary caregiver. The second stage is autonomy vs. shame and doubt, which occurs early in infancy. The child starts to gain self-control and independence during this period. The third stage is initiative vs. guilt, which occurs during middle childhood(Orenstein & Lewis, 2021). The child begins to take the initiative and assert themselves. The fourth stage is industry vs. inferiority, and it occurs during adolescence. During this stage, adolescents become more aware of their social comparisons and begin forming a sense of self-esteem.
The fifth stage is identity vs. role confusion, which occurs during young adulthood. Young adults try to figure out who they are and what they want to do with their life. Intimacy vs. isolation is the sixth stage, which happens as adults. The adult attempts to establish intimate, close relationships with others. Generativity vs. stagnation, which takes place in middle adulthood, is the seventh stage. The middle-aged adult is now concerned with passing on something to the following generation(Orenstein & Lewis, 2021). The eighth and final stage is ego integrity vs. despair, which happens in late adulthood. This stage is when elderly adults reflect on their lives and assess their accomplishments.
Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development has been widely accepted due to its comprehensive approach to understanding how people grow and change throughout their lives. However, the theory has come under criticism for lacking empirical evidence. Critics have argued that Erikson’s theory is based largely on his clinical observations, often subjective, and Freudian theory, which has been largely discredited(Cherry, 2022). Additionally, the theory relies heavily on anthropological research, which is limited in scope and often needs to reflect people’s experiences in different cultures and societies. In contrast, earlier theories of human development, such as those proposed by Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget, have been more widely accepted because they were based on more empirical evidence. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory was based on his clinical observations and psychological experiments, while Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory was based on his systematic observations of children and his experiments with them. As such, these theories have been more widely accepted because they were based on a larger body of empirical evidence.
Attachment theory is a psychological framework for understanding the dynamics of both long- and short-term interpersonal interactions (Negrini, 2018). The idea explains why people want to keep up intimate ties with others and how encounters with important people in one’s life influence these relationships. John Bowlby created attachment theory in the 1950s, essentially an evolutionary and ethological hypothesis.
The core idea behind attachment theory is that for early infants to feel comfortable and build a positive sense of self, they must develop a strong emotional connection with the primary caregiver. According to attachment theory, a child’s future growth and mental health are greatly influenced by the strength of their relationship with their primary caregiver.
Four main types of attachment bonds can form between a child and a caregiver, categorized as secure, insecure-ambivalent, insecure-avoidant, and disorganized (Negrini, 2018). A sense of safety and trust characterizes secure attachment in the relationship, and the child feels comfortable seeking comfort and support from the caregiver. A mix of distrust and insecurity characterizes insecure-ambivalent attachment, and the child may be clingy and demanding attention. A child with insecure-avoidant attachment presents as autonomous and disinterested in personal relationships. The hallmark of a disorganized connection is a child who seems lost and bewildered in their relationships.
Attachment theory has important implications for our understanding of child development, as well as for our understanding of how adults form and maintain close relationships (Negrini, 2018). Attachment theory can help us understand why some children have difficulty forming attachments and why some adults have difficulty maintaining close intimate relationships.
There are some criticisms of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, and attachment theory. Piaget’s theory assumes that children progress through a series of cognitive stages, which is not necessarily true(Saracho, 2021). This theory has also been criticized for its need for more attention to social and cultural influences on development. For example, research suggests that children from different cultures may experience different stages of development and learn differently. Erikson’s theory has also been criticized for its lack of attention to individual differences and its emphasis on the role of culture in development(Saracho, 2021). Additionally, Erikson’s theory has been criticized for being too general and universal to be applied to all individuals. Finally, attachment theory has been criticized for its focus on the mother-child relationship. Although attachment theory is important, it does not take into account other relationships that may also be important for development, such as those between siblings or between peers(Fitzgerald, 2020). The evidence base for attachment theory is primarily observational and anecdotal. Bowlby admitted that a few case studies only supported the idea and that further study was required to establish the theory’s viability (Negrini, 2018). Since Bowlby’s initial formulation of the theory, much research has been conducted on attachment and attachment styles. Much of this research has been conducted with animals, and much of it has been conducted with human infants and children (Harlow, 2019).
An Overview of Nature Vs. Nurture Developmental Theories
Nature vs nurture is a long-standing debate within the field of psychology concerning the relative importance of nature (i.e., genes, biology) and nurture (i.e., environment, experiences) in shaping human behaviour (Jackson, Llewellyn, and Smith, 2020; Marotz and Allen, 2022; Miller, 2016; Music, 2016; Tistarelli et al., 2020). Although there is no clear consensus, the debate has traditionally been framed as a dichotomy, with nature and nurture seen as opposing forces.
According to nature theorists, genetic factors dominate the development process, with a child’s genes determining their development. Nurture theorists, on the other hand, hold that development is predominantly influenced by environmental variables, with children’s experiences and interactions with their surroundings having a significant impact on their development (Jackson, Llewellyn, and Smith, 2020; Marotz and Allen, 2022; Miller, 2016; Music, 2016; Tistarelli et al., 2020). Nature theorists contend that a set of intrinsic traits at birth predetermines a child’s growth. According to these scholars, a child’s growth is mainly influenced by their genes and little by their surroundings. One of the most influential nature theorists was the Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget(Piaget,1936), who argued that children are born with a set of mental structures which guide their thinking and understanding. Piaget believed that these mental structures develop in a fixed sequence and that children cannot develop new abilities until they have mastered the previous stage.
However, proponents of the nurture theory contend that young children’s experiences and interactions with their environment significantly determine how they grow. These theorists believe that children are born with a blank slate and that their experiences shape whom they become (Jackson, Llewellyn, and Smith, 2020; Marotz and Allen, 2022; Miller, 2016; Music, 2016; Tistarelli et al., 2020). American psychologist John B. Watson, who claimed that children lack innate brain structures and are entirely changed by their experiences, was one of the essential nurture theorists (Cherry, 2020).
Nature refers to a person’s inherited characteristics determined at conception. This includes both the physical traits of a person, such as their hair and eye colour and their personality traits, such as whether they are shy or outgoing (Bucx, 2018; Cherry, 2020). Nurture, on the other hand, refers to the environmental influences a person is exposed to after birth. This includes things like how they are raised, the people they interact with, and their experiences.
Nature has a significant impact on a child’s growth. How Hereditynetics, and brain development. The influence of how a child grows term “heritage” describes how traits are passed down from one generation to the next. This can be seen in the physical traits passed down from generation to generation. However, heredity also plays a role in behavioural traits and mental abilities. Studies of twins have shown a vital genetic component to many aspects of development, including intelligence, personality, and even mental health (Bucx, 2018; Cherry, 2020). Genetics studies how traits are passed down from generation to generation. This includes looking at the specific genes that are involved in the development of a particular trait. Genetics can also be used to predict how likely it is for a child to develop a particular trait. For example, if a child has a parent with a history of mental illness, they may be more likely to develop a mental illness themselves.
Brain development is another critical factor in child development. The brain is responsible for all bodily functions, including thought, emotion, and behaviour. The brain goes through many changes during development, which can significantly impact how a child develops (Bucx, 2018; Cherry, 2020). For example, if a child has damage to the parts of the brain responsible for language, they may have difficulty learning to speak. All of these factors – heredity, genetics, and brain development – play a role in shaping a child’s development. Nature has a profound influence on who we are and how we develop.
The environment, experiences, and learning that children are exposed to can all influence their development in various ways. A child’s development can be strongly impacted by the environment in which they are raised. If a child is raised in a safe and secure environment, they are more likely to develop a sense of trust and security (Porges et al., 2019; Roberts, Newcombe, and Davids, 2018). This can help them feel more confident and secure in themselves, leading to better mental and emotional development. Conversely, if a child is raised in a chaotic or unstable environment, this can lead to feelings of insecurity and anxiety. This can impact a child’s ability to develop healthy relationships and lead to mental health problems such as anxiety and depression.
Experiences also play a role in child development. Positive experiences, such as love, care, and attention, can help children feel secure and develop a sense of self-worth. These experiences can also help children to develop emotionally and mentally. Negative experiences, such as neglect or abuse, can harm children (Porges et al., 2019; Roberts, Newcombe, and Davids, 2018). These experiences can lead to various problems, including mental health, behavioural, and relationship problems. Learning is also an essential part of child development. Children learn from the people around them and the things they see and experience. This learning can help children develop their beliefs and values and understand the world around them.
The evidence base for nature vs. nurture developmental theories is mainly observational, with researchers carrying out experiments and studies to support their theories. The evidence suggests that both nature and nurture play a role in development(Cherry, 2020a). In most cases, it is likely that the two interact to determine a child’s overall development. For instance, a child’s environment may influence the expression of certain genes, while certain genes may influence a child’s response to their environment. Furthermore, some studies suggest that the influence of both nature and nurture on development may differ depending on the trait being studied. For instance, research has found that the influence of genes may be more important for physical traits, while environmental factors may be more important for psychological traits(Cherry, 2020a). Overall, the evidence suggests that nature and nurture are both important factors in development and that they complement each other. It is likely that the two interact to determine a child’s overall development, and the influence of each factor may differ depending on the trait being studied. Therefore, it is important to consider both nature and nurture when studying development.
Amin, A., McCashin, D., Abdelrahman, M., Al-Adwan, D. and Hasan, Y. (2021). The psychological effects of perceived threat, national identity and self-esteem on the well-being of Qatari youth during the blockade. [online] doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-305119/v1.
Cherry, K. (2020a). Biography of Psychologist John B. Watson. [online] Verywell Mind. Available at: https://www.verywellmind.com/john-b-watson-biography-1878-1958-2795550.
Cherry, K. (2020b). The age old debate of nature vs. nurture. [online] Verywell Mind. Available at: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-nature-versus-nurture-2795392.
Mahgoub, Y., Daher-Nashif, S., Al-Shebly, R., Wali, H.S., Khan, A., Almarkhi, A., Al-Motawa, M., AlObaidan, G. and Al-Muhannadi, Z. (2022). Prevalence and Determinants of Mental Health Problems and Mental Health Stigma Among Medical Students of Different Nationalities in Qatar. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, Volume 13, pp.969–979. doi:10.2147/amep.s371053.
Fitzgerald, M., 2020. Criticism of Attachment Theory, 2020. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Michael-Fitzgerald6/publication/338696030_Criticism_of_Attachment_Theory_2020/links/5e259b634585150ad4b065bf/Criticism-of-Attachment-Theory-2020
Saracho, O.N. (2021). Theories of Child Development and Their Impact on Early Childhood Education and Care. Early Childhood Education Journal. [online] doi:10.1007/s10643-021-01271-5.
World Health Organization (2021). Adolescent Mental Health. [online] World Health Organization. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/adolescent-mental-health.
Child Protection And Safety In Practice University Essay Example
Children are society’s prospects and should be protected and nurtured accordingly, away from abuse and neglect. The Children Act (2004) legislation ensures that parents, families and communities receive fair, ethical and legal treatment of children to keep them free from abuse. According to (Dubowitz et al., 2011), a child s welfare can be affected by abuse and neglect in various ways, such as psychological difficulties that can cause educational problems, depression, and trouble maintaining relationships. Moreover, protecting children from maltreatment at an early year and educational setting can effectively safeguard the child’s health and development. Zeanah et al. (2018) state that safeguarding and promoting children’s welfare will result in taking action to ensure the best outcomes for all children. Thus, multi agencies join to share information and goals to intervene early in the children’s learning and achievements. Although multiagency has some benefits, it has its cons too, which inhibit collaborative working. Thus, individuals participating in multiagency work need skills and knowledge to be effective practitioners, such as good communicators (Munro,2019). This essay intends to expound on child protection, safety practices and how multiagency works.
Ways that child welfare can be affected by abuse and neglect
According to (Horwitz et al., 2011), child abuse and neglect are any actions that interfere with a child’s ability to learn, thrive, and grow in their environment. Child abuse relates to the physical, emotional or sexual exploitation by either parents, guardians or the community that is violent or threatening to the child. However, neglect is a form of child abuse that caregivers fail to provide basic needs such as proper shelter, health care, and emotional and safety needs. For example, emotional abuse such as yelling and humiliation will affect a child’s welfare as it will cause a lack of confidence, anger problems, conduct problems and underachievement. Moreover, neglect such as inadequate supervision can cause a child to use drugs, showing that the caregiver may not adequately care for the child. This will impact the child’s overall health and have psychological consequences that lead to high-risk behaviors.
ACE stands for the adverse childhood experiences that have potentially terrifying ordeals that occurred in their childhood. The experiences result in toxic stress due to frequent exposure to violence, abuse and neglect. According to (Jacobi et al.,2010), children that experience toxic stress in early life are at risk of adverse health effects such as mental illness, heart disease and unhealthy lifestyles. Moreover, toxic stress has more effects, such as weakening the developing brain, which later causes lifelong problems in learning behavior., It also leads to more physical illness and poor long-term health outcomes, such as alcoholism, cancer, obesity, and chronic obstructive pulmonary ddisease, amongothers. Gould et al. (2012) show that adults with low levels of parental warmth and affection and high levels of abuse have the highest health risk factors.
Contemporary society has also been the cause of abuse and neglect among children in the modern era. During the pandemic, there was an increase in child abuse as children were isolated in homes to contain the virus. It increased abuse as the signs were not noticeable to others due to stay-at-home orders. According to (Dubowitz et al., 2011), pandemics increased most parental stress and intrafamilial tension, leading to an increase in adverse childhood experiences such as domestic violence, abuse and neglect, causing aggression, depression and emotional problems in children. Moreover, an increase in the use of technology has led to cyberbullying and online threats that facilitate child abuse. For example, a child with access to online accounts who are abused online or given threats tends to be at risk of depression and thus have social interaction issues.
Safeguarding and child protection
The action, practices, and policies taken to protect children from abuse and maltreatment and promote their well-being are referred to as safeguarding. Child protection, on the other hand, is the action taken to protect children who are at risk of harm or are already experiencing significant harm. (Munro,2019) defines safeguarding as the prevention of harm, whereas child protection is the response to harm. It is important as it allows for intervention before the crisis and improves outcomes for those involved while considering the child’s best interests. Also, it allows child protection referrals to help those suffering from significant harm and prevent concerns from escalating. For example, NSPCC advocates against cruelty to children and that every child deserves to be protected. It sets out the policy, statutory guidance and legislation on how child protection works. In addition, local authorities play a lead role in safeguarding and protecting children, but everyone has a role when they come into contact with kids and families to protect them (Parton,2011). Moreover, voluntary organizations, faith groups and private sector providers are responsible for protecting and safeguarding children.
Some agencies, such as child protection services, are responsible for providing child protection and responding to reports of child abuse and neglect. (McFadden et al., 2015) state that the services link children to critical social services and just justice systems. For example, Birmingham’s local children safeguarding partnership objective is to support local agencies in a system where children are safeguarded and welfare promoted. Also, it provides safeguarding learning and development opportunities for professionals working with children and families. The right help and time framework ensures that the various needs are met such as universal, universal plus, additional and significant needs according to the situation involved.
The Children Act (2004) requires local governments to promote and protect the welfare of needy children by providing services that are appropriate to their needs. The child protection process takes place by sharing information, assessing if the child is likely to suffer serious harm, and determining the type of harm. Moreover, the child protection process is check on risk of harm, harm done due to the care they receive and then decide if the child needs a protection plan (Lambert et al., 2014). A child is in this specialist service to be served with emotional support and be helped to develop a family coping strategy while protecting children. As a result, children and young people who come into contact with the child safety system will be assisted by specialist services. It creates a legal obligation to protect children and young people in schools and colleges.
Multiagency working is teamwork across organizations to deliver services to children with multiple needs. According to (Munro, 2019), It is an approach in which professionals from various agencies collaborate to find safeguarding solutions and provide support to those affected by abuse and neglect. It is important as it effectively addresses a wide range of risk factors while making a unique contribution to early intervention services (Zeanah et al.,2018). Although multiagency has its benefits, it faces some potential barriers, such as a lack of effective communication will lead to a lack of shared understanding making it easier to collaborate. Not promoting a multiagency approach will result in neglect, especially If an individual can make a poor decision, unlike in a shared working. For example, a stressed manager working with vulnerable kids will make a rush decision on where to send the child rather than researching it. It will make a practitioner more strained due to the overloaded work strain, which can be effectively handled in a multiagency environment.
An effective individual practitioner needs skills and ethical considerations in multiagency working. Effective practitioners should have good communication either between the parent and the child. Crittenden (2013) states that this will make it easy to work together and build trusting relationships as there is understanding while the procedure is keenly followed and is effective in direct work with families. Early help is support given to a family when a problem first appears in order to improve outcomes for children. It can help a child’s home and family life, as well as their academic performance and mental health. As a result, it is critical because it helps to reach the child’s full support while reducing the need for a referral to child protection services (Parton,2011). It is effectively accomplished by working together through monitoring programs to respond to the various levels of need that children and families may face.
A social worker can be involved in early help to undertake as the lead practitioner. They assist families and children by improving well-being and assisting in meeting all people’s basic and complex needs, with a focus on those who are vulnerable, oppressed, and living in poverty. (Jacobi et al., 2010). A social worker helps by recommending other professionals to provide services and assistance that best fits their situation. For example, a social worker can partner with different support agencies to ensure care is taken and provide coping strategies. The Children Act (2004) legislation safeguards vulnerable groups, and their policy is to avoid harm and risk of harm while protecting children from maltreatment.
Keeping children safe within Early Years and Education Settings
The Early Help Agenda safeguards a child who has been identified as experiencing or at risk of experiencing significant harm as a result of abuse or neglect. It supports practitioners as they can spot safeguarding issues because of their close contact with the children and adolescents in their care (Lambert et al., 2014). Moreover, it supports practitioners in working effectively with children and families. It provides an understanding of the child’s day-to-day needs while stimulating their physical, educational and emotional development to ensure the child is protected and safeguarded. It is important as it helps them cope with their day-to-day pressures while working on a collaborative approach to protect them from abuse.
The guidance says to promote children’s well-being working together per the Children Act (2004) in early years and in an educational setting to safeguard and protect the child. This guidance shows that the services offered, such as social services, are free to ensure children are safe in their early years and in school. The role is to identify any abuse on a child, analyze and listen carefully to the abuse, involve a practitioner early to ensure that the child is safeguarded and protected and ensure that their early years and educational setting are safe.
DSL, the designated safeguarding lead, is present in every organization dealing with children’s needs. Their role is to ensure that child protection files are kept up to date and are confidential and stored securely. Also, the person is responsible for child protection and safeguarding across early-year school settings by gathering evidence for any referral. According to (McFadden et al., 2015), a DSL’s role is to assist staff members in carrying out their safeguarding responsibilities and to maintain close contact with social services for children and other services. Moreover, DSL ought to be familiar with the local authority’s safeguarding procedures to ensure safeguarding policy and child protection are met.
Providing curriculum links to educate children about keeping themselves safe is essential to keep children safe in their early years and educational setting. According to (Jacobi et al., 2010), simple support programs for children and parents can be the best way to prevent abuse. Having after-school activities for education helps children to know their rights and thus makes them less likely to think abuse is their fault and more likely to report the offender. Moreover, knowing child abuse and its signs can effectively help keep children safe as it will be easier to recognize and provide early help to the children and improve their lives.
Case study review
The predisposing factors for abuse and neglect may include family crisis, family isolation and inadequate parenting skills. In the case study, moving caused the imprisonment of John, having limited contact with members and Casey has inadequate parenting skills according to how she responds to issues regarding the kids. These factors affect how the kids respond and react to others. The level of need depends on the right time; the right help framework is an additional need. In the case study, the children and the family need substantial support, but it can be managed without social intervention. This family needs food parcel support as Claire struggles to pay the bills. Furthermore, difficulty in controlling behavior where Noah’s behavior is outrageous; this can be supported by the child on specific learning programs to determine and help the child from abuse or neglect.
The professional practitioner can help by partnering with other agencies to ensure the necessary support is met for the children. Working together as a family with the help of a professional can allow identification of the problem and provide a solution at an early stage (Munro,2019). Thus, the role of the practitioner is to be present and offer comfort to the children. For example, in Noah’s case, a practitioner can offer emotional and loving support when acting out rather than distracting them. The strategy can be behavioral therapy for a parent to improve coping skills and strengthen the parent-child relationship while using a positive discipline strategy to avoid abuse and ensure no neglect of the kids. Moreover, having a DSL, according to the children act (2004), will endure that the necessary steps are taken to protect and support children while providing a point of contact between child protection policies where necessary (Parton,2011).
Social workers, child psychologists and academic staff are some of the professionals that could be involved. A social worker will ensure that the family is kept together and doing the best for the family. In contrast, academic staff will ensure a clear understanding of stages of development and recognize signs of abuse or neglect (Crittenden,2013). The professionals are majorly involved as they ensure the child’s welfare and protection in the home setting while preventing and reporting cases of abuse. The psychologist will help deal with the children’s emotional, social and intellectual development. These professionals contribute to the concrete support of the need and emotional competencies of the children.
A family hub can be involved to support the family and children in an early setting to get help in the appropriate manner and at the right time. In the case study, family circumstances have changed, causing challenges. As children develop, the family may require additional and joined-up support services to help with the change in environment for both eth family and children. It will help the practitioners to improve the quality of a child’s home and perform better while supporting their mental health.
in conclusion, a child’s welfare is critical in the early years, and thus abuse and neglect can lead to factors such as depression and emotional and social instability. There are various ways that a child can be affected by abuse and neglect, such as toxic stress. Current stances, such as the pandemic or the influence of the modern era, may accelerate this factor. With this, safeguarding and child protection is essential as it is necessary to ensure every child is safe and the right level of need is offered to provide for the child. Also, specialist services may be offered to support children facing significant harm or those affected. A multiagency working can facilitate it to ensure collaboration, covering, and setting a high ground to prevent abuse. Also, keeping children safe at an early year and providing early help is essential.
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