How Realistic Is The Carbon Emission Reduction Target (CERT)? Essay Example For College

Carbon dioxide (), after the industrial revolution has risen by approximately one third. Since 1990, temperatures globally have risen by 0.

2 ?C and the concentrations in the atmosphere have increased from 354 parts per million to 380 parts per million and still increasing. Note that the ten warmest years globally since 1861 (when formal recording begun) occurred after 1994. If no action is taken, average temperatures globally could increase by 5.8 ?C by 2100 and sea levels from 0.

09 to 0.88 meters. Millions of people will be exposed to hunger, clean water loss, flooding and diseases with people in the developing countries being more at risk. Low-lying areas, wetlands and small islands will be vulnerable from sea-level rise which could cause even extinction.

Take for example Bangladesh; a sea level rise of 45cm could result in 10% of the total land area being lost. Even developed countries will be affected. In UK, increased sea levels could threaten communities by the sea. Storms and severe weather conditions could have high costly impacts like the floods in the autumn of 2000 which cost UK 1 billion pounds.

A recent report by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers claimed that if no action is taken, sea levels will increase by 7 meters by 2250, flooding much of London, East Anglia and other coastal areas. In the same report it is stated that “Our climate is changing so unless we adapt, we are likely to face a difficult future”i1.2 The Kyoto ProtocolKyoto protocol is a set of international courtesy rules to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It was produced at the United Nations Conference in 1997 and its main objective is the “stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”ii i.

e. to prevent climate change. Other objectives includeiii:* Establishing commitments for minimizing the greenhouse gases that are legally binding for Annex I countries, as well as general commitments for all member countries.* Annex I countries are required to prepare policies and measures for the minimization of greenhouse gases in their respective countries.

They are also required to increase the absorption of these gases and utilize all mechanisms available.* Establish an adaptation fund for climate change in order to reduce any impacts on developing countries.* Establish a Compliance Committee to make compulsory compliance with the commitments under the Protocol.1.

3 The 2050 TargetUnited Kingdom’s government introduced a target which aims at reducing carbon emissions as well as relieving fuel poverty. In 2003 Energy White Paper UK introduced a target in order to avoid dangerous climate changes. According to this target, UK should reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% from the 1990’s level (77% lower than 2005 levels) by 2050. This target includes all sectors of the UK economy, including international aviation and shipping.

However, the majority of the cuts will be achieved in the domestic sector.2. Carbon Emission Reduction Target (CERT)CERT is the new name of the third Phase of the Energy Efficiency Commitment (EEC) program. Phase 1 and 2 ran from 2002 to 2007.

Phase 3 runs from April 2008 and will last until March 2011. It is argued, by the UK government, that CERT will have socioeconomic as well as environmental benefits. In terms of society, it will be beneficial because it will reduce fuel poverty. In terms of economics, it will be beneficial because this will create market opportunities for new and/or more efficient technologies.

It will also contribute to the improvement of security of energy by reducing demand in the domestic sector. Finally, by reducing carbon emissions, it will benefit the environmentiv.According to CERT, energy suppliers should provide measurements which grant savings equal to 158 . This is equal to emissions of 700,000 homes annually.

40% of the activity should focus on vulnerable and low-income households. By increasing the efficiency of the energy of UK’s households, CERT prevents households from fuel poverty.As from 11 September 2008, the CERT increased its original target by 20%, equivalent to 185 (31 more).2.

1 Overview of StrategiesvThis section provides an overview of the strategies used in order for UK to achieve its target. Those strategies refer to all phases, not only the third one.2.1.

1 Energy Supply SectorFor the second phase, a National Allocation Plan was formed in order to save carbon. �80 million will be spent in order to support micro-generation. An additional �35 million will be spent in order to develop carbon abatement technologies. Electricity should be supported by renewables.

2.1.2 Business SectorClimate change levy will continue to be used. Agreements will be made in order to encourage businesses to improve the efficiency of their usage of energy.

The current policy mix will be kept, to ensure the most effective use of policy instruments to deliver emission reductions.2.1.3 Transport SectorFrom 2008, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation will be introduced, in order to increase the uptake of biofuels to ensure a long term framework which promotes an additional investment.

Fiscal instruments (like Vehicle Excise Duty) will continue to be used in order to purchase less polluting vehicles. Vehicle manufacturers should commit on improving fuel efficiency. Carbon offsetting will be promoted to counterbalance emissions from central Government air travel.2.

1.4 Domestic SectorIn the domestic sector, improvements will be made in the Building Regulation in order to raise the energy standards for new and refurbished buildings. The Code for Sustainable Homes will be introduced which will suggest minimum standards for energy and water efficiency. 250,000 additional subsided installations of home insulations are planned to be achieved.

More reliable consumer product information will be provided in order to raise awareness about new technologies as well as the climate change and individual actions one can take to help it.2.1.5 Agriculture SectorIn the agriculture sector, resource efficient farm management will be promoted in order to reduce agriculture’s contribution to greenhouse gases emissions.

The scope and feasibility of an emissions trading scheme will also be examined.2.1.6 Public SectorThe public sector will be funded with �20million to finance energy efficiency investment.

A package of measures will also be introduced to suggest alternative action for local authorities in order to focus on climate change.2.1.7 ReviewThis section summarizes UK’s plan to reduce greenhouse gases.

Measures have shownvi that by 2010, emissions will be reduced by 19.4% compared to the previous years. Moreover, emissions will be reduced to 10.6% compared to 1990 levels.

If the above mentioned strategies are followed, UK estimates a further save in carbon of 7.0 to 12.0 MtC by 2010. It is also estimated that by 2010, UK will reduce greenhouse gases emissions by 23% to 25% and emissions by 15% to 18% compared to 1990’s level.

This means that UK is on track to meet and probably exceed its target.3. Are the Targets Realistic?3.1 Current PositionUK’s emissions have fallen.

This was mostly due to the shift from coal consumption to oil and gas. However, since coal consumption increased again (because of an increase in the gas price), emissions increased as well, but are still lower than before. Some economists argue that if emissions of imports as well as from shipping are considered, UK emissions have risen.The Institution of Mechanical Engineers report claims that “The existing Kyoto Protocol has, to date, been a total failure, with emission levels continuing to rise substantially”vii.

Another government report says that UK will not meet its target of reducing emissions. However, Mrs. Beckett (Environment Secretary) argues that the target of 20% reduction is still alive despite the claims that UK had not done enough. The director of Green Alliance Mr.

Thompson said that “The government is off course to meet its own climate change target and fast running out of time”viii.3.2 Background InformationAccording to research, the world population should reach approximately 9 billion citizens. It is estimated that emissions will be equal to 11 Gt i.

e. 3Gt Carbon. Thus, the average emission per capita will equal 0.33 tC (in contrast to today’s 1.

15 tC per capita). This 0.33 tC per capita should be equal for all mankind.Moreover, between now and 2050 and depending on economic and population an increase of 30% to 50% can be assumed, in energy use, for the developed countries, and an additional 10% for the developing ones.

Thus, emission reduction should be more for developed countries.3.3 Kaya IdentityixThe Kaya identity is an equation which relates factors that determine the level of human impact on climate, in the form of emissions of the greenhouse gas . The total emission level can be expressed as the product of population, GDP per capita, energy use per unit of GDP and carbon emissions per unit of energy consumedx i.

e.According to this, carbon emissions can only be minimized by reducing population or per capita GDP or carbon intensity of the economy. Most proposed targets focus on the reduction of the carbon intensity of the economy.Factor 1: Population.

In 2007, the UK Office for National Statistics proposed a growth rate 0.7% per year until 2031. Assuming this rate of increase until 2050, the population of UK will reach 82 million citizens. The emissions in 2006 were approximately 9 tones per person.

This gives 750 mT of (while the target of 80% reduction until 2050 suggests a total of 119 mT). This means that, since the population is growing, UK will have to reduce its emissions by at least 85% until 2050 (35% by 2020)Factor 2: EconomyThe annual GDP growth for UK for the years 1990-1007 where 2.5% including inflation. Assuming a 2% overall growth and population growth increasing by 0.

7% per year gives a per capita growth rate equal to 1.3% annually. This adds an additional 440 mT of i.e.

1390 mT of total.Since population and economy are factors that are not considered by the government, it can be argued that the Climate Change Act will fail to achieve its reduction goals both in short (2020) and in long term (2050). However, the reduction targets are still achievable.3.

4 Transforming the Energy/Power SectorThe power sectors contributes one third of carbon emissions thus, by making changes in the power sector will result in reduction of carbon emissions. Possible changes include the replacement of existing energy generation facilities with renewables and storing the remaining energy. UK has already formed the Renewables Obligation Order which suggests 15% of the energy generated should be produced by renewables by 2015.By switching to renewable energy, emissions could be reduced to 50%.

This means that the 2050 target and the mid-target of 2020 are achievable. The example was set by Sweden; 23% of its energy is from renewables.However, financing the construction of new energy facilities is difficult and expensive. Trillions of pounds will be needed to build new facilities which will also require government mandates.

Such mandates rely on market forces which are best at creating profit rather than public good.4. Conclusionalleviation is vital for our future, the world and the societies. UK knowing this, established very ambitious goals for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions.

The effectiveness, however, of reducing emissions is questionable and the up-to-date evidence raise doubts as to how achievable the targets are. Quoting Dr. Thomas Schneider “Reaching 50% by 2050 and the intermediate target – 20% by 2020 – appear to have been set not by an analysis of the possible, but rather by poetic license or alliteration”.Indeed the target for emission reduction is political fiction since they exclude knowledge as well as the ability to reduce the emissions.

This is also supported by the fact that emissions from fossil fuels have increased by 32% since 1992, according to Institution of Mechanical Engineers report. However, UK has shown sustain rates of reducing carbon compared to other countries, a rate that recently fallen. Additionally, the emissions for UK in 2006 were 0.42 tons per �1,000 of GDP.

If the world averaged 0.42 tons, global emissions of would be approximately 32% less.It seems that the only possible way for UK to meet its targets is by switching from fossil fuel energy, to renewable. By doing this, an additional 10% reduction could be achieved (30% by 2020).

However, this is very expensive and difficult to be done and even if it is done, it will take too much time, resulting in UK to miss its mid-target for 2020.Another possible way for UK to meet its targets is by tracking emissions produced per capita GNP i.e. emissions produced within a country and divided by the population of that country.

If this happens, it would be possible to deliver the changes needed in the technology sector and thus, reduce emissions. However, this suggestion raises doubts as well. For example, a computer can contain parts from all over the world. Also, manufactures can change suppliers and thus, making difficult to accurately track and calculate carbon emissions.

To sum up, updated evidence have shown that UK will almost certainly fail its initial targets. This is mainly because of the current economy and market forces which seek profit and not the wellbeing of the population. UK government should also focus on the process of achieving these targets and not only on timetables. The failure of UK, however, will give the opportunity to reconsider current targets and policies and retreat them in a more effective way.

Flexible Pavement Road Construction

For the widening of the M1 motorway, a flexible pavement road construction will be used.

The materials used in the surface course to assist with noise reduction will consist of a bituminous mixture of bitumen and pervious macadam (porous asphalt).Flexible road construction has been selected rather than rigid for the following reasons:Congestion, Construction & Maintenance* Flexible pavements can be quickly constructed and maintained, where rigid pavements require frequent joint maintenance.* They can also be maintained a lane at a time or with short-term road closures* Therefore, flexible pavements reduce congestion during maintenance and construction(Hunter, 1994)Reflection* Open graded asphalts particularly offer significant reductions in road surface glare and assist in making line markings stand out in contrast to the road.(Hunter, 1994)Environmental Impact* The bitumen used in flexible pavements does not release greenhouse gas* The material used in flexible pavements may be reused and recycled.

There is no recycling of rigid pavement, it has to be hauled off and dumped somewhere.* When the wearing course begins deteriorate, this layer can be removed and returned to an asphalt plant and combined with new material to be used in another road project* The production methods applied to make asphalt considerably reduce the energy used(Garber and Hoel, (2009)Road Safety* Open graded asphalt provides pathways for water to run-off, minimising the amount of water between the tyre and road, increasing road safety in the wetNoise* Low noise asphalt surfaces can result in a reduction in noise equivalent to halving the traffic volume or reducing the traffic speed by 25%* An overlay can be applied on an existing road surface; however, the noise absorbing properties of specially designed asphalt remain effectively undiminished over time. Hunter, N (1994)Structural Properties* Flexible pavement adjusts to limited differential settlement, however rigid pavements may fault at transverse joints* Non-skid properties do not deteriorate, where rigid pavements may lose non-skid surface with time* Tolerates a greater range of temperatures* Easily repaired – the overlying asphalt can be easily removed and then recycled to become the new cover.* If a rigid pavement does fail the implications are concerning.

For instance, the failures take the form of rigid steps in the road grade. Each section “floats” like a boat above the sub grade and tries to level itself rather than maintain the original slope. Once the alignment gets unlocked between sections there is no repair. Sometimes 5 to 10 miles of roadway has to be completely removed.

(Garber and Hoel, (2009)Noise ReductionNoise reduction does not solely rely on having noise reduction materials in the wearing course. It is essential to identify the most common factor of noise generation and then give this priority.Speed of vehicles is one of the most common factors that generate road noise. Therefore, an alternative, if possible, is to reduce the speed of traffic in urban situations to gain a considerable benefit at little cost.

The materials used in the wearing course can also assist in reducing noise, as some materials may generate less tire noise than other surface materials. The materials used in this scheme to reduce tire-generated noise will consist of a bituminous mixture of bitumen and pervious macadam (porous asphalt). The main advantage of pervious macadam’s is a reduction in road noise when compared with a conventional bituminous or concrete running surface. These ‘quieter’ road surfacing materials are defined as those providing a minimum noise reduction of 3.

5dBA when compared to Hot Rolled Asphalt surfacing. Porous asphalt material provides a surfacing approximately 3dBA quieter than a standard Hot Rolled Asphalt surfacing, with even greater reductions in wet weather. This is a significant and perceptible reduction in noise. (Hunter, 1994)Sustainable urban drainage (SUDS)SUDS is an innovative concept which includes environmental and social factors which considering the drainage of roads.

When considering how the drainage system is going to be constructed it looks at quantity of runoff, and the amenity value of surface water in the urban environment (CIRIA, 2005).Due to the research undertaken by this paper is has been decided that an SUDS systems will be used which incorporates a underground pipe system that allows water drained through a kerb which acts as a filtration system that lets water enter a pipe which then is carried away to a pond or basin. Therefore SUDS is better suited for the drainage of the motorway rather than a conventionally designed drainage system. A justification of the choice has been given below;* SUDS controls run-off rates and volumes of water which decreases the risk of downstream flooding.

* SUDS take into consideration the long term impact that the system will have the surrounding and aquatic environment where as conventionally designed manholes system drain water for the short term which means the quality of water may be not be assured.* SUDS reducing pollutants concentrations with the water which protects the downstream water bodies which as the conventional methods allow pollutants to mix with the water.* Encourages the appropriate storage of water within basins or ponds which enhances amenity and aesthetic value of developed areas whereas conventional systems are tend to flood when capacity is too large to handle.* The man made storage places for the water or natural storage places increase biodiversity and it provides habits for wild life which is an environmental benefit.

The reason why SUDS manage rainwater better than conventional systems is listed below;* It deals with runoff at the source* Its manages the potential hazards to the quality of the water at its sourceMaintenance* It important no component of SUDS is allowed to erode because erosion will reduce the systems effectiveness* The maintenance of SUDS will be undertaken by the SUDS approving body in regards to motorways* Sediment entrapment facilities will be required to reduce sediment discharges* Once SUDS is damaged it will cost more to repair compared to a conventional manhole system and weak areas such as grass will be vulnerable to cars stopping on them.Case studyA SUDS system was utilised at Hipwood motorway service area which contributed to various drainage benefits to the service station and these same benefits can be utilised if a SUDS system is appropriately designed for motorway project. Benefits include;* Control of water volumes to an offsite basin where as in a conventionally designed system there is chance of overflow and flooding.* Cost of maintenance reduced compared to a conventionally design man hole system* Robust and can withstand high winds and damage.

(Bay, R, 2003)Planning and developmentResulting floods during 2007 the government commissioned an investigation and the Pitts report which endorsed the Flood and Water Management act. The act cover various areas such as water resources, reservoir safety, which means the SUDS system which should be incorporated for the motorway drainage, will have to comply with this act and there may be other legislation for SUDS in the future which DEFRA suggests (Roberts, 2011).Conditions of act;* Approval must be given for the SUDS by the SAB (SUDS approving body)DEFRA. (2010).

ReferencesBay, R. (2003). Hopwood Motorway Service Area, M42 Junction 2, Near Bromsgrove. Available: http://www.

Last accessed 2/03/2011.DEFRA. (2010). What does the Flood and Water Management Act.


pdf. Last accessed 2/03/2011.HSI. (2009).

Project applications. Available:

Last accessed 26/02/2010.Hunter, N (1994) Bituminous mixtures in road construction, London: Thomas TelfordGarber, N and Hoel, L (2009). Traffic and highway engineering. 4th ed.

USA: Thomson West. 1076-1078.O’Flaherty, C.A (2002) Highways the location, design, construction and maintenance of road pavements, 4th edition, Oxford: Butterworth – HeinemannRoberts, M.

(2011). Flood and Water Management Act, 2010. Available: http://www.mortonroberts.

com/floodandwatermanagementact.html. Last accessed 3/03/2011.Method statementsPRELIMINAIRIESMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO.

1OperationSite set up and traffic management arrangementsDuration2 days for each phase.Details of WorkSite Set Upa) Works include setting up site for works to proceed. Such as establishing compounds and facilities including site accommodation. Site accommodation to be set up according to contractors requirements.

Traffic ManagementTraffic Management items involve the following sequence of works each section at a time (mainly which will be carried out during night hours):a) Set up speed enforcement cameras involving full cooperation with local Police for appropriate requirements.b) Install temporary CCTV systems to provide swift identification of incidents and help to reach vehicles if they break down.c) If vehicles breakdown they will be taken to recovery vehicle sites. Therefore, recovery vehicle sites are required to be established.

d) For each section set up and remove barriers and erect temporary signs.e) Following this, the existing hard shoulder and lane 1 will be closed to erect a temporary steel barrier in the middle of lane 1 to separate the workforce from traffic. Steel barrier to be installed according to manufacturer’s requirements.f) The procedure for erecting a temporary steel barrier will also be implemented for works on the central reserve, to separate the workforce from traffic.

PlantSite Vans 360 Degree Mini DiggersForklifts Dumpers7.5t Beavertail Lorries CompressorsLabour1 ganger1 skilled operative2 unskilled operatives2 plant operatorsHealth and Safety HazardDeaths/injuries arising as a result of live traffic entering the workspace or construction activity interfering with live traffic.Risk Control Measurea) Suitable barrier to be used to protect workforceb) Traffic management scheme to provide maximum working space.c) Subcontractors to be fully inducted by Main Contractor/ Operator before working near live or site traffic.

SITE CLEARANCEMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO. 2OperationSite ClearanceDuration2 days for each phase.Details of WorkGeneral site clearance has been quantified based on a typical verge to verge width of 45m.a) This will cover for the removal of existing superficial items of motorway furniture.

b) Areas of vegetation that need to be cleared followed by removal of topsoil, which will be deposited in spoil heaps ready for re-use in finishing off the verges and similar features immediately prior to completion.c) Topsoil will be one such material that is separated into spoil heaps for finishing off embankments and general areas to be grassed.d) Other items that need to be cleared include safety fences, motorway signs, existing communication cables, traffic signs and lighting columns.e) Lighting columns include: central reserve mounted steel lighting columns and luminaires, verge mounted steel lighting columns and luminaires and also removing lighting cables.

PlantSite Vans4 tonne dumper7.5t Beavertail LorriesCompressorsTractor loader20 tonne mobile craneLabour1 ganger1 skilled operative2 unskilled operatives2 plant operatorsHealth and Safety HazardDeath/illness/injury caused by damaging existing utilities during site investigations/ construction worksRisk Control Measurea) Design works to avoid utilities where possibleb) Divert utilities before works commencec) Notes to be added to drawing warning of risks.TRAFFIC SIGNS ; ROAD MARKINGSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO. 3OperationRemoval of traffic signs and works to change road marking and road studsDuration1 day for each phaseDetails of WorkTo reduce the amount of extra land required for the new lane, it has been assumed all motorway lanes will be narrowed.

It has also been assumed that all motorway lines, markings and studs will need to be replaced.Line RemovalThe machinery used is a skid steer loader fitted with a hydraulically powered planning head. To ensure good output the traffic management should be so organised to create suitable sections of work. The machines head is set to remove the markings without damaging the road surface.

In some circumstances, it may be required to remove the remainder of the marking that is left in the voids of the surface with a HCA lance.The debris from the above removal methods will be removed by either hand sweeping for small amounts or mechanical sweeper for larger volumes.Road MarkingIn cases where road marking material is applied from a slow moving vehicle, it will not normally be practical to lay out fixed signs at the roadside, other than at the start and finish of the restricted length of road. Instead the application vehicle, and any other vehicle travelling in convoy with it, will be fitted with warning signs and amber warning light systems, which will operate at all times during the work progress.

Work being carried out using the above system will normally occur during good visibility and periods of low risk.Road Stud InstallationBecause of the more static nature of this operation the traffic control measures will be carefully assessed taking into account, traffic speeds and flows, visibility, carriageway width and location of hazards such as junctions.Traffic SignsIt has been assumed that the existing traffic signs on the motorway would need to be replaced, but the signs at junctions approaching the motorway would remain unaffected.PlantSkid steer loader JCB 3CXSite Vans 125 cfm compressorRoad marking vehicle 8 tonne lorry with hiab liftLabour1 ganger 1 skilled operative2 unskilled operatives 2 plant operativesHealth and Safety HazardDeaths/injuries caused by reducing the width of lanes through road worksRisk Control Measurea) Aim to simplify T.

M. phasing ; hence usability for driversb) Consider reduction in speed limitsENVIRONMENTAL BARRIERSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO. 4OperationWorks to existing and new environmental barriers (noise fences)Duration1 day for each phaseDetails of WorkWorks on environmental barriers will include both erecting new noise barriers and works to existing noise barriers. Noise barriers involve both absorptive and reflective barriers.

Installing new barriersa) Erecting new sound absorbing noise barrier systems shall be installed per the manufactures recommendations to the lines and grades shown in the contract documents or otherwise specified.b) Install panels to the elevations shown in the contract plans or layout drawings.c) Lifting shall be used to lift noise fences.d) Lift and lower panels into the post flanges making sure the panels absorptive or reflective side is facing the noise source.

Existing barriersWorks on existing environmental barriers will include increasing the height of a selection of existing barriers. The locations and types of environmental barriers (noise fences) that are envisaged are indicated in the Noise Barrier schedule contained in the Contractors Design Submission.PlantSite vansAgriculture type tractorDrop side trailer, two axlesLabour1 ganger1 skilled operative1 unskilled operatives1 plant operatorHealth and Safety HazardDeath/ injuries caused by accident when plant enters/ leaves site duringconstruction period.Risk Control Measurea) Reduce the number of access/egress points if possible,b) Consider reduction in speed limits/ and additionalc) Provide awareness training for staff/ drivers/ additionalsigning, consider batching material deliveriesEXCAVATIONMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO.

5OperationExcavating materialDuration1 week per phaseDetails of Worka) Works will involve excavation to widen existing cutting slopes or fill to widen existing embankment slopesb) The existing hard shoulder will also require excavation and disposal of the existing pavement. A provision will also need to be made of a 600mm capping layer for a new motorway pavement.c) Excavation will also take place at side road crossings. An assessment has been made of the bulk excavation and fill requirements at side road crossings where existing over bridges are being replaced.

In general, all excavated materials (other than topsoil) has been assumed to be unacceptable for use as fill, and all fill materials have been assumed to be imported materials.Methoda) The method of excavation will involve full depth, full length excavation. This method involves excavating plant to complete the excavation non-stop ahead of any other operation.b) The works for excavation will be carried out by excavating plant, which first will strip the topsoil for re-use and then reduce the level of the ground to the required formation level.

c) The cutting is to be taken out using a combination of motor scrapers push-loaded with a tracked dozer.d) This material will then be picked up by a 40 tonne 360 tracked excavators which will load material into articulated dump trucks to take off site.e) The immediate removal of spoil from site will involve the control of lorries to allow maximum utilisation of excavating plant.f) Consideration must be given to spillage of soil when leaving the site, traffic flowing lanes must be kept clean at all times.

Plant3 No. Terex TS24 motor scrapers 1 No. Cat D7 dozer (pushing)1 No. Akerman H10 excavator 1 No.

Komatsu PC380 excavator3 No. Cat D400 dumpersLabourExcavation gang:1 Banksman1 Foreman3 plant operatorsHealth and Safety HazardCongested area in which plant operates – chance of crushing injuries due to turning and reversing pantRisk Control MeasureProvide banksman and detailed method specificationDRAINAGE SUDSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO. 6OperationDrainage SUDSDuration1 week per phaseDetails of WorkDrainage works involve replacement of the existing verge and central reserve drains. Existing carriageway cross drains are assumed to be reused within the proposed network.

PlantKomatsu PC180 tracked excavatorKomatsu WA470 wheeled loaderJCB 3CXHydraulic excavatorCompressorLabour2 gangers2 banksmen5 labourersBricklayerHealth and Safety HazardDeath/injury arising from people and/or plant falling into balancing ponds.Risk Control Measurea) Specify appropriate boundary fencing and provision of life saving rings, ropes and lanyards, including in temporary pre completion phase.b) Higher level of provision appropriate near public rights of way and built up areas.c) Contractor / maintenance staff to adopt safe systems of work.

EARTHWORKSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO. 7OperationSlope TreatmentsWidening to embankments by retaining wallsWidening to cut slopes by soil nailingDuration4 days per phaseDetails of WorkSlope treatments will involve widening to embankments by retaining walls. Retaining walls require a great deal of construction work and the scale of this can disturb those living nearby. To limit the amount of retaining walls an alternative will be used such as soil nailing, where it is possible.

Widening to embankments by retaining wallsa) This will begin with installing contiguous bored piles or sheet piles, finished with a capping beam, or spaced piles infilled with precast planks, at the top of the existing embankment slope.b) This will then be backfilled with additional fill to create the additional width, including a pedestrian handrail on the capping beam and provision for lighting columns, power/communications cabling and noise fences where required.c) All of the retaining walls will be built during the verge works, so the same specialist engineers can be used for a continuous period.Widening to cut slopes by soil nailinga) Works to begin with excavating the toe of the existing cutting slope to create a 2 in 1 face for soil nailing.

b) This will then be finished with a flexible face (mesh with topsoil infill and green facing).c) Nails up to 10 metres long are to be drilled into the earth and fixed in place with special concrete.d) The mesh will keep the topsoil in place. Vegetation will be planted on top of this.

PlantHydraulic excavatorCrawler tractorCat D400 dumpersLabourBanksmanGanger3 plant operatorsSpecialist engineersHealth and Safety HazardEmbankment widening can lead to slope failure for the following reasons: plant weight induces slope failure and excessive stockpiling of material on the embankmentRisk Control MeasureUndertake slope stability analysis to find maximum permitted crest surcharge, and then limit access to slope crest accordingly.MOTORWAY COMMUNICATIONSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO. 8OperationRemoving and installing motorway communicationsDuration4 days per phaseDetails of WorkThe details of work for motorway communications involves the following:a) Removing existing cables and equipmentb) Providing a temporary communications bypass systemc) Providing new and upgraded power suppliesd) The provision of ‘free-issue’ equipmente) A Cable Ducted System Network (including transverse ducts using trenchless techniques)f) Emergency Telephonesg) Super spanning Portal Lane Gantries (with lane indicators and EMS signs to one or both carriageways)h) MS1 entry stop signaling, MIDAS inductive loops and CCTVi) Electronic Outstation Equipment and cabinetsj) Access Steps, pathways and handrail to equipment sitesPlease note:The super spanning lightweight gantries are to be spaced for intervisibility for a future controlled motorway.The task involving upgrading power supplies and the capacity of the cable network for communications and power, allows for the possible future addition of controlled motorway equipment.

Plant15 tonne mobile craneAccess platform, Simon hoist (50 ft)125 cfm compressorJCB 3CX backhoeTrench excavatorLabourCable laying gang: Service trenching gang1 ganger 1 ganger2 skilled operatives 2 unskilled operatives1 skilled operatives 2 plant operators2 skilled operativesHealth and Safety HazardDeath/illness/injury caused by damaging existing utilities during construction worksRisk Control Measurea) Design works to avoid utilities where possibleb) Divert utilities before works commencec) Notes to be added to drawing warning of risks.PAVEMENTSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO. 9OperationAdding new lane, replacing surface course of existing hard shoulder and central reserve.Duration5 weeks per phaseDetails of WorkWhere full depth pavement has been assumed on the following construction depths:� 150mm Type 1 sub-base� 230mm HMB35 Base� 50mm HMB35 Binder Course� 35mm Type C Thin Wearing Course SystemAdded lane – new full depth flexible construction with low noise surfacingPlacing of Type 1 Sub-basea) Prior to placing any Sub-base material, the underlaying sub-grade shall be shaped and compacted in accordance to the specifications.

b) The crushed aggregate from approved sources shall be placed over the full width and to the required thickness as shown in the drawings in one layer or more, each layer not exceeding 150mm compacted thickness.c) The Sub-base shall be compacted using suitable compaction equipment approved by the Engineer to not less than 95% of the maximum dry density determined in the B.S. 1377 Compaction Test (4.

5 km rammer method).d) The top of Sub-base shall have the required thickness, shape, levels and grades as required in the drawings and shall be within the tolerances as specified in the specifications.e) In the course of the construction, the level shall be checked using control/dipping pegs, set out at regular interval along both sides of the pavement.Placing of 230mm HMB35 Road Basea) The material shall be laid using approved machineries and compacted in layers in accordance with specification.

b) Any areas of compacted material having a loose surface deficient in fines due to segregation or otherwise shall be made good by being removed and replaced with properly graded material.c) Preparation of Road base and Wet Mix Macadam shall follow previous layer procedure.d) Prior to laying, the stringline for the gradeline sensor shall be set out by the survey team at regular intervals along the sides of the carriageway and shall be set to the required levels.e) After the stringline level is jointly surveyed, the laying operations may commence.

Prior laying, foreman shall ensure that all gradeline and slope sensors are set and working properly.Placing of Surface Coursea) Preparing the existing unbound base course for the application of the Dense Bitumen Macdam 50 (DBM50). This preparation consists of (a) proof rolling to identify weak areas in the unbound base, (b) repairing the unbound base in weak areas using crushed stone, (c) further rolling to meet density requirements.b) The surface to receive the premix shall be cleaned, free from dirt, loose materials and standing water.

c) Supply and laying of prime coat/tack coat on the prepared unbound base, and allowance for a curing period.d) Supply, lay and compact DBM50 layer with a nominal maximum stone size of 50 mm to required thickness.e) Supply and apply bituminous Tack Coat prior to the laying of PERVIOUS MACADAM (POROUS ASPHALT).f) The approved premix shall be delivered to site by tipper trucks.

To prevent loss of heat, the mixture shall be covered by tarpaulin.g) Supply, lay and compact PERVIOUS MACADAM (POROUS ASPHALT) as specified thickness (35mm) including necessary regulating works. Materials and workmanship shall be as per specification.h) Supply and apply bituminous tack coat.

i) Asphaltic concrete shall not be opened to traffic until compaction has been completed and the materials has thoroughly cooled and set in the opinion of the Engineer’s representative. This is usually not less than 4 hours from the initial of rolling.Hard shoulder and central reserve- existing surface course removed and replaced with new surface course with low noise surfacingj) Milling and excavate out of the existing asphalt, road-base and unsuitable sub-grade layers to a required depth or as shown in the accompanying drawings.k) All formation and Sub-base/upper-base preparation shall be followed specification.

l) The following steps involve placing the surface course, which should proceed as explained above.PlantMotor Grader/paver Back pusher with power broomDiamond Cutter and jack hammer Milling MachineWater tanker Air compressorBituminous Tack Coat distributor Tipper lorries35 kW Asphalt paver Tandem roller & Pneumatic tire rollerRecycler Bitumen Tanker93 kW Motor Grader Pre-heaterRe-mixerLabourSub-base laying gang: Flexible paving gang: Milling gang:1 ganger 1 ganger 1 ganger1 skilled operative 2 skilled operatives 2 skilled operatives2 unskilled operatives 4 unskilled operatives 4 unskilled operative3 plant operators 5 plant operators 3 plant operatorsHealth and Safety HazardDeath/injury arising from contractors staff being struck by plant during construction/ maintenance activitiesRisk Control Measurea) Develop design to minimise the interface between workers and construction trafficb) Appropriate use of banksmenc) Ensure adequate site safety briefing prior to going on site.d) Contractor/Operator to ensure adequate site safety procedures in place and that they are fully implemented.ROAD LIGHTING COLUMNSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO.

10OperationRemoving and installing new lighting columnsDuration4 days per phaseDetails of WorkSite Clearancea) Take up or down and remove to tip off site a central reserve mounted steel lighting column and luminaireb) Take up or down and remove to tip off site a verge mounted steel lighting column and luminairec) Take up or down and remove to tip off site feeder pillar and PECU on columnd) Take up and remove to tip off site lighting cable.Road Lighting ColumnsNew motorway lighting has been assumed to the whole route, based on lighting columns placed in each verge. The following lighting columns are to be installed (please see Contractors Lighting Schedule for quantities and locations):a) New steel road lighting column of 12m or 15m nominal height with planted base and with single bracket arm having a projection of 1.5m with a full cut off luminaire incorporating a 250W or 400W SON-TP lampb) Raising and Lowering type Steel road lighting column of 12m or 15m nominal height with planted base and with single bracket arm having a projection of 1.

5m with a full cut off luminaire incorporating a 250W or 400W SON-TP lampPlant15 tonne mobile crane125 cfm compressor2 tonne dumperAccess platform, Simon hoist (50 ft)Labour1 ganger1 skilled operative2 unskilled operatives2 plant operatorsHealth and Safety HazardDeath/illness/injury caused by damaging existing utilities during construction worksRisk Control Measurea) Design works to avoid utilities where possibleb) Divert utilities before works commencec) Notes to be added to drawing warning of risks.OVER BRIDGE WORKSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO. 11OperationWorks to over bridgesDurationThroughout project periodDetails of WorkThere are 22 over bridge structures on this section of route. The scope for structures is to keep existing structures where possible with hard shoulder discontinuities.

The scope of works for over bridges will include:a) 2 over bridges being replaced onlineb) 2 Accommodation Bridges will be replaced as Footbridgesc) 1 bridge will be fully demolished.This will involve works to the Verge Piers, Central Reserve Pier and Parapet or safety fence.Verge Piers – 4 no. strengthening and 1 no.

safety fence protection.Central Reserve Pier – 2 no. strengthening and 8 no. headroom protection.

Parapet / safety fence – 2 no. parapet and safety fence upgrade.Please note:a) With the exception of box type structures, all bridges shall have parapet cantilevers that extend from the edge beams or main deck.b) Parapets on a single structure shall be of the same form.

c) Mesh infilling shall be provided on all metal parapets on road over road bridges with the exception of those structures deemed to require equestrian parapets, which shall require solid infill over a proportion of their height.d) The fixing of traffic signs or signals to parapets or bridge decks shall not be permitted.Demolition to Farm Bridgea) Will be carried out using tried and tested methods.b) Post-tensioned concrete structures will be ‘cut’ into longitudinal slices using a developed machine mounted saw.

c) The sections will then removed during overnight possessions of the motorway.d) The new steelwork will be transported in two sections and lifted into position using large mobile cranes.e) The deck will be supported initially on temporary supports.PlantAgricultural type tractor with front bucket8 tonne lorry with 1 tonne hiabHyundai ExcavatorsFront End LoadersLabourParapet gang:1 skilled operative2 unskilled operatives1 plant operatorHealth and Safety Hazarda) Death/ Injury caused by falling from heights whilst working on existing overbridges.

b) Objects falling from height during bridge constructionRisk Control Measurea) Construction method to be considered during design to reduce exposure if possible. Temp works designer to liaise with perm works designer concerning harness points/lifting points/construction method assumptionsb) Contractor to carry out risk assessments and adopt safe working methods (such as the use of protective netting, etc).UNDER BRIDGE WORKSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO. 12OperationWorks to under bridgesDurationThroughout project period.

Details of WorkThere are 23 under bridge structures on this section of route. The scope for structures is to keep existing structures where possible with hard shoulder discontinuities.The method of construction for under bridges will involve symmetrical widening of 13 under bridges.This will involve works with Headwall provision, Parapet upgrade and Deck edge strengthening.

a) Headwall provision – 2 no. to act as retaining structure and parapet upstandb) Parapet upgrade – 4 No. (railway bridge) with high containment and 3 No with normal containmentc) Deck edge Strengthening – 1 No. (‘Preflex’).

This will involve strengthening by over slabbing.Care is to be taken to ensure the new extensions do not impart additional load to the existing structures.PlantAgricultural type tractor with front bucket8 tonne lorryFront End LoadersLabourParapet gang:1 skilled operative2 unskilled operatives1 plant operatorHealth and Safety Hazardc) Death/ Injury caused by falling from heights whilst working on existing under bridges.d) Objects falling from height during bridge constructionRisk Control Measurec) Construction method to be considered during design to reduce exposure if possible.

Temp works designer to liaise with perm works designer concerning harness points/lifting points/construction method assumptionsd) Contractor to carry out risk assessments and adopt safe working methods (such as the use of protective netting, etc.).e) Contractor to provide appropriate protection barriers.SAFETY BARRIERSMethod statementMETHOD STATEMENT NO.

13OperationWorks to central reserve barrierDuration2 days per phaseDetails of WorkWhere required, the site will be mobilised and the appropriate Traffic Management will be installed by others. No works are to commence until the Traffic Management is set out correctly. The work will be carried out under lane closures with clearly marked works entry and exit points.No works are to commence until a permit to work / dig have been issued by the MainContractor clearly identifying all services.Any underground services are to be identified to the operatives and their positions clearly marked.Removal of existing Vehicle Safety Barrier.a) Check with Site Manager whether taken down materials are to be re erect on the project, or if they are to be removed off site.b) From agreed locations, remove existing Lap bolts and post bolts using air tools.c) Stack beams on Side Loader Forklift and take to agreed storage area on site.d) Open Box Beam are to have a minimum of 2 No metal bands placed around each stack prior to being loaded onto transport for removal from site.e) On completion of take down of existing safety fencing, transport will be arranged to attend site to remove all beams.f) Transport to be loaded by forklift truck with aid of competent banksman positioned to the satisfaction of the lorry driver.Installation of new central reserve concrete barriera) Materials are to be delivered to site at times agreed between the Contract Manager, the buyer, and the supplier, so as to reduce disruption whilst on site activities are being carried out.b) Concrete is to be laid and embedded into the central reserve pavement constructionc) The new vertical concrete barrier has been assumed for the full length of the central reserved) A Higher Vertical Concrete Barrier has been assumed for the motorway verges through Trowell MSA to replace the existing VCBs.PlantSite Vans 360 Degree Mini DiggersForklifts 7.5t Beavertail LorriesCompressors Agriculture type tractorDrop side trailer, two axlesLabourBanksman 1 ganger1 skilled operative 2 unskilled operatives3 plant operatorsHealth and Safety HazardDeaths/injuries arising as a result of live traffic entering the workspace or construction activity interfering with live traffic.Risk Control Measurea) Reduce hazard by increasing space between construction activity and live trafficb) Suitable barrier to be used to protect workforcec) Subcontractors to be fully inducted by Main Contractor/ Operator before working near live or site traffic.

I Am The Messenger

When he completes the Diamonds he gets another card that is the Ace of Clubs where he Is even a riddle that he has to solve, when Deed Is done with the first three Aces receives The Ace of Spades where he is given three names and has to figure out who they are and what to do. Lastly he gets the Ace of Hearts where there is three movie titles on the card. Deed then realizes that each movie has In some way the name of one of the three friends. ” I check the order. Ritchie. Mark. Audrey’ (Sake 290). First to help from the Ace of Hearts is his friend Archie.

Deed stays outside Richest house night after night trying to figure out how to help his friend. Archie has always en the friend where he always looks calm, cool and collected. But, on the inside, things Just aren’t right. Archie has nothing going for him at all. He doesn’t have a Job, ambitions, or accomplishments under his belt. Deed Is given the duty to help him and he figures out why. The last night of standing out at Richest house, Archie walks outside to Deed and tells him “Lets go to the river”(Sausages). While at the river they pretty much have a heart-to-heart, I think.

Richly tells Deed that everyone has a Job; and, that he has nothing he wants to do. At the end of the chapter Deed and Richly eve one last set of dialogue ” ‘Deed? Ritchie says later. We’re still standing in the water. There’s only one thing I want. ‘ What’s that, Ritchie? His answer is simple To want. “‘ (Sake 304-305). Earlier in the chapter Deed says to Richly “Archie-? you’re an absolute disgrace to 302). Deed has to be hard on Archie. I believe to help him. There couldn’t of been any sweet talk to help Archie realize that he can be worth something. Next there is Mark.

Deed and Mark share an interesting relationship; they aren’t really chummy with each other all the time. Mark Is at times cantankerous, especially hen it has to do with being around Deed’s old, lazy, and smelly dog The Doorman. Throughout the book Mark talks about the money he was saving for an unknown reason. Deed has to figure out why he is saving all that money and never giving any type of clue to anyone. It is assumed Mark Is saving for a new car; but, he Is too attached to his run down piece of trash car anyways, and doesn’t want to get a new one. Deed figures out later on in the book why Mark is saving up so much money.

Mark reveals 1 OFF because Mark got her pregnant and they have a two year-old child together. It’s one f the most surprising parts of the whole book. Deed helps Mark build up the courage to go to Suntan’s house where she lives with her over protective dad who isn’t very fond of Mark. Mark of dubious at first; but, builds up the courage to knock on the door. Her dad is a short but heavy bloke, who throws Mark out of the house and yells “Now get the hell out of here”(Sake 323). A week goes by and Deed gets a message that someone wants to be picked up. Deed finds out its Susan, gets in his taxi, and makes his way to her house.

When Deed gets there he tells her that he can take her to where Mark s working. When they arrive Deed gets Mark, and he can see he is nervous but makes his way to the swing set where his daughter is waiting for him. After pushing her on the swings; they head back to where Susan and Deed are standing. At the end we get to read that Deed sees Mark smiling with tears in his eyes. He says “They are two of the most beautiful things Vive ever seen” (Sake 330). Deed got to help Mark be with his family, and in the end see a side of Mark that no one ever gets to see. Lastly we have Audrey.

A girl who is unable to truly love anyone due to her family always beating one another and never loving each other. “l think she loved them, and all they ever did was hurt her. That’s why she refuses to love. Anybody’ (Sake 23). Through out the book we read of how much Deed loves Audrey, but; Audrey doesn’t love him. Deed’s last mission is to have Audrey feel the love that she has blocked out with boys and sex. The true love that he can bring her. He does this by going to her house one night and making her dance with him on her front porch while music plays softly in the back. “She let herself love me for three minutes” (Sake 336).

All Deed needed to o was let Audrey love come into her. At the end of the book we find out all the secrets that Sake had planted. We find out who the master mind was behind the sending of the cards. From the very beginning everything was set up to show Deed that he was no ordinary taxi driver. He was someone who stood up for the one’s who couldn’t stand up for themselves. “I’m not the messenger at all. I’m the message. ” (Sake 357). Works Cited Sake, Markus. I Am the Messenger. New York: Alfred A. Knops, 2010. N. Page. Print. KEY Semicolons: Green Parallel Seen: Pink Pos. Apostrophes: Red Quotes: Orange Vocal: Blue

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