How The Amount Of Salt Present Within The Salt-Bridge Of A Galvanic Cell Alters The Amount Of Electrical Energy Outputted Free Writing Sample

The purpose of this experiment was to find out how the amount of Salt present within the Salt-Bridge of a Galvanic Cell alters the amount of electrical energy outputted, whether it be positively or negatively. The hypothesized outcome was that the more Salt used within the Salt-Bridge would result in more electrical energy being created by the Cell.

Galvanic Cells, also called Voltaic Cells, are prototype batteries, which function as scientific models to the real everyday-use battery. This type of model strips a battery to its core, which involves a chemical reaction, involving two substances, a chemical compound willing to lose Electrons, and a chemical compound willing to steal Electrons from the previous compound, inclined to donate an Electron. These compounds are called the Reducing Agent and the Oxidizing Agent, respectively. For this experiment, Zinc in solid form with a liquid form of Zinc Sulfate was used as the Reducing Agent, whereas Copper in solid form used with a liquid form of Copper Sulfate was used as the Oxidizing Agent. When connected by a wire, the Oxidizing Agent will immediately start seizing Electrons, as the Reducing Agent happily supplies them. After a while, the Reducing Agent starts to corrode, due to the extensive loss of Electrons. Its charge becomes extremely positive, and the Oxidizing Agent takes in more and more Electrons, thus making its charge extremely negative. If not controlled, this circuit will eventually fail, depending on the materials used. This is why everyday batteries lose their ability to provide energy after a period of time. Those that are rechargeable use an external source of energy to reassemble the Electrons to the Reducing Agent, and then can be used again for a long period of time before needing to be recharged again. For the purpose of this experiment, the battery was kept non-rechargeable for simplicity. This type of reaction is called a Reducing-Oxidizing Reaction, Redox Reaction for short. In order to keep the Galvanic Cell alive, the charges on both sides of the Cell need to be kept neutral, so the Reducing Agent can constantly supply the Oxidizing Agent with Electrons and the Oxidizing Agent can continue to take Electrons from the other. In order to keep them neutral, Ions need to be supplied. In the experiment, Salt, or NaCl was used as the Ions in the Salt-Bridge, keeping the charges neutral on both sides, and keeping the Cell running. The key to harnessing the Electrons and use them as Direct Current electricity is to separate the Agents, connect them with a conductive material, such as a wire, and a neutralizer, such as the Salt-Bridge, and then the circuit will be completed!

The diagram above shows the setup of this chemical reaction, as the Reducing Agent, in this case, and in the case of the experiment is a solid strip of Copper, and the Oxidizing Agent, in this case, and in the case of the experiment is a solid strip of Zinc. The Copper is the Orange strip on the left, and the Zinc is the Silver-colored strip on the right. In between them, a wire hooked up to a Multimeter measures the electrical energy flowing through the current, from them, the Wattage can be calculated. The solutions in each beaker are Sulfates, specifically, the one with the Copper (on the left) contains Copper Sulfate, and the one with the Zinc (on the right) is filled with Zinc Sulfate. The Blue Bridge in between the beakers is also described as a Salt-Bridge for this experiment, as it is a paper towel soaked with salt water. As previously described, the Salt-Bridge keeps the charge neutral within each beaker, thus allowing the battery an extended life. Once the Copper gets a stable connection to the Zinc through the provided wire, it starts to Oxidize the Zinc, by making it lose Electrons and making its charge more positive, while the Copper’s charge gets increasingly negative. This is where the Sulfates and the Salt-Bridge come into play. After a while, depending on the materials used as the Electrodes of the battery, the output of the energy will slowly decay, and this is due to the extreme loss of Electrons from the Reducing Agent (Zinc), thus not being able to provide the Oxidizing Agent (Copper) with anymore Electrons, and the Oxidizing Agent (Copper) not being able to take up any more Electrons due to the excessive negative charge. This is when the battery would normally die. However, the Salt-Bridge prevents this from happening by constantly providing Ions to counteract the extreme charges, and to neutralize them, keeping the constant source of Electrons and keeping the battery running for a longer period of time. The ions cannot travel by themselves straight into the Zinc and Copper plates, because it needs to be in a liquid state. And salt melts at 801℃, so the only option is to mix it with a liquid, preferably water (H2O), and let the Ions flow through the Sulfates, which allow contact for the Ions, so they can replenish the Electrons within the Zinc and the remove the Electrons within the Copper. Together, this creates a circuit that produces electrical energy from chemical energy. This electrical energy can be used to power small devices, such as light bulbs, and mass production of such devices that are better engineered for efficiency can become the next way to sustainably power the world on a larger level than before.

The History Of Bracket Bridge And Curve Bridges

Bracket Bridge

A concise history of support spans made will help in a convincing contention between the firmest and most molecule utilization of the plan as there have been many achieved structures that are as yet accessible till this day. As we probably am aware the curve extension can hold a heavier load on its structure however may not be as productive in the utilization of materials as the bracket. Never the less, they both have their own exceptional uses in our reality.

Support connect is a store bearing superstructure made out of a bracket, a structure of related segments generally forming triangular units. A lenticular bracket connect comprise of a focal point shape support, with supports on an upper curve that bends up and after that down to end focuses, and a let curve that bends down and afterward up to meet at a similar end focuses. Support spans turned into a typical sort of extension worked from the 1870s through the 1930s. An unadulterated bracket can be exemplified as a stick jointed structure, where the main powers on the support individuals are pressure or pressure, not bowing. The ability to disseminate the powers in different ways has prompted a vast variety of bracket connect types. A support connect is sparing to work as it utilizes assets proficiently.

To start with, the Allan support was done on 13 August 1894 over Glennies Creek at Camberwell, New South Wales and the latest Allan bracket connect was worked over Mill Creek close Wisemans Ferry in 1929. Finished in March 1895, the Tharwa Bridge found at Tharwa, Australian Capital Territory, was the second Allan bracket extension to be built, the most seasoned surviving scaffold in the Australian Capital Territory, longest consistently utilized Allan support connect Completed in November 1895. The Hampden Bridge in Wagga, New South Wales, Australia, the first of the Allan bracket spans with overhead propping, was at first planned as a steel connect yet was developed with timber to lessen cost. In his outline, Allan utilized Australian ironbark for its quality. A comparative extension additionally composed by Percy Allen is the Victoria Bridge on Prince Street, Picton, New South Wales. Early support extensions would regularly utilize precisely fitted timbers for individuals taking pressure and iron poles for strain individuals, generally worked as a secured scaffold to ensure the structure. Sooner or later it was utilized for many extensions in the United States, however dropped out of support during the 1930s, and not very many scaffolds of this plan remain. Models of this support compose incorporate the Lower Trenton Bridge in Trenton, New Jersey, the Schell Bridge in Northfield, Massachusetts, the Inclined Plane Bridge in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, the Easton– Phillipsburg Toll Bridge in Easton, Pennsylvania and the Healdsburg Memorial Bridge in Healdsburg, California.

Next, The Pratt bracket was designed in 1844 by Thomas and Caleb Pratt. This bracket is down to earth for use with ranges up to 250 feet and was a typical setup for railroad connects as support spans moved from wood to metal. A Parker support connect is a Pratt bracket plan with a polygonal upper harmony. A Pratt bracket incorporates vertical individuals and diagonals that slant down towards the inside, the inverse of the Howe support. The inside diagonals are under strain under adjusted stacking and vertical components under pressure. Pratt bracket utilizes the interim of the verticals and the lower level strain individuals to grapple the backings for the limited ability to focus under the tracks. The Scenic Bridge close Tarkio, Montana is a case of a Pratt deck bracket connect, where the roadway is over the support. The Pennsylvania (Petit) bracket is a minor departure from the Pratt support. The Pratt support incorporates propped corner to corner individuals in all boards; the Pennsylvania bracket adds to this outline half-length swaggers or ties in the best, base, or the two sections of the boards.

The fairly uncommon Howe support, licensed in 1840 by Massachusetts millwright William Howe, incorporates vertical individuals and diagonals that incline up towards the inside, the inverse of the Pratt bracket. As opposed to the Pratt bracket, the inclining web individuals are in pressure and the vertical web individuals are in strain.The Warren bracket was authorized in 1848 by James Warren and Willoughby Theobald Monzani, and includes longitudinal individuals joined just by calculated cross-individuals, making then again turned around symmetrical triangle-formed spaces along its length, ensuring that no unmistakable swagger, shaft, or attach is liable to bowing or curving stressing powers, yet just to snugness or pressure.The Bollman Truss Railroad Bridge at Savage, Maryland, is the last case of an earth shattering plan in American history of scaffold building. The Wells Creek Bollman Bridge is the main other extension planned by Wendel Bollman still in presence, yet it is a Warren bracket design.

Curve Bridges

We move to the curve connect with a short history of how it was first made and why it is as yet utilized till this day.

Roman curve spans were generally half circle, in spite of the fact that a number were segmental curve spans, (for example, Alconétar Bridge), a scaffold which has a bended curve that is not as much as a crescent. The upsides of the segmental curve connect were that it enabled extraordinary measures of surge water to go under it, which would keep the extension from being cleared away amid surges and the scaffold itself could be more lightweight. For the most part, Roman extensions highlighted wedge-molded essential curve stones of the equivalent fit as a fiddle. The Romans additionally brought segmental curve spans into extension development.

The Zhaozhou Bridge, with a length of 167 feet and range of 123 feet, is the world’s first entirely stone open-spandrel segmental curve connect, permitting a more noteworthy entry for surge waters. Scaffolds with punctured spandrels can be discovered around the world, for example, in China (Zhaozhou Bridge, seventh century).Range lengths of 130 to 160 feet was already incredible in the historical backdrop of workmanship curve development, were currently come to in spots as assorted as Spain (Puente de San Martín), Italy (Castelvecchio Bridge) and France (Devil’s extension and Pont Grand) and with curve composes as various as semi-roundabout, pointed and segmental curves.

In medieval Europe, connect manufacturers enhanced the Roman structures by utilizing smaller docks, more slender curve barrels and higher range to rise proportions on scaffolds.The corbel curve connect is a brick work, or stone, connect where each progressively higher course (layer) cantilevers marginally more than the past course. The means of the stone work might be trimmed to influence the curve to have an adjusted shape. The corbel curve does not create push, or outward weight at the base of the curve, and isn’t viewed as a genuine curve.

Brick work curve spans utilize an amount of fill material over the curve with the end goal to expand this dead-weight on the extension and keep pressure from happening in the curve ring as burdens move over the scaffold.Curve spans work by exchanging the heaviness of the scaffold and its heaps somewhat into an even push controlled by the projections at either side.In China, the most established existing curve connect is the Zhaozhou Bridge of 605 AD, which consolidated a low range to-rise proportion of 5.2:1, with the utilization of spandrel curves. In the main pressure curve connects, a cornerstone amidst the scaffold bore the heaviness of whatever is left of the extension. In the event that the spandrel is strong, for the most part the case in a brick work or stone curve connect, the scaffold is known as a shut spandrel deck curve connect. This was to be the longest curve connect for a thousand years both as far as by and large and individual range length, while the longest surviving Roman scaffold is the 2,590 feet long Puente Romano at Mérida.

The tie is typically the deck and is equipped for withstanding the even push powers which would ordinarily be applied on the projections of a curve connect. On the off chance that the deck is bolstered by various vertical segments ascending from the curve, the extension is known as an open-spandrel deck curve connect. Developments, for example, the acclaimed Florentine segmental curve connect Ponte Vecchio (1345) joined sound building (length to-rise proportion of more than 5.3 to 1) with aesthetical interest. The three exquisite curves of the Renaissance Ponte Santa Trinita (1569) establish the most established elliptic curve connect around the world.The focal piece of the deck is upheld by the curve by means of suspension links or tie bars, likewise with a tied-curve connect. This sort of extension has a curve whose base is at or beneath the deck, yet whose best transcends it, so the deck goes through the curve.

This kind of scaffold contains a curve where the deck is totally over the curve. Otherwise called a bowstring curve, this sort of curve connect joins a tie between two inverse closures of the curve. The closures of the scaffold might be bolstered from underneath, similarly as with a deck curve connect.The curve is in pressure, as opposed to a suspension connect where the catenary is in strain. Potentially the most established existing curve connect is the Mycenaean Arkadiko connect in Greece from around 1300 BC.A curve connect is a scaffold with projections at each end formed as a bended arch.The Alexander Hamilton Bridge is a case of an open-spandrel curve bridge.A present day development of the curve connect is the long-range through curve connect. A tied-curve scaffold can likewise be a through curve connect.

Diverse materials, for example, cast iron, steel and cement have been progressively utilized in the development of curve spans. Most present day curve spans are produced using strengthened cement. Such low rising structures required huge projections, which at the Venetian Rialto connect and the Fleischbrücke in Nuremberg (length to-rise proportion 6.4:1) were established on a huge number of wooden heaps, mostly smashed sideways into the grounds to neutralize all the more adequately the sidelong push. Therefore, brick work curve spans are intended to be continually under pressure, so far as is conceivable. Different materials that were utilized to manufacture this sort of scaffold were block and unreinforced concrete. This sort of extension is appropriate where a transitory focusing might be raised to help.

Maxine Waters Is An Example Of A Great Democratic Leader

I have chosen Maxine Waters as a leader that I not only found with great leadership abilities but also a very morally sound person with many common-sense leadership skills and beliefs. Congresswoman Maxine Waters has been considered by many to be one if not the most powerful women within American politics today. She has gained this respect by being fearless and remaining on the right side of history. Maxine Waters has been a solid candidate for women’s rights, and the protection of children. She has also made it clear where she stands on the issues of injustices of the poor and people of color.

Maxine Waters was elected in November of 2016 to her fourteenth term to the U.S. House of Representatives. She represents the 43rd Congressional District of California and represents a substantial part of South-Central Los Angeles to include portions of Westchester, Watts, and Playa Del Rey. Congresswoman Waters is a ranking member of the House Committee on Financial Services. Congresswoman Maxine Waters is not feigned of heart and will not back down and is not afraid of tackling controversial issues, she has more than 37 years of public service and has a fantastic ability to perform grassroots organizing.

Before her election to the House of Representatives in 1990, Congresswoman Waters was already attracting national attention for being a no-nonsense, style of politics. She has been the driving force behind some of the most forward-thinking legislation that California has ever had the pleasure of having in office in prior years. Congresswoman Waters has legislated for a state-wide Child Abuse Prevention Training Program. She has also legislated for the prohibition of strip searches for citizens by police for crimes of which are non-violent misdemeanors, and she introduced the nation’s very first plant closure laws.

Congresswoman Waters has served as a highly visible member of the DNC (Democratic National Committee since 1980 and was a key leader involved in five presidential campaigns. The campaigns that she was involved with were those of Sen. Edwards Kennedy in 1980, Rev. Jesse Jackson which was from 1984-1988, and President Bill Clinton as he became president between 1992 and 1996. She was extremely instrumental in the appointment of Mayor Maynard Jackson, and the creation of the National Development and Voting Rights Institute.

Congresswoman Waters strongly believes in the seeing is believing train of thought when it comes to convincing her colleagues to pass a bill of providing more funding for her districts. She has on more than ten occasions brought multiple government officials along with policymakers to here South-Central L.A. district which gives her more leverage when appealing for more resources. Some of the well-known people consisted of Vice President Al Gore, President Bill Clinton, Andrew Cuomo, Henry Cisneros who was the Secretaries of Housing and Urban Development, and Alan Greenspan.

She is the co-founder of Black Women’s Forum, which is a non-profit organization which consists of more than 1,200 African American women who reside within the Los Angeles area. She has also been an advocate for international peace, human rights, and justice. She was a leader in the movement to end Apartheid. She stood firmly against the overthrow of the democratically-elected Jean-Bertrand Aristide in Haiti. She is in strong support and remains very vocal when it comes to expanding access to health care services. She has led the way in the development of the Minority AIDS Initiative in 1998 which was formed to address an alarming spread of HIV/AIDS within the African American, Hispanic and other minorities. Under her leadership funding for the initiative increased from $156 million in 1999 to an increased amount of approximately $400 million.

Congresswoman Waters has been the leader in the efforts to diminish foreclosures which as a result would keep American families in their home as the country was in the middle of an economic crisis. Waters authored what is known as the Neighborhood Stabilization Program, which allowed states to obtain grants, which was also extended to local governments and nonprofits which assisted in stemming foreclosures, home abandonment, and blight which helped restore neighborhoods. The combining of funds Congresswoman Waters was able to secure funds in the amount of $6 billion for that program.

Congresswoman Maxine Waters has an unwavering vision and continues to remain an active leader of residential communities and remains on the forefront of environmental issues and remains aggressive in advocating for solutions to mitigate harmful impacts of the LAX airport planned expansions. She consistently tackles significant matters relating to economic development, poverty, and equal justice for people of color, women, children, and people with no resources.

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