How The Interaction Of The Mongol Empire With The Steppe Nomads And Sedentary Empires Shaped Its Development And Decline Sample College Essay

Introduction

The Mongol tribal organizations remain one of its own kinds in world history. It was the largest connected terrestrial empire enclosing over 33 million square km at its height with an approximated human population of above 100 million[1]. There are several major events that cannot be mentioned without the Mongol tribal organization featuring in. The most important is the interaction of the ancient Mongol government with the nomadic people of the steppe and sedentary empires in East Asia. The Mongolian Empire interacted with foreigners during trade and conquest wars. This paper seeks to examine how the interaction with foreigners shaped the Mongol Empire specifically focusing on the development and fall of the Mongol Empire[2].

The Rise of the Mongol Empire

Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire in 1206 BC and quickly expanded to rule over a vast ever built empire by conquering other sedentary empires that were farmers. The empire included the territories from Southeast Asia to as far as central Europe. Genghis Khan began by uniting the warring Mongol-Turkic tribes before embarking on expanding the empire through active conquests[3]. Western Xia (North China) and the Khwarezmid Empire (Iran) were the first territories to fall under the Mongolian Empire after they proved troublesome to the existence of the Genghis Khan’s dominion. Sadly, the Mongolian conquest was not without major historical war casualties and enormous mortality cases; approximately 30 million people died as research claims. After successful acquisition of various territories, the Mongol empire demonstrated a unique character of enhancing cultural associations and unlimited trade among the East, the Middle East, and the West in the 13th and 14th centuries respectively..

The Organization of the Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire was strategically organized with a strong military setup, a just law, and governance system as well as expansive trade networks. It is through these three organizations that the Mongol empire interacted with the sedentary territories[4]. The interaction has both sides of the coin effect. At first, the interaction led to the building of a strong and unified empire that was easy to rule over. Cultural interaction, religious freedom, and uncensored trade significantly empowered the empire by providing the needed skills, unifying beliefs and essential commodities respectively. The empire thrived out of the artistic, religious and commercial wealth made necessary by the interaction with other territories. However, the fall of the great Mongol Empire can be associated with the rifts created by the influence of different cultural beliefs besides the constant disagreements among the four Khanates after the death of Genghis Khan.

Mongolian Military structure

After the unification of the Mongol and Turkic tribes in 1206, there emerged a simple but effective martial setup. “Genghis adopted the older Turkic decimal system of organizing the lower military ranks into units of ten, building to the largest units of ten thousand.” The smallest army (arban) comprised a crew of ten men, ten arbans constituted of a hundred men termed as a jaghun. Ten jaghun included a thousand soldiers called mingghan and ten mingghan formed a tumen (ten thousand)[5]. The Mongol military tactics were unmatched as compared to other nomads such as the Vikings or the Huns. The Mongol military had a unique ability in the art of the siege made necessary by highly skilled Chinese engineers who built siege weapons and the trebuchet. Therefore, the Mongol military was enriched by the interaction with the Chinese people. It was easy to conquer other empires and rose quickly due to martial supremacy and advanced military machinery made possible by foreigners (Chinese engineers).

The Mongol forces carefully selected highly skilled artisans from the cities they subdued, later on, the artisans significantly contributed to the strength and rise of the Mongol empire through their expertise. It is worth mentioning that before advancing with their conquest wars, the Mongol military had to plan carefully and solicit sensitive information regarding their enemies [6]. This was made possible by interacting with people and spies from the targeted territories. The military intelligence was absolutely necessary for strategizing war advancements.

The Mongol Law and Governance Organization

Genghis came up with a code of law known as Yasa that was meant to bring order, justice and instill discipline among the subjects as well as the army. The laws affirmed that the noble people encountered the same hurdles just like the common man. Therefore, all people were treated fairly by the law, and soldiers were expected to be responsible and accountable for one another [7]. Basically, the Mongol empire thrived because of its high security and discipline system. Many foreigners, including the Europeans were attracted and marveled by the enviable law and governance system. The Yasa allowed the selection of chiefs basing on virtue and religious tolerance. On the other hand, the law prohibited vandalism and theft and pronounced the acts punishable.

The prevailing order and security attracted many foreigners who enriched the empire with their skills, commercial wealth, and military advice. Religious tolerance in the Mongol empire was a motivation to many who visited and set camp to the advantage of the rise and development of the Empire. The just governing system led to the creation of trade routes and widespread postal network throughout the Mongol empire. As a result, many messengers, travelers and merchants from Europe, China, and the Middle East exploited the network to the advantage of the empire[8].

The Organization of Mongol Trade Networks

The Mongols were passionate about their commercial and trade associations with their neighbors as a way of acquiring basic commodities. This explains why the Mongol empire continued to expand its trade networks alongside its conquest expeditions. The Mongol empire expanded its overland commercial activities when it guaranteed protection to all merchants and envoys with comprehensive certification and authorization. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the Mongol empire received hundreds of foreign merchants from Europe who were after gaining entry into China. The most famous of all is Marco Polo who became very resourceful to the empire[9]. Besides his unmatched skills in devising war machines and military counsel, he also engaged in commercial activities that enriched the empire.

The Involvement of Foreigners in the Mongol Governing System

The Mongol empire recognized foreign religions as a way of unifying its new territories. It also gave positions to foreigners to serve in various positions in its government. Just like Chinggis Khan, Kubilai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, established his capital in China and involved many foreigners in his government. Kubilai’s generosity and curiosity saw him surrounded by artisans, wonderful court scholars and office seekers from many foreign lands; however, his favorite allies came from the adjacent Muslim kingdoms[10].

Muslims ranked the second after the Mongols while the Turks and Persians were regarded as administrators and advisor in the Kubilai’s empire. Muslims took the active role in designing and managing the building of Kubilai’s Chinese-like sovereign city besides coming up with efficient tax collecting systems. Additionally, the Muslim doctors managed the imperial hospitals besides enriching the Mongol medicine with their skills and translations. The Persian astronomers helped Kubilai import sophisticated celestial instruments from the Middle East, modified the Chinese calendar besides drafting most precise maps.

The Mongol empire under the leadership of Kubilai Khan developed steadily and remained united for as long as nine decades due to the indispensable contributions of foreigners from different lands. It is worth mentioning that the cross-cultural interaction strengthened the military organization by availing new and effective weapons, accrued wealth through relentless trade as well as diluted enmity between the Mongol empire and the neighboring territories[11].

The Fall of the Mongol Empire

Immediately after the death of Genghis Khan, Ogedei Khan (Genghis’s 3rd son) assumed the mantle but died in 1241 leaving the empire anarchy. The enmity among Genghis’ grandchildren became so rife that ushered in five-year regency by Ogedei’s widow until she passed leadership to her son Guyuk Khan, who was recognized as Great Khan[12]. Unfortunately, Guyuk Khan only ruled for two years and died leading to regency until the reign of Monke Khan (1251-1259) when stability was reestablished[13]. After Monke Khan, his brother, Kublai Khan took over (1260-1294) and was universally recognized as Great Khan. However, Kublai was in constant conflict with his brother Hulagu and Berke (their cousin).

After the death of Kublai, there was no universally recognized Great Khan and the Mongol empire was finally divided. Initially, Genghis Khan divided the Mongol empire into four Khanates but all under one Great Khan. The regency that came after Ogedei led to the emergence of four Khanates that functioned independently but presided over by the Great Khan. The Empire was further weakened when the four Khanates split permanently after Kublai’s death. The four Khanates included Blue and White Horde, II Khanate, the empire of the Great Khan, Mongol homeland, and Chagadai Khanate[14].

The Mongol empire started to collapse from within after Genghis posterity could not come to terms and agree to embrace the idea of having one unifying ruler of all Khans, the Great Khan. The differences created an environment full of mistrust, betrayal, and enmity. Consequently, the divided house of Genghis Khan could not withstand external attacks. On the other hand, the interaction with foreigners also contributed to the decline of the Mongol empire, although in a gradual fashion.

How the interaction with foreigners contributed to the decline of the Mongol empire

The peak interaction with foreigners was perhaps during the reign of Kublai Khan when he involved Muslims, Persians and Chinese in his administration. Although the empire was growing strong due to the diversity of skills and contributions by these foreigners, it was also being scaled down by their latent degrading acts. The Muslim and Chinese functionaries took advantage of the docile nature of the Khan who succeeded Kublai and grew more corrupt[15]. Both Muslims and Chinese were the main financial administrators of the Empire and utilized the chance to enrich themselves by increasing taxes and rising demands on forced labor. Consequently, the afflicted peasants were angered and could no longer survive the burden of extra taxes and hard forced labor; they decided to rise up and overthrow the Mongol empire under the leadership of the scholar-elites. Therefore, the foreigners indirectly managed to turn the subjects against their ruler (the Mongol empire)[16].

The constant interaction with foreigners, especially the Chinese lead to the disappearance of Mongolian cultural beliefs and practices through assimilation. The Empire started losing control by losing its values and adopting foreign characteristics. Furthermore, the acts of piracy and banditry became more rampant during the 1350s. The Mongol forces grew weary and eventually lost control of their vast empire due to relentless raids[17]. Lawlessness in the enormous region under the rule of the Mongol empire led to the collapse of commercial activities; as a result, the empire was hit by a series of famines. The empire was further weakened by local uprisings that covered the large part of its dominion[18]. Additionally, foreigners took advantage of religious tolerance advocated by the Mongol empire and facilitated rebellious activities. For instance, there arose an underground religious sect known as White Lotus Society that claimed to help its followers using magic. The sect spearheaded the peasant resistance that rocked over the entire Mongol Empire leading to its collapse in later years.

Conclusion

The great Mongol empire is recognized for its expansive dominion over many territories at its time. The empire was strategically organized to expand and control vast regions under the able leadership of Khans. The interaction of the nomads from steppe and foreigners from Asia, Middle East, and Europe contributed to the development as well as the decline of the Mongol empire. Chinese engineers enriched the military setup; the Muslims influenced internal affairs such as finance and health, the Turks and the European enriched commercial activities. The Mongol empire was strengthened commercially, socially and armed wise by the contributions of foreigners. However, the interaction of foreigners greatly contributed to the decline of the Mongol empire besides the internal feuds that emerged after the death of Genghis Khan. The Chinese and Muslims became corrupt compromising the financial stability of the Mongol empire besides turning the subjects against their master by imposing heavy taxes and forced labor. The interaction with foreigners also led to lawlessness and religious wars.

Bibliography

May, Timothy. “The Mongol Empire in World History.” World History Connected 5, no. 2 (February 2008). http://worldhistoryconnected.press.illinois.edu/5.2/may.html.

“Mongol Empire – New World Encyclopedia.” Accessed February 15, 2016. http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Mongol_Empire.

“Mongols. A History of the Mongols (Monguls).” Accessed February 14, 2016. http://history- world.org/mongol_empire.htm.

http://timerime.com/en/timeline/299013/The+Rise+and+Fall+of+the+Mongol+Empire/.

Weatherford, J. McIver. The Secret History of the Mongol Queens : How the Daughters of Genghis Khan Rescued His Empire /. First edition. Crown Publishers, 2010.

[1] “Mongol Empire – New World Encyclopedia.”

[2] May, “The Mongol Empire in World History.”

[3] “Mongol Empire – New World Encyclopedia.”

[4] “Mongol Empire – New World Encyclopedia.”

[5] Ibid.

[6] “Mongols. A History of the Mongols (Monguls).”

[7] Ibid.

[8] May, “The Mongol Empire in World History.”

[9] “Mongol Empire – New World Encyclopedia.”

[10] “Mongols. A History of the Mongols (Monguls).”

[11] Ibid.

[12] “Mongol Empire – New World Encyclopedia.”

[13] Weatherford, The Secret History of the Mongol Queens.

[14] Ibid.

[15] “Mongols. A History of the Mongols (Monguls).”

[16] “Mongol Empire – New World Encyclopedia.”

[17] Weatherford, The Secret History of the Mongol Queens.

[18] “Mongols. A History of the Mongols (Monguls).”

How To Achieve Eudaimonia According To Aristotle University Essay Example

Introduction

Aristotle defines moral virtue as a disposition to act and behave appropriately. When the impact of vices on peoples’ behavior is considered, moral virtue becomes a mean between extremes of excess and deficiency. Notably, Aristotle was the founder of the term eudaimonia. Happiness and eudaimonia are synonyms, but there is a clear delusion. This is because only after living a life of happiness will an individual achieve eudaimonia. In Greek, this term denotes happiness. According to Aristotle, the highest good of any human being is happiness. He insisted that people engage in different activities daily to pursue happiness. At the same time, the main objective of these actions is to bring favorable outcomes to society. That is why an action can be viewed as good if the results are favorable and wrong if they are not. Therefore, eudaimonia can be defined as the type of life a person thinks is best and most desirable. It can also be defined as hedonic happiness. It is important to note that it is the belief in enjoying life and having fun and pleasure. This essay will discuss the meaning of eudaimonia according to Aristotle and how it can be achieved in life.

Aristotle’s five-part definition of virtue

Happiness is the highest good at which all activities of people aim. For example, when a person goes to the supermarket to buy groceries, purchasing groceries means eating a healthy diet. In this case, eating healthy means that one is trying to achieve happiness. This is what all the activities people engage in aim to achieve. However, one of the difficulties people are experiencing today is determining what they can do to have a happy and good life (Egbekpalu, 2021). Thus the purpose of ethics s finding the answer to these difficulties. By nature, there are many variables involved in this case since one has to consider an individual’s life as a whole.

Aristotle defines moral virtue as a disposition to act and behave appropriately. When the impact of vices on peoples’ behavior is considered, moral virtue becomes a mean between extremes of excess and deficiency (Sachs, 2021). As a result, moral virtue is similar to having the right attitude towards pleasure and pain. For the Greeks, the enthusiasm to behave appropriately is not influenced by ethical principles of dos and don’ts but rather by an urge to achieve excellence, just like an athlete. Therefore, like other Greeks, Aristotle’s perception of moral virtue is equivalent to attaining excellence. For instance, a guitarist will be morally virtuous if he plays the guitar well since playing the guitar is the primary occupation of a guitarist. Aristotle indicates that morally virtuous people exhibit various virtues, such as courage, temperance, modesty, benevolence, and good ambition. However, a person can only be considered morally virtuous if the virtues exist not as individual traits but as different life features. Further, people learn virtue through habits and practice instead of instruction and reasoning. For example, a coward suffers because of the fear of being in danger, yet a rash person will not suffer sufficient anxiety.

How is moral virtue acquired?

Aristotle insists that peoples’ virtues are not innate, like smell and eyesight, but rather are a subset of their good traits. Virtues are abiding states that can be expressed through purpose and action. However, virtues are not just expressed but instead expressed in good purpose, in accordance with a good life plan (Rowe, 2020). Therefore, like people design and even change their life plans when required, so are virtues. As a result, people acquire moral virtues primarily through habit and practice rather than through instruction and reasoning. Just like the ability to play football develops through practice, so does the capacity to be virtuous. Once a person acquires particular virtues, those virtues become that person’s characteristic traits. For instance, a person who has developed the virtue of courageousness is usually referred to as courageous because they tend to behave or act courageously in all situations. Similarly, a person who has acquired virtues will naturally act consistently with moral principles.

Vices are acquired through bad habits, just as virtues are acquired through good habits. Therefore, even people with bad habits can improve their character and acquire virtues through practice. On the other hand, the practice of self-indulgence makes people vicious by corrupting the virtues they possess. Nevertheless, people do not live in isolation but rather in communities where they have relationships with family members, schools, churches, and other public and private associations (Rowe, 2020). Therefore, the acquisition of virtues depends not just on a person’s habits but also on the prevalent practices and patterns in the community.

How to achieve eudaimonia according to Aristotle

Happiness is a natural demand of people. It is just like a pleasant spiritual feeling an individual feels when in the process of attaining something. Therefore, a well-lived life is a clear indication of achieved happiness. While happiness is associated with evaluating the quality of life, eudaimonia is concerned with life as pleasantly objective (Sachs, 2021). This gives eudaimonia a better definition compared to happiness. This is because, in most cases, bad experiences or events do not impact the happiness experience of a person but their eudaimonia. At the same time, some people believe that pain is what differentiates happiness from fulfillment. However, the term pain can be fulfilled through physical suffering or when one is overburdened mentally. Thus, happiness can be termed as a psychological nuance that is hard to explain. This is also what happens when one is suffering or unhappy.

To achieve eudaimonia, an individual must learn to categorize things from the most important ones to the least important ones. Aristotle thought that all human actions resulting in happiness form a hierarchy. At the same time, this hierarchy includes a ladder of things, and this ladder is supposed to categorize them according to their importance (Sachs, 2021). The most important things must be placed at the top of the ladder, and the least important ones should be below the ladder. This means that the things on the top of the ladder will help one achieve true happiness. However, this true happiness should be self-sufficient, should be achievable, and must be everything a person ever wanted in life. For example, a person can work hard to lose weight and stay in shape. The first question should be; why is this person working to lose weight? To look physically good and attractive or lead a healthy life? In such a situation, living a healthy life should be at the top of the ladder, while looking attractive should be at the bottom. This example clearly depicts that every action human beings take aims to achieve happiness. Therefore, the highest good is true happiness alone based on the situation.

To achieve eudaimonia, a person does everything or lives for philosophical contemplation. Aristotle asserts that life is an activity, a particular function human beings have been given. Therefore, completing this job brings happiness when a person is given a task or an activity. At the same time, it expresses the virtue associated with the task. Thus, through the activity of the soul, virtue is expressed. This also means that the highest good should be an activity in agreement with virtue. Aristotle thinks that ‘the best life is a life where an individual does everything” (Egbekpalu, 2021). He also argued that an individual must be intelligent to live a happy life or achieve happiness in every activity since life is considered an activity of virtues. However, this does not apply to infants because their age cannot allow them to participate in various activities. Animals are also excluded from this category.

When seeking things like money and wealth, a good person does so based on virtues. Aristotle thinks that people can be rich in money and power, but wealth is not the good or happiness they seek. Therefore, through their rationalities and actions about true happiness and good, only then can they achieve true happiness (Sachs, 2021). It is important to note that there is a significant element between Aristotle’s definition of happiness and today’s definition of happiness. Today, people’s definition of happiness is subjective and comes from the state of mind. On the other hand, Aristotle thought that happiness is more than the action of virtuousness. This brings the difference between those living their lives well and those doing well in life. Therefore, virtue is an activity, and by pursuing this activity, people can achieve true happiness.

Eudaimonia is doing good actions and living well. Aristotle believed that happiness should not be defined as being cheerful, laughing, feeling joyful, or having any pleasure. It is important to note that living well can be perceived as being rich or owning admirable qualities. For example, a sick person will wish to get healed and lead a healthy life, while a poor person will want to possess all the richness and monetary aid. However, Aristotle believed that when a person wishes for something, one fails to achieve true happiness. According to Sachs (2021), Aristotle divided people into three main groups. The first category belongs to people who recognize happiness as bodily pleasure. According to Aristotle, this can be considered a vulgar and poor mentality. The second group consists of people motivated by others’ affairs and constantly seek honor through political activities. These people link honor and virtue to happiness. The third group consists of business owners who believe wealth and money are their sources of happiness. However, Aristotle believed that one could not achieve true happiness by just acquitting the highest status in society. These things are not permanent and can deplete someday. Therefore, an honorable person possesses various virtues but may not exercise them for multiple reasons. At the same time, the above individuals cannot be regarded as happy because their happiness comes with constraints. For example, wealth is not a reputable source of happiness because one aims to be famous and admirable in society. Happiness is self-sufficient and makes life choices worthy.

Notably, to live a life of eudaimonia, happiness has to be a constant and continuous element in an individual’s life. This means a person cannot be happy by withholding happiness within themselves (Rowe, 2020). It is believed that happiness is contagious, and helping spread it among others can make one flourish and attain true happiness in the long run. At the same time, to achieve true happiness, an individual should not only be embodied with virtue but also act upon it. Aristotle asserted that the state of mind could not exist without producing excellent or positive results. It is the same as a man who is asleep or inactive in some way. Therefore, to achieve eudaimonia, one must link emotions with actions.

Aristotle believes that true happiness should be complete and self-sufficient. Additionally, it is the end of things attainable in action. However, today, people have different ways of achieving true happiness because everyone has a different definition of happiness. To understand true happiness more, Aristotle often concludes the nature of something. For example, if one examines the nature of something, it will be possible to see the good it holds (Pugno, 2021). In his analysis, Aristotle gave the characteristics of a good man. They include being active, complete, choice worthy, and self-sufficient. Therefore, it is imperative to not only theorize virtuousness but also execute acts of virtuousness. At the same, Aristotle believed that the human function is to live this kind of life and engage in activities that yield true happiness.

Although happiness is the appropriate term since eudaimonia has definitions like human flourishment, fulfillment, success, and well-being, there are critiques that today it is impossible for people to achieve true happiness, just like Aristotle believed (Sachs, 2021). For example, some people will be successful by birthright. This can be explained better by the case of a CEO’s daughter who takes the position after graduating. This person will take this position without engaging in any activity to earn it; to some extent, one will do nothing to excel in the future. At the end of the day, the daughter will be powerful, earn a good salary, and purchase anything. Thus, regardless of this person’s virtues, the power and material will enable one to enjoy life and achieve happiness.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Aristotle defines moral virtue as a disposition to act and behave appropriately. When the impact of vices on peoples’ behavior is considered, moral virtue becomes a mean between extremes of excess and deficiency. Further, he asserted that the highest good of any human being is happiness, and people engage in different activities daily to pursue happiness. There are various activities people can engage in to achieve true happiness. First, to achieve eudaimonia, an individual must learn to categorize things from the most important ones to the least important ones. Aristotle thought that all human actions resulting in happiness form a hierarchy. Secondly, to live a life of eudaimonia, happiness has to be a constant and continuous element in an individual’s life. This means a person cannot be happy by withholding happiness within themselves. However, in modern society, people have a different definitions of happiness. This is because regardless of this person’s virtues, the power and material will enable one to enjoy life and achieve happiness.

References

Egbekpalu, P. E. (2021). Aristotelian Concept of Happiness (Eudaimonia) and its Conative Role in Human Existence: A Critical Evaluation. Conatus-Journal of Philosophy, 6(2), 75-86.

Pugno, M. (2021). The economics of eudaimonia. In A Modern Guide to the Economics of Happiness. Edward Elgar Publishing.

Rowe, C. J. (2020, August). The Eudemian and Nicomachean Ethics: a study in the development of Aristotle’s thought. Cambridge Philological Society.

Sachs, J. (2021). Aristotle, eudaimonia, neuroscience, and economics. In A Modern Guide to the Economics of Happiness. Edward Elgar Publishing.

How To Begin And Terminate A Therapeutic Counselling Relationship Free Essay

The commencement and termination of a therapeutic session depend on the therapist and the client. Therefore, boosting trust is important (Beaton &Thielking, 2020). The built trust is essential in allowing the next therapeutic steps to follow because of the initial connection established (Bradford, 2018). Nevertheless, termination is a foreseeable step, and it is precious that the process goes well (Australian Counselling Association, 2022). Therefore, marking the end of a psychotherapy cycle.

Outline and Discuss Strategies Used in Commencing a Therapeutic Counselling Relationship with the Client

Meeting a client for the first time is often welcomed with prejudice, especially by the client. Therefore, introducing a client to the session is a vital phase. According to Bradford, youths in Australia, especially between 12-25, face mental health problems. However, they are unwilling to visit the therapists because of the low acceptance of therapeutic assistance due to a lack of belief in what a therapist can do to help their situation (2018). A desirable first therapy session creates a connection, and accurate reflections on mental health are adopted (Bradford, 2018). According to Beaton and Thielking (2020), in their research about Australian psychologists’ perspective on psychological treatment for Australian women aged 18-25 suffering from post-traumatic disorder, they established that creating trust between the therapist and the young women is essential and necessary for the psychotherapy process.

Additionally, incorporating open-ended questions is a better way to foster a positive connection with their client. Besides, a therapist can create a less daunting environment where they ask non-confronting questions, making their client more comfortable. Then follow up with questions regarding what they expect at the end of the session. Furthermore, it is vital to allow them to know the extent their treatment is bound to take and the expected result (Bradford, 2018). Thus, ensuring they are at ease with the session because they have gained the trust and are aware they are in a non-judgmental zone.

After creating a good rapport, it is essential to be confident and respectful throughout the session. As a therapist, the ultimate goal is to ensure there are set therapeutic frameworks and boundaries, ensuring a context within which the session revolves around (Bradford, 2018). Additionally, being honest is also a form of respect for a client. Therefore, when deliberating an evaluation, honesty is upheld, as the client can perceive the deceit (Bradford, 2018). According to Quirk, allowing a client to control the session, particularly the dialogue, is crucial. Let them determine the flow and direction of their thoughts and feelings, enhancing the therapist’s respect and support (2020).

Understanding that the session is all about the client is vital. Therefore, allowing the client to express themselves without fear is paramount. Some of the activities therapists include; providing enough time to a client and allowing silence from time to time (Bradford, 2018). Furthermore, silence is necessary for thought processing, allowing the client time to consider their answers as some questions could be invasive and unappealing, causing discomfort (Bradford, 2018). Silence is optimal in a session as it encourages clients to state their thoughts and control their feelings. It similarly allows the therapist to process the information they have received to create a more appropriate response and evaluation (Quirk, 2020).

Moreover, not being the expert is necessary for this step because it allows the therapist to analyze the situation with what the client is expecting (Bradford, 2021). Additionally, practicing active listening skills and maintaining eye contact ensures the session is about the client. Other gestures include the therapist’s body language, which should be approachable and open. One should avoid shifting and instead sit calmly. Ensuring that facial expression does not fail is another essential technique, ensuring the aura is hospitable. (Bradford, 2021; Quirk,2020).

Additionally, the tonal variation should feel comfortable and precise. Nevertheless, avoid instances where questions or responses can be confusing (Quirk, 2020). Following the recent pandemic, most clients and therapists started using videoconferencing rather than traditional face-to-face therapy sessions. However, most clients were pessimistic about the process because they believed there would be a lack of empathy from their therapist. According to research by Kysely et al., the strategy was efficient, and most clients could feel their therapist’s empathy and understand their issues (2020) internally.

Confidentiality is complex and often makes many clients in need of therapeutic services shy away. However, it is necessary to assure the client’s confidentiality from the onset. According to Lamont-Mills et al. (2018), confidentiality is an ethical practice and necessary in the counselling process. Additionally, informed consent is an aspect that ties with confidentiality and involves the voluntary participation of the client in psychotherapy. Moreover, it is also necessary to state the times the confidentiality code may be broken and ensure clients are comfortable with the reasoning (Lamont-Mills et al., 2018). Ensuring proper communication of instances where confidentiality breaches may occur if necessary, as these are among the issues arising from client sessions (Lamont-Mills et al., 2018). Additionally, it is necessary to ensure the confidentiality agreement is not only verbal, but it should also written as it is vital (Patterson et al., 2018).

Ensure that there exists a delicate balance between coddling and being pushy. A balance should exist, whereas a therapist is not too pushy or overprotective of the client. To avoid being pushy, allow the client to express themselves on their own merits, and that could include silence to allow for thought processes (Quirk, 2020). Additionally, being authentic ensures that the client is not overprotected. Therefore, outlining the truth is critical in enhancing and ensuring that clients benefit the way they should (Bradford, 2018). Telling the truth at times might bring rapture to the relationship; however, it is necessary as a therapist to solve and make it clear for the client to understand why the views are the way they are.

The counselling structure comprises five main areas: establishing a relationship, evaluating a problem, setting goals, providing counselling intervention, and finally, terminating the treatment session (Quirk, 2020). When establishing a relationship as the initial process, it is essential to adopt a psychosocial dialogue (Bradford, 2018). In the second phase, problem evaluation can be achieved by tracking the session and looking for desired outcomes (Bradford, 2018). When providing counselling intervention, a therapist has to use a focus technique to ensure all challenges presented by the client are covered (Quirk, 2020). When approaching the end, it is vital to elaborate to the client on the achievements attained during the process and end the process when it is ethically correct (ACA,2022; Barnett, 2016).

The use of clear and concise questions should be adopted to ensure that the client is not further confused about their treatment process. Adopting an open-ended question is vital and allows the client some flexibility and enhances the relationship between a client and their therapist (Quirk, 2020). A psychotherapist should establish questions that not only helps the client to express themselves but also helps them identify the points of intervention in the feedback ensuring the overall treatment approach has been obtained (Quirk, 2020). Clutterbuck affirms that questions asked are ultimate in ensuring the effectiveness of the process. Subsequently, the question choices are necessary for building a client’s self-reflective ability (2020). According to their results, most participants indicated that asking various questions keeps the session going and allows for a change in perspective, further allowing the clients to synthesize the question deeply (Clutterbuck, 2020).

Maintaining professional boundaries will help in the commencement of the therapeutic relationship and the termination process. Therefore, avoiding misconduct in counselling sessions should be done (Australian Counselling Association, 2022). It will make it easier for both the therapist and the client, thus boosting the community assurance in the role of a counsellor and even other counsellors (ACA, 2022). The therapist should clearly state their boundaries throughout the psychotherapy process and categorically state the nature of the relationship with the client. Therefore, the relationship should not conform to other forms of relationship, either sensual or non-sensual (ACA, 2022).

Outline and Discuss Strategies for Terminating a Therapeutic Relationship with a Client

According to Barnett (2016), there are six steps to follow to ensure ethical and professional termination of a session with a client to ensure they do not feel abandoned. Such steps include; addressing the termination issues from the inception. Therefore, it allows the client to understand what reasons will lead to immediate termination of the treatment, which might be client-cause or therapist-cause (Barnett, 2016). The following process establishes a goal that should be achieved during the treatment. Once that goal has been achieved, the client can understand why the session is approaching termination. Thirdly, creating psychotherapist interruptions could be planned or unplanned; an example of a planned interruption is childbearing, and an unplanned interruption is death or illness. The fourth step would be to consider other occurrences that might arise from the client’s side or other interruptions. The next step is clearly explaining to clients what abandonment means and letting them know they are not being abandoned but terminating the session. Finally, discuss the client’s ongoing progress. At this point, create an activity summarising the therapy process (Barnett, 2016).

The therapist may terminate the session when the psychotherapist is no longer offering the desired help; then, the session is terminated (ACA, 2022). Ad counsellors should see that the client is taken care of in unforeseen circumstances. Consequently, it should be done by ensuring a clear explanation is given on why the therapy might not continue (ACA, 2022). Additionally, allowing the clients to reach into their ethos, giving them a chance to feel what they want, including feeling rejected, and finally referring them to a therapist who will be in a position to help them with their ongoing problems (Good Therapy, 2019).

Offending or making a client unhappy is another reason clients claim against their therapists (Good Therapy, 2021). It is essential to follow the following strategy; avoiding defensiveness as the client is always right. Additionally, the overall role of a therapy session is often to support the clients. The second step to follow suit is listening to their response and elaborating why therapy has to end without blaming or accusing the client. When the client reproaches a therapist for offending them, then take summaries and consider stating them in the termination letter (Good Therapy, 2019). Therefore, it ensures a good rapport between the therapist and the client.

Terminating a therapeutic session can often be premature. However, a premature termination is not often looked forward to as this is, in some capacity, ethically wrong. Research carried out in Australia showed that despite more men seeking mental health services, most of them did not see it through to the end (Seidler et al., 2021). The results showed that the masculinity role and bias attached to men going to therapy were among some of the reasons for premature therapy ending. Other reasons include lack of connection with the therapist, age, and belief that therapy lacked advancement for some participants (Seidler et al., 2021). Nevertheless, therapists must insist on attending the therapeutic session to the end (Seidler et al., 2021).

Conclusion

To sum up, both the commencement and termination of therapeutic relationships are vital and intertwined and necessary for achieving the said goals for a client. Similarly, the client and therapist are integral in ensuring the needed results are achieved. Additionally, the methods applied depend on the treatment when commencing and terminating the therapy process.

References

Australian Counselling Association. (2022). Codes of ethics and practice of the Australian Counselling Association. 1-17.

Barnett, J. (2016). 6 Strategies for Ethical Termination of Psychotherapy: And for avoiding abandonment. Society for the Advancement of Psychotherapy. https://societyforpsychotherapy.org/6-strategies-for-ethical-termination-of-psychotherapy/

Beaton, J., & Thielking, M. (2020). Chronic mistrust and complex trauma: Australian psychologists’ perspectives on the treatment of young women with a history of childhood maltreatment. Australian Psychologist55(3), 230-243.

Bradford, S. (2018). Loneliness: Is this Australia’s next public health epidemic? Engaging Young People in Therapy. Australian Psychological Association. InPsych40(4). https://psychology.org.au/for-members/publications/inpsych/2018/august-issue-4/engaging-young-people-in-therapy

Clutterbuck, D. (2020). The Coaches’ Handbook. J. Bassmore (Ed.), Questions in coaching (pp. 92–103). Routledge.

Good Therapy (2019). How to Navigate the Termination of Therapy with a Client. https://www.goodtherapy.org/for-professionals/business-management/private-practices/article/how-to-navigate-the-termination-of-therapy-with-a-client

Kysely, A., Bishop, B., Kane, R., Cheng, M., De Palma, M., & Rooney, R. (2020). Expectations and experiences of couples receiving therapy through videoconferencing: A qualitative study. Frontiers in Psychology10 (2992), 1-14. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02992/full#:~:text=https//doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02992

Lamont-Mills, A., Christensen, S., & Moses, L. (2018). Confidentiality and informed consent in counselling and psychotherapy: a systematic review. Melbourne: PACFA. 1-21.

Patterson, J., Williams, L., Edwards, T. M., Chamow, L., & Grauf-Grounds, C. (2018). Essential skills in family therapy: From the first interview to the termination (3rd ed.). Guilford Publications.

Quirk, K. (2020). The Basic Skills of Counselling: What is counselling? Upskilled. https://www.upskilled.edu.au/skillstalk/counselling-skills

Seidler, Z. E., Wilson, M. J., Kealy, D., Oliffe, J. L., Ogrodniczuk, J. S., & Rice, S. M. (2021). Men’s dropout from mental health services: Results from a survey of Australian men across the life span. American journal of men’s health15(3), 15579883211014776.