How To Reform The U.S Constitution To Function Correctly Sample College Essay

The United States Constitution was initially ratified in 1789, marking it as the oldest constitution in contemporary society. Since the initial ratification of the U.S constitution in the early years, it has gone through numerous changes. This has been attained via the lengthy and traditional amendment procedure, which is clearly spelled out in Article V of the U.S Constitution. The U.S constitution has been criticized for being too brief and unable to address the future’s varied situations. This essay presents a proposal for reforming the U.S Constitution to function correctly to reflect the societal change in the 230 years since its ratification.

The constitution describes the basic laws of the United States federal government, and there have been over 25 amendments in the past years. Article V of the U.S Constitution offers two approaches to propose amendments; either through the Congress with a joint resolution supported by a two-thirds vote, or using a convention passed by Congress in reaction to applications from the state legislatures (Wegman 1). The previous amendments that have relied on traditional methods have often resulted in problems and a continued campaign for reform. This implies that the past amendments have not successfully accomplished the societal needs desired by the vast majority of American citizens.

Given the complexity of reforming the constitution, it is not a surprise that change in the country has continued to occur via the formal amendment procedure. In this case, the important practice of reforming the constitution by ways other than the formal modification procedure has historically occurred. It will continue to take shape in the following ways. Congress ratifies the first approach to reform the U.S Constitution to work perfectly. The second approach is through presidential actions, and lastly, activities of the political parties (Longley 1). These three key approaches are necessary and serve as a guiding path towards reforming the constitution to work properly and meet societal changes in future years.

The constitution supports that reforming may be suggested either by the Congress through a two-thirds majority vote. This can be attained in the House of Representatives and the Senate as well as via a constitutional convention backed by two-thirds of the State legislatures. It is important to note that none of the 27 adjustments to the U.S Constitution have been suggested by constitutional convention (Schmidt 1). Therefore, Congress recommends reform in the means of a joint resolution to help deal with the emerging changes in modern society. In this case, the joint resolution should not go to the White House for either approval or signature. Nonetheless, the initial document should be forwarded to relevant legal bodies, including Office of the Federal Register (OFR) for further processing and publication.

It is interesting to note that the initial constitutional framers evidently planned that Congress, via the legislative procedure, should add important changes and legal points to the skeletal bones of the U.S Constitution. This was intended to allow other leaders and legal entities to make important reforms based on the unanticipated future events deemed to come. Furthermore, as highlighted by Article 1, Section 8, Clause 18 of the United States Constitution, it is considered important to support laws “necessary and proper” to serve the people properly (Kowal 1). Guided by the above sections of the constitution, the U.S Congress can play a vital role in reforming the constitution to reflect current trends and societal change in the 230 years after its ratification.

Presidential leadership and influence have a great role in introducing relevant changes, particularly regarding reforming the constitution. The past years has seen many presidents of the U.S modifying the constitution through their actions. For instance, where else the constitution precisely empowers Congress to have a say in legal matters, it also considers the president as powerful and ‘Commander in Chief’ (Longley 1). While using this title, numerous presidents in the U.S have commanded soldiers into wars without having formal declaration of combat ratified by Congress. This implies that based on the emerging trends in the political and economic sphere, the president can play an important role in reforming the constitution through their actions.

As articulated in Article 11, Section 2 of the U.S Constitution, the president is given the power, especially with a high majority of the Senate, to negotiate and accomplish treaties necessary to bring the desired change in society. The aspect of treaty-making practice is essential to ensure that the constitution aligns with societal changes and reflects on important matters that improve people’s lives. The power of the citizens comes into play as far as the president is involved in reforming the constitution. The people are given the power to control the government’s actions and when the government fails to meet certain standards, then the people vote for new representatives who will accomplish specific interests arising in society.

Although the constitution does not necessary mention political parties, they have somehow enforced constitutional changes in recent years. This is a good illustration that political parties can be used as a tool or means to reform the constitution to meet certain societal needs. For instance, neither the federal law nor the constitution offers an approach of appointing presidential candidates (Wegman 1). However, the whole primary and convention procedure of appointment has been formed and frequently modified by leaders of the majority political parties. Moreover, while not needed or even proposed in the constitution, the two chambers of Congress are prearranged are perform the legislative procedure on the basis of party representation. Similarly, the use of political parties can positively influence reforming the constitution in a manner that aligns with the societal needs and interests of people.

Conclusively, the United States Constitution has been trapped in a position that reflects the time of the writing. However, it is worth noting that it is not easy to remodel it to reflect current and future issues, including the daily occurrences in the country. In addition, the amendment procedure is lengthy, which implies it takes a long time to amend significant changes in an immediate sense. The fact that important amendments take a long time to implement suggests the need to reform the constitution using other legal frameworks and means described in this essay. Based on this proposal, three means to reform the constitution include legislation ratified by Congress, presidential actions, and activities of the political parties. While there are other means to reform it, these methods are suggested because they create room for new developments and change, which is highly needed in modern society. The constitution has been effective for over 200 years with numerous amendments, implying there is a chance to reform it to reflect the societal change in the 230 years since its ratification.

Works Cited

Kowal, John. History teaches that constitutional reforms come in waves. We may be approaching one now. Politico, 2021, Web.

Longley, Robert. Ways to change the U.S constitution. Thought CO, 2021, Web.

Schmidt, Ann. The U.S constitution has 27 amendments that protect the rights of Americans. Do you know them all? Insider, 2021, Web.

Wegman, Jesse. Thomas Jefferson gave the constitution 19 years. Look where we are now. New York Times, 2021, Web.

Deterrence And Truancy Theory In Justice

One of a government’s fundamental obligations is to protect its inhabitants from crime, although crime prevention can take numerous forms. There is evidence that corruption is disproportionately concentrated in economically challenged places and that poverty reduction can help to reduce crime. Reducing crime rates can also be achieved by addressing mental illness. Addiction and crime are inextricably linked, and chemical dependence therapy is wildly successful at lowering property crime rates. However, the most popular technique of combating crime is through law enforcement and punishment.

The government specifies activities it wishes to prohibit like assault, drug sales, drunk driving, speeding and assigns a penalty to individuals who engage in them. Consequences occur for various reasons: they penalize harmful activity, demand some societal restitution, hinder individuals who are more prone to commit additional crimes, and communicate the message that society has specific values, morals, or expectations. Several public-safety theories support these policy approaches to enforcing laws and penalizing violators. According to the principle of incapacitation, keeping some people in jail or prison prevents them from committing new crimes. According to rehabilitation beliefs, sending prisoners to specific treatment or training programs will alter them and prevent them from committing new crimes. According to disciplinary views, a person who makes a conscious decision to break the law should be punished to pay a debt to society and then return with a clean slate.

Denunciation theory combines numerous different ideas and asserts that publicly punishing someone would deter others from committing the act owing to its stigma and function as a kind of retribution. These ideas may promote criminal justice policy and examine policies through a good lens. However, politicians frequently use deterrence as a basis for making changes to criminal legislation. The notion of deterrence holds that criminal punishments punish violators and deter others from committing similar actions. Many individuals argue that following a high-profile occurrence where an offender appears to have received a lenient sentence, it is necessary to dissuade criminal behavior. Some think that a harsher penalty would have avoided the catastrophe and that a shorter sentence may prevent a similar disaster in the future.

The origins of the current deterrence theory may be traced back to the founding of the United States. Cesare Beccaria, an Italian philosopher and economist, published Essay on Crimes and Punishments in 1764 (Beccaria, Voltaire, & Ingraham, 2021), while Jeremy Bentham, an English philosopher, and reformer, published an Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation in 1781 (Silver, 1984). Laws, according to Beccaria, exist to allow for a cohesive community free of the threat of violence and anarchy. He imagined that each member of this society would always try to detract not just from his share of the pie but also from the pie of others. As a result, laws were essential, and breaking them should result in punishment with the sole intention of preventing others from committing the same act.

The theories of Jeremy Bentham were similar. He started with the idea that humans are controlled by pain and pleasure. He said that every action a person performs is intended to make them happier. According to the practical principle, people behave to gain or avoid pain or misery. The intensity, length, clarity, and proximity of pleasure or suffering determine its worth. According to both theories of human conduct, human activities are driven by the urge to seek pleasure and raise one’s standing by taking more than one’s a fair share. According to the rational action theory, people can be stopped from injuring others by creating sanctions for certain conduct. According to Beccaria and Bentham, potential criminals should weigh the benefits of committing a crime against the benefits of not committing a crime. In a nutshell, the notion argued that individuals would not commit an offense if the penalty of committing a crime is high enough.

Beccaria, Bentham, and Becker developed a three-pronged approach to criminal deterrence in which certainty, rapidity, and severity of punishment work together to raise the cost of an activity to the point where a reasonable individual will decide price surpasses the gain. The term “certainty” refers to the possibility of being apprehended. If there is no chance of getting detected, the prospect of harsh punishment is ineffective. The term “celerity” refers to the quickness of a result. The punishment meted out soon after an incident is more effective than the punishment meted out years afterward. Because a reasonable person could commit a crime that benefits them even if the sentence is rapid and specific when the penalty is minor, the severity of punishment is an essential component. Furthermore, the penalty acts as an example to others in society, ensuring that everyone understands what is and is not acceptable behavior.

Citizens are protected in several ways by governments. Health inspections, license regulations, and building rules are in place to ensure that companies, professions, and structures satisfy a baseline degree of skill or safety. Criminal laws exist, in part, to provide some guarantee that individuals would not kill one another or steal someone else’s property. People are less likely to commit crimes if they fear being caught and punished. That is, some potential offenders are likely to be deterred by a reasonable level of penalty combined with a high possibility of being detected. Legislators can use those two pillars, certainty, and harsh punishment, to design anti-crime legislation.

The problem of truancy from the point of view of juvenile justice is an important issue, despite its, at first glance, the prevalence in any society. Drug usage, delinquency, adult crime, suicide attempts, and employment troubles have been linked to chronic truancy. Individual variables and elements in the youth’s schools, families, and communities play a role in truancy. School problems are possible school problems because of poor identification of special education requirements, dangerous surroundings, and poor record-keeping and attendance regulations. Child abuse or neglect, financial or medical difficulties that compel kids to aid the family, violence near school or home, or culturally biased attitudes against schooling are risk factors in the family or community. Being held back, low academic success, low self-esteem, and gang membership are all factors that can contribute to absenteeism among teenagers. So responses to truancy should be tailored to why students are missing school to avoid judicial involvement, school suspension, or expulsion.

Working with the adolescent and family to identify and address the underlying causes of school absences should always be part of the truancy response. Depending on the size and resource level of the school district, the procedures that education system officials should take when faced with truancy accusations may differ. In general, schools should call the family first and then conduct a home visit or an in-school discussion with the student and their family to determine why the kid is truant. Once the truancy concerns have been recognized, the truancy officer or other school official should make appropriate referrals or find a community or other system partners who can address identified needs and build a plan with the youngster and family to address the difficulties. Monitoring and follow-up, including additional referrals if specified services are not helpful or new concerns develop, should occur as needed to meet the requirements of the family and child. The above measures and ideas demonstrate the problem of truancy in terms of juvenile justice.

References

Beccaria, C. M. D., Voltaire, & Ingraham, E. D. (2021). An essay on crimes and punishments translated from the Italian of Cæsar Bonesana, Marquis Beccaria. London, UK: Legare Street Press.

Silver, C. (1984). An introduction to the principles of morals and Legislation. Jeremy Bentham, J. H. Burns, H. L. A. HartEssays on Bentham: Jurisprudence and political Theory. H. L. A. Hart. Ethics, 94(2), 355–356. Web.

Developing Your Identity And Role In Adult Nursing

The main reason why this research was done was to facilitate and maintain effective communication between patients who have cancers with their nurses. Effective communication is essential as it helps in improving the health results as well as the satisfaction that comes with the treatment (Arbour et al., 2022). This is because once a patient is involved in the process of decision-making and planning, it is easier to enhance their health outcomes. This research was done on 22 patients that were selected according to a purposeful sampling approach. The data was collected using a semi-structured interview in four hospitals. All of these hospitals are found in Tehran, which is the capital city of Iran, and has the most active and biggest cancer wards.

The findings of this research stated that it is evident that nurses ensure that communication between nurses and their patients is effective. The researchers have also discovered the main theme as humanitarian care (Atashzadeh-Shoorideh et al., 2021). Alongside the humanitarian care are the five categories such as patience, honesty, confidentiality, good-naturedness, and empathy. The first category was good-naturedness, where most of the participants categorized it as good-temperedness and kindness. They also believed that this category was a facilitator of effective and efficient communication between patients and their nurses. Empathy was the second category that was also obtained from the patients who participated. All five categories concluded that humanitarian care stimulates better interaction between nurses and their patients.

The topic and the research are related to the field of nursing since they show how effective communication between patients and their nurses is essential. It also shows how engaging patients in care planning and decision-making enhances their health outcomes and, most importantly, their satisfaction throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer is a severe and life-threatening disease that has a higher growth rate. Even if cancer is advanced in medicine, having better communication between the patients of cancer and nurses ensures a better health outcome (Schmitz et al., 2019). Nurses are capable of providing very supportive care for the victims. This is done by understanding and respecting patients’ needs, making sure that they are involved in their treatment process, and treating them equally.

There are various patients who are hard to deal with and might be reluctant to speak. This type of situation requires a lot of empathy and confidence among the nurses. Poor communication or lack of communication at all might lead to a difficult situation which includes a lack of access to the victim’s information, misinterpretation of their information, and lack of trust. Patients, in general, believe that nurses spend little time with them and that they are very ignorant (Alfano et al., 2019). This is the main reason why effective communication is easily notable and brings out positive results among all victims. Establishing the right channel of communication among cancer patients is compulsory as it reduces the complications they might encounter.

Cancer patients always feel that they do not have adequate information concerning their illness, thus affecting their confidence which leads to depression and anxiety. Victims who are well-informed about their disease and can communicate freely with their doctors are at a higher chance of getting better results. Communication is a very important and crucial skill that most nurses should have, and it is also very challenging (Chan et al., 2019). Better communication skill requires a lot of time, reflection, time, and continuation. This research concluded that effective communication could lead to humanitarian care.

References

Alfano, C. M., Leach, C. R., Smith, T. G., Miller, K. D., Alcaraz, K. I., Cannady, R. S.,… & Brawley, O. W. (2019). Equitably improving outcomes for cancer survivors and supporting caregivers: a blueprint for care delivery, research, education, and policy. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 69(1), 35-49.

Arbour, C., Tremblay, M., Ogez, D., Martineau-Lessard, C., Lavigne, G., & Rainville, P. (2022). Feasibility and acceptability of hypnosis-derived communication administered by trained nurses to improve patient well-being during outpatient chemotherapy: a pilot-controlled trial. Supportive Care in Cancer, 30(1), 765-773.

Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, F., Mohtashami, J., Farhadzadeh, M., Sanaie, N., Zadeh, E. F., Beykmirza, R., & Abdoljabari, M. (2021). Humanitarian care: Facilitator of communication between the patients with cancer and nurses. Nursing Practice Today, 8(1), 70-78.

Chan, E. A., Tsang, P. L., Ching, S. S. Y., Wong, F. Y., & Lam, W. (2019). Nurses’ perspectives on their communication with patients in busy oncology wards: A qualitative study. PloS one, 14(10), e0224178.

Schmitz, K. H., Campbell, A. M., Stuiver, M. M., Pinto, B. M., Schwartz, A. L., Morris, G. S.,… & Matthews, C. E. (2019). Exercise is medicine in oncology: engaging clinicians to help patients move through cancer. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 69(6), 468-484.

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