How To Ride A Bicycle Sample Assignment

Riding a bicycle is quite simple. Most people who ride bicycles do it for a variety of reasons. They could be saving on gas or exercising amongst other reasons. Whatever the motivation for riding a bicycle, you should always have fun. Riding a bicycle, however, demands a lot of precaution. You should always ensure comfort by dressing appropriately and ensuring awareness of the surrounding. To ride a bicycle safely, you should always consider following the steps for maintenance, riding preparation, and riding (Stapleton 1).

Riding a bicycle is best done by people who are experienced in it. However, for an amateur rider or somebody who does not know how to ride a bicycle, the following riding steps are helpful. To start with, make sure you are safely dressed before going out for a bicycle ride. Make sure you have a helmet to protect you from injuries in case of an accident. Secondly, it is wise to always ensure that your bicycle is in good condition before riding it. Check if the brakes are in working properly. In addition, check if the tires are properly inflated. You should also adjust the seat of the bicycle to a height that you are comfortable with. Start by resting your right foot on the pedal on the right-hand side of the bicycle while supporting yourself with the left foot. Push the right pedal with your foot and simultaneously remove your left-leg support to rest the left foot on the left pedal. Next, ensure that the handlebars point ahead as you start pedaling. Try to obtain your balance as you pedal. Cover the longest distance you can and then turn and repeat the same process. Once you can obtain and keep balance when pedaling straight ahead, try turning the handlebars. Begin by slight turns of the handlebars until you can turn them and still keep your balance. Next, practice on speed and balance. Try to attain faster speeds while balancing, pedaling, and turning until you become conversant with these three actions. When riding, make sure that you obey riding rules and street signs. Stop when you encounter stop signs, signal to other road users when turning or passing them, ride on the right etcetera. Make sure that you are always alert when bicycling because bicycling is pretty quiet and you can easily hit cars or people. Lastly, make sure that you keep your bicycle in good condition. After a ride, check its condition and if repair is necessary, make sure the bicycle is repaired promptly (Stapleton 1).

There are several tips and warnings associated with the process of riding a bicycle. The first one is that you should never give up on training when something goes wrong. For instance, if you fall, just get back up and continue trying. Next, you should always make sure that you drink water in large amounts while riding. Ensure that you a visible as a cyclist on the road by using reflectors and wearing bright clothes. This will potentially save you from a lot of accidents. Make sure that as you try new and dangerous tricks, you have safety equipment. You should also make sure that you do not overdo bicycling (Stapleton 1). Failure to comply with these safety procedures may lead to a lot of bicycle accidents. We should, therefore, always do our best to keep these safety procedures.

From the explanation above, it is evident that learning bicycling is a continuous process that requires the successful completion of each step. Avoiding learning one step in the bicycle learning process could be very disastrous. It is the drill described above and experience in bicycling that makes one an expert bicycler such that he/she can control the bicycle in several dangerous situations and avoid fatal accidents. The learner gains skills progressively with skills gained in previous bicycling lessons helping him/her learn new skills in the subsequent lessons. This necessitates the presence of a tutor while one learns how to bicycle since there is a need to plan the order of bicycling lessons (“How to ride a bicycle 1”).

Normally, how fast one learns how to cycle and cycle safely depends on their attitude and determination to learn. Bicycle riding lessons can take a very short period, like a day, for the learner knows how to ride. They can also take a period as long as one year before the learner knows how to ride depending on the factors mentioned above. It is always helpful for the learner to maintain a positive attitude towards the learning process. The learners should never feel embarrassed when they accidentally fall while practicing. They should always try to discover the mistakes and through this, they eventually become expert bicyclers. Another important thing in bicycling lessons is being consistent. The learner needs to be consistent with his/her bicycling classes. Otherwise, they find themselves having lost the skills they acquired during their previous riding lessons in their subsequent lessons (“How to ride a bicycle 1”).

Works Cited

“How to ride a bicycle.” eHow. 2010. Web.

Stapleton, Christine. “How to ride a bicycle.” 2008. Web.

Essay Voice-over

“TV, Ideology, And Emancipatory Popular Culture”: General Idea And Sub-Points

Introduction

The essay the TV, Ideology, and Emancipatory Popular Culture is written by Douglas Kellner, a famous sociologist. He is famous as a representative of the so-called “third-generation” critical theorists. During his career, the sociologist wrote many articles and essays which were devoted to the role of television in the process of globalization. As a prominent expert in the sphere of sociology, Douglas Kellner made a great contribution to the field of critical media literacy. The essay under consideration is written in 1979. The author offers his vision of the place of television in the life of contemporary society. Douglas Kellner suggests the idea that due to the rapid development of television and its quick spread all over the world, the TV may become a real religion, a new tool of manipulation.

Two main points of the article are

The author investigates the current and potential role of broadcast media in the implementation and development of a hegemonic ideology. Taking into account the fact that by the time the article was written (1979) the influence of mass-media images had not been researched the article covered topical and important aspects of culture and sociology. Investigators mostly ignored and rejected the role of pop works or criticized them, while the author pictures television as a powerful weapon of forming ideas and notions of the mass. Watching TV shows, movies or commercials was considered less influential than reading because it predetermined only passive participation. Still, human consciousness percepts and adopts presented images and always appraises them through the lenses of watchers’ personal experience. A watcher becomes a part of a demonstrated episode and influences its image in his/her imagination as well as the image influences him/her. The process of interaction gives birth to a needed idea.

Each ideology is often presented through images and symbols which are habitual and close to human consciousness and supported by rational theory; such combination mostly guarantees a successful acceptance of a concept by wide masses. Parades, religious and civil ceremonies, public speeches, and other actions were the most common means to achieve a necessary goal. Still, various notions and ideas are easier accepted by the means of images but not words. The first ones directly demonstrate a necessary notion, while the second ones encourage a person to build it on his/her own. The author investigates and exposes the ways television influences the acceptance and development of an ideology in people’s consciousness. The main fact is that mass media does not only demonstrate pieces of traditional symbolism but also successfully creates new ones; it promotes certain moral features, popularizes some of them as positive qualities, and describes others as bad ones. Broadcast media roles are prescriptive as well as descriptive which means that television plays the first fiddle producing cultural symbols and images. The author singles out a certain type of TV images, which produce the most powerful effect on watchers consciousness and behavior through the images and inherent symbols may not be defined by the common moral, such as, for example, showing various taboo’s or criminal episodes which are followed by punishment scenes. A person may forget about watching a film with such episodes but become afraid of repeating the demonstrated action. Usually, such images are repressed but still effective. Dr. Kellner calls such images paleosymbolic and highlights, that they have the power to influence people’s behavior and link certain emotions with certain actions and supports this statement with examples from movies. Paleosymbolic images may serve both, as positive and negative factors at the same time. While forming rejection of criminal actions (in detectives, crime dramas, etc.), they may also form a stereotypical image of women who are always stupid or mean, or unfaithful (in soap operas, melodramas, etc.). This quality of paleosymbolic images is often used in the TV commercials sphere. As a result, consuming some types of food products becomes associated with a certain way of life; expensive autos are usually demonstrated with beautiful women, sitting in or caressing them; consequently, cars are associated with luxury and chic life and success. TV advertises some social and moral values; moreover, it produces certain mythology, rather schematic, but still popular. Such mythology does not only strengthen watchers’ morality but also increases the belief in future happiness and a happy end, as well as in the necessity of social order. The most common scheme shows the idyllic life which is suddenly broken off by a powerful evil or villain. Chaos comes, and humanity seeks salvation from another, kind power, or a superhero, or a virtuous policeman, or a wise woman, etc. The good side wins and social order and prosperity come back.

Three sub-points by Dr. Keller are

Nevertheless, as a society cannot have only one point of view to various questions, TV also cannot produce only one-sided images. As a result, the contradiction of TV messages is always observed. The author tells about discrepant notions of a family as an institute in movies and shows in the 50s, 60s, and 70s. TV industry followed social tendencies and firstly presented the middle-class family as the ideal variant of family forms; but later, families with only one parent and other kinds of families found their places on TV screens which demonstrated the cultural reaction to social changes.

The author suggests that the phenomenon of contradictory images in TV productions means that mass media may play the leading role in the development of emancipator culture and politics though politicians by 79 did not pay a lot of attention to media politics and interventions in popular culture. Moreover, scorn and contempt to the television industry developed as well as radical demands to eliminate it as a result of cultural criticism of pop culture presented on TV though it has always presented at least some pieces of opposite opinions and protests against suffering and might have become a powerful weapon against oppression. Rock-and-rill, beatnik poetic and prosaic works, tradition or social-realistic movies, documentary programs, and other phenomena of pop culture demonstrated social protest against depression. Though the inherent message may be differently percept and interpret by the audience and lead to contradictory social effects.

Speaking about realism as a tool of subversion the author tells about the effect which documentary programs (Hunger in America, Harvest of Shame, Vietnam documentaries, and news) produced on wide masses. They exposed various corruptions, moral, ethical, and law violations, crimes, etc and served as a tool of public enlightenment and education in the sphere of politics. At the same time, popular series formed a public opinion on different subjects. Moreover, says the author, they often included some elements of popular culture as popular revenge, exposing in TV portrayals frauds, deceptions, and crimes, and standing for the rights of victims. Dr. Kellner highlights that comedies also have emancipator power narrating some taboo questions in easy and funny forms. Through laughter public easier percepts some notions and gets accustomed to them. Moreover, comedies offer inherent critical suggestions which also help form public opinion.

Conclusion

The author sees mass media as a powerful tool of influence on the public as well as a great sphere for the social struggle against social unfairness; according to Dr. Kellner, TV offers significant means for political education and standing for truth. Though, all of it is possible in the case of TV liberation.

Works Cited

Kellner, Douglas. “TV, Ideology, and Emancipatory Popular Culture,” Socialist Review 45. 1979: 13-53. Print.

Glass Ceiling: Term Definition

Glass ceiling is a term that has been used to refer to the discrimination that is practiced against some genders or races with a sole intention of preventing them achieve high job profiles within the work place. It is a form of limitation that limits the minorities from getting the higher job positions within the work place. The discrimination is practiced in such a manner that there is no law that is precisely prescribed to prevent the minorities from acquiring these positions. The discriminations also does not state any form of non qualifications that may lock out this individuals from being promoted to this positions. The barriers to such positions are basically invisible. They are said to be below the surface and hence the term glass ceiling. (Ginet, 2000, p36)1

The most common types of glass ceiling include the differentiated pay for the same job group, discrimination that is related to race, ethnic groups, gender and also religious discrimination. The other types of discrimination are practiced in such a way that we find individuals who come from a certain race, ethnic group or religion cannot be promoted to certain positions owing to their back ground (Ginet, 2000, p46)2. Glass ceiling in Israel can be manifested in the unfolding of events within the political Arena. Gender inequality in our societies has for a long time dominated between the male and the female gender. Middle East region is a good example of how gender discrimination within the society has taken root. Men have literally been associated with the top job ranks and have for long been associated with the leadership roles. The top government branches have for a long time being led by men. It is with no doubt that such glass ceiling is on the rocks especially with the winning of Tzipi Livni in her party. The formation of a coalition will see the leadership of women in all the three branches of the government. The male gender has dominated the major roles within the government for decades.

The monotony of the male gender was however broken in 2006 when Dalia Itzik became the pioneer of women in the role of Parliament speaker. Tom Segev brings describes the societies of the Middle East as “a macho Society,” in matters related to the gender discrimination (Peraino, 2008)3. The political seats are actually preoccupied with the male gender with only 8% of the seats occupied by women. The genders issues in the Middle East are not only in the political view but also are dominated in the cultural background. The culture is generally religious and the religious parties do not uphold the role of women in leadership issues. This can be well demonstrated by the refusal of papers such as Ultra-orthodox newspapers to publish pictures of women. This brings Livni a big challenge in her ambitions to for the coalition government since such papers will not even print her picture. This leaves her with the option of relying on the smaller religious groups. Livni has been faced with lot discrimination as woman leader even from other major leaders such as Ehud Barak, Sima Kadmon among others. This kind of glass ceiling has even attracted international attention such as the US (Peraino, 2008)4.

In Conclusion Glass ceiling in the Middle East is still very common in terms of both gender and cultural backgrounds. Such glass ceilings only act as barriers to the development of gender, race, ethnicity and also religions (Ginet, 2000, p50)5. It creates a very challenging environment for the female gender who wants to achieve high ambitions especially in politics. Such unfavorable conditions clearly indicate a long way in breaking the glass ceiling and the need for more Iron ladies to pursue the course.

Works cited

McConnell-Ginet (2000). Breaking through the “glass ceiling”: can linguistic Awareness help. Wellington, Victoria University Press, pp35-118.

Kevin Peraino (2008).Israel’s Glass Ceiling. Web.