Human Relations At Workplace Vs. Productivity University Essay Example


Since the American civil rights era, employees have tussled with organizations for better working conditions and wages. Trade unions have been on the frontline to fight for employees’ job security and to keep organizations in check, not prioritizing profits over people. Unfortunately, during this period, workers resented poor working conditions where people had to be productive no matter their conditions or wages. Recently, organizations have been empathetic to their workers and are starting to integrate policies that encompass the well-being of workers. Some of the reforms include tea breaks, workers’ holidays, increased wages, and the provision of personal protective gear.

Unfortunately, the management and the labour cabinet disagree over the bathroom-break policy for a company like The Jim Beam bourbon-making plant in Bullitt County. The company argues that despite permitting the workers to use the bathroom during lunchtime and two other times during the day, employees keep pushing for freedom for unscheduled access to the restrooms. The company reported that most unscheduled visits are motivated by smoking habits. On the other hand, workers are anxious about losing their jobs due to the companies’ tight policies. The general problem addressed in this research paper is that employees should be flexible enough to adhere to the company policy of scheduled washroom access, which results in productivity and job security.

Key Words: Human relations, organization, employees, employers, company policies, productivity, working conditions, job security, workplace, theories, Labor unions, scheduled breaks

Key Roles and Organizational Issues

Ideally, for any organization to thrive, both workers and company management must be satisfied with each other. Since workers form the fundamental aspect of organizations, it is safe to say organizations have a moral responsibility to ensure their well-being. According to Scott & Davis (2007), organizations are shaped by social-political-cultural factors. For instance, the federal government can and has enforced policies that mandate organizations to provide restroom facilities and personal protective gear and not to fire employees without notice or unlawfully. On the cultural front, organizations are required to act ethically without undermining human dignity and environmental protection. The Bible upholds leadership attributes from Jesus, such as compassion; this challenges organizations to lead organizations by serving them.

Furthermore, it is understandable that for a workforce to be productive, the employees need to be serviced with resources that keep them stress-free. According to the federal laws, employers must provide restroom facilities for employees. Installing washrooms is one step to ensuring a practical and comfortable work environment. However, it is one thing to install facilities and another to allow the accessibility of such areas. For instance, Krystal Ditto asserts that it is unreasonable for a 36-year-old woman to justify her need to use the washroom and has been warned against unscheduled restroom visits. The company is adamant that after being disciplined, workers will lose their jobs after six incidents, which in its essence, has kept the whole workforce on tenterhooks.

However, when the company faces organizational issues, production, and organizational culture are disrupted. Workers use their representatives to air demands while the company, through their spoke person, states the stands that the company is willing to negotiate. Therefore, it is important to diagnose the case considering both narratives to settle for a middle ground; however, eventually, one party will have to compromise for any decision to be practically implemented. Using specific theories and personal perspectives, this section of the research paper will analyze Jim Bean’s case scenario and give recommendations.

Specific Theory

Unfortunately, it is uncomfortable to hear that workers wear protective undergarments for fear of losing their job if they ever visit the washrooms outside the stipulated time. According to Hussain et al. (2019), the Neo-classical theory views behavioural aspects of workers as motivations for effectiveness, which makes human relations a critical factor for management to consider while construing organizational policies. On the other hand, the classical theory emphasizes scientific and bureaucratic managerial practices with a central motive of maximizing efficiency. From a human relation perspective, liberating employees from strict organizational policies will motivate employees even more. In the case scenario of Jim Beam, the issue of the restrooms is informal; viewing this from the perspective of neoclassical theory, employees should get unrestricted access to washrooms.

However, it is only sometimes true that workers will be motivated if their employers meet all their social and psychological needs. Allegedly, the company permits scheduled access to the restrooms as per the urologist. Moreover, it is reported that employees took advantage of the liberty to access the washrooms for behaviours such as smoking freely. According to Araújo et al. (2020), cognitive behaviour theory states that human thought, emotions, and behaviours are interconnected. Therefore, if workers train to visit the bathroom every two hours at home on the weekend, they will progressively train their minds to adapt and stay within the schedule. Workers need to challenge their personal attributes, such as stress tolerance, in such circumstances. Concerning human relations, the company has done an excellent job of installing restrooms and setting aside time to access them.

Personal Perspective

From a logical perspective, it is good that the company holds its ground since they offer reasonable employee breaks. However, workers with medical conditions should get a leeway provided they notify the management and support their request with doctors’ written recommendations. The assumption is that rotating off the line for unproductive habits such as smoking is a disservice to the organization, especially if the organization is adequately meeting other responsibilities, such as good working conditions and timely salary payment. According to Al-Hawari et al. (2020), employees can use attributes such as stress tolerance to get through emotional exhaustion for their well-being. Workers need to be flexible enough to individually discipline themselves, not to overburden the organization in their quest for wellness programs at the workplace. Moreover, if workers are given liberties, they should be accountable and utilize such privileges with integrity.


Labour unions have reprimanded companies through protests over the past years regarding poor working conditions and wages. Due to the constant strikes in corporations, most organizations have, over the past years, improved the working environment for their worker’s sake. Business organizations have done away with some aspects of classical theories and adopted more human relations in the work environment. Therefore, in the case of Jim Beam, the company has ensured a positive work environment by providing restroom facilities. Despite complaints from workers, pushing the company for more freedom in the workplace might eventually roll to the other side of productivity, considering workers who abandon their posts for unnecessary breaks. Finally, it is the company’s responsibility to ensure employees’ wellness. Similarly, it is the responsibility of the employees to refrain from taking advantage of the privileges and rights at the workplace.


Al-Hawari, M. A., Bani-Melhem, S., & Quratulain, S. (2020). Do frontline employees cope effectively with abusive supervision and customer incivility? Testing the effect of employee resilience. Journal of Business and Psychology, 35, 223-240.

Araújo, D., Davids, K., & Renshaw, I. (2020). Cognition, emotion, and action in sport: an ecological dynamics perspective. Handbook of sport psychology, 535-555.

Hussain, N., HAQUE, A. U., & Baloch, A. (2019). Management theories: The contribution of contemporary management theorists in tackling contemporary management challenges. Yaşar Üniversitesi E-Dergisi, 14, 156-169.

Scott, W. R., & Davis, G. F. (2007). Organizations and organizing. Rational, natural, and open system perspectives. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.

Jumbo Case Study Free Writing Sample


Jumbo is a renowned Dutch supermarket chain with a rich history dating back to 1921. Known for its competitive prices and high-quality products, Jumbo has established a strong presence throughout the Netherlands (Study, n.d.). This introduction sheds light on Jumbo’s unwavering dedication to innovation and customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the paper will delve into the company’s current IST (Internal Situation of the organization), exploring its culture, structure, and other relevant factors that influence its innovation capabilities. By understanding Jumbo’s foundation and its existing situation, we can then proceed to identify potential interventions for further enhancing its innovation potential.

Identification of Elements for Culture, Structure, and Leadership

Jumbo’s culture, structure, and leadership play vital roles in shaping its innovation capabilities. Firstly, Jumbo fosters a culture of innovation, prioritizing customer satisfaction and encouraging employees to think creatively. Collaboration and idea-sharing are actively promoted, exemplified by the “Jumbo Innovation Lab,” which provides a platform for employees to develop innovative solutions (Jumbo Case Study n.d.). Additionally, Jumbo’s commitment to sustainability, employee development, and health/wellness further enhance its culture of innovation.

In terms of structure, Jumbo has invested significantly in technology, such as its online ordering app and self-checkout machines, which streamline the shopping experience (Jumbo Case Study n.d.). This technological infrastructure supports innovation by increasing efficiency and convenience. Furthermore, the company’s leadership style emphasizes collaboration and empowerment. Leaders at Jumbo provide the necessary tools and resources for employees to succeed while encouraging them to share ideas and take ownership of their work. This leadership approach promotes a sense of autonomy and creativity among employees, fostering an environment conducive to innovation.

The relevance of these elements to innovation in Jumbo is evident. The culture of innovation empowers employees to generate new ideas and solutions, leading to continuous improvement. Collaboration and idea-sharing break down silos, allowing for cross-functional innovation. The technological infrastructure supports the implementation of innovative ideas, enhancing the customer experience. The leadership style promotes a supportive and empowering environment, motivating employees to explore new possibilities. These elements collectively contribute to Jumbo’s innovation capability by nurturing a dynamic and forward-thinking organizational culture, facilitating effective collaboration, and providing the necessary resources for innovation to thrive.

Proposed Interventions for Enhancing Innovation Capability

Several interventions can be implemented to enhance Jumbo’s innovation capabilities, each contributing to a more innovative and dynamic organizational environment.

  1. Employee Training: Providing targeted training programs to employees can enhance their skills and knowledge related to innovation, creativity, and problem-solving (Fernandez et al., 2019). This intervention equips employees with the necessary tools and techniques to generate innovative ideas, evaluate them effectively, and implement them efficiently. By investing in employee development, Jumbo can cultivate a better-equipped workforce to contribute to the company’s innovation initiatives.
  2. Team Bonding Activities: Encouraging team bonding activities fosters collaboration, trust, and open communication among employees. These activities can range from team-building exercises to social events that create a positive and cohesive work environment (Fernandez et al., 2019). When teams collaborate effectively, share diverse perspectives, and feel connected, they are more likely to generate innovative ideas and work together toward successful implementation.
  3. Intern Evaluation Sessions: Conducting evaluation sessions with interns can effectively tap into fresh perspectives and innovative ideas. Interns often bring a unique perspective and are eager to contribute their insights. By creating a structured evaluation process and encouraging interns to share their ideas, Jumbo can leverage their potential and create a culture of inclusivity, innovation, and continuous learning.
  4. Creating an Innovation Lab: Allowing employees room to think creatively is key in driving organizational progress forward- but how to encourage them remains the question. One answer lies in creating an innovation lab; this strategy offers staff members structured support for exploring new ideas and pursuing collaborative projects as they experiment in ways that allow them to achieve results faster than usual. Innovation labs serve various functions, acting as informal gathering spots where individuals can come together during brainstorming meetings or implementing prototypes before testing them out among real-world applications once they move into other spheres (Fernandez et al., 2019).
  5. Partnering with Startups and Innovation Companies: Collaborating with startups and innovative companies brings fresh ideas, cutting-edge technologies, and entrepreneurial energy to Jumbo. By forming strategic partnerships, Jumbo can access external expertise, innovative solutions, and emerging trends in the retail industry. These partnerships provide joint research and development projects, knowledge exchange, and co-creation opportunities, ultimately enhancing Jumbo’s innovation capability.

Implementing these interventions involves various stakeholders. Internal stakeholders include top management, human resources, department heads, and employees at all levels. Top management must provide strategic direction, allocate resources, and create a supportive culture that embraces innovation. Human resources are crucial in designing and delivering training programs, facilitating team bonding activities, and integrating innovation initiatives into performance evaluations. Department heads are responsible for promoting and supporting innovation within their respective teams. Employees actively participate in training programs and team bonding activities and contribute their ideas and insights to the innovation lab (Aboramadan et al., 2020). External stakeholders may include startup founders, innovation consultants, and industry experts collaborating with Jumbo to develop innovative solutions.

By implementing these interventions and engaging the relevant stakeholders, Jumbo can foster a culture of innovation, enhance collaboration, and tap into diverse perspectives. These interventions empower employees, nurture creativity, and leverage external expertise, ultimately enhancing Jumbo’s innovation capability and positioning the company as a leader in the competitive retail industry.

Implementation Plan and Long-Term Sustainability

To ensure the successful implementation and long-term sustainability of the proposed interventions, a tailored plan can be developed for Jumbo.

  1. Employee Training: Develop a comprehensive training program focused on innovation, creativity, and problem-solving. Collaborate with external training providers if needed. Allocate a timeline of six months for program development and delivery. Internal stakeholders are the Human Resources department, training facilitators, and subject matter experts.
  2. Team Bonding Activities: Design and implement regular team bonding activities such as off-site retreats, team-building exercises, and cross-functional projects. Allocate a timeline of three months to identify and plan activities. Internal stakeholders include department heads, team leaders, and the Human Resources department.
  3. Intern Evaluation Sessions: Develop an evaluation framework to assess intern contributions and innovative ideas. Conduct sessions quarterly or biannually. Allocate a timeline of one month to design the evaluation framework. Internal stakeholders are department heads, internship supervisors, and the Human Resources department.
  4. Creating an Innovation Lab: Identify a suitable physical space, allocate resources for equipment and tools, and assign a dedicated team to manage the lab. Set up the lab within six months. Internal stakeholders include top management, facilities management, and a dedicated innovation team.
  5. Partnering with Startups and Innovation Companies: Establish a dedicated team to explore potential partnerships, develop criteria for selection, and initiate collaboration. Allocate a timeline of three months for partnership development. Internal stakeholders involved are top management, the innovation team, and relevant department heads.

To ensure long-term sustainability, regularly evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions, gather feedback from employees, and make necessary adjustments. Foster a culture that embraces innovation and encourages employees to contribute their ideas. Allocate sufficient resources for ongoing training, lab maintenance, and collaboration with external partners.

Anticipate unforeseen developments by establishing contingency plans, conducting risk assessments, and staying updated on industry trends. Monitor the external environment and adapt interventions accordingly. Regularly communicate the importance of innovation and provide support to internal stakeholders throughout the implementation process.

By following this implementation plan and ensuring long-term sustainability measures, Jumbo can embed innovation into its organizational culture, effectively leverage its resources, and maintain a competitive edge in the dynamic retail industry.

Justification of Interventions and Cost Analysis

The selected interventions for enhancing Jumbo’s innovation capabilities have been carefully chosen to benefit the company significantly. In this section, we will justify these interventions by providing a clear overview of the direct and indirect costs and benefits associated with each one.

Employee Training:

Direct Costs: The direct costs of employee training include program development, trainers’ fees, training materials, and employee time dedicated to training sessions.

Indirect Benefits: By investing in employee training, Jumbo can enhance employees’ skills and knowledge, enabling them to generate innovative ideas and contribute to the company’s growth. It also boosts employee morale and engagement, increasing productivity and retention.

Team Bonding Activities:

Direct Costs: The direct costs of team bonding activities encompass planning and organizing events, venue rentals, transportation, and facilitator fees.

Indirect Benefits: Team bonding activities promote collaboration, communication, and employee trust. This can result in improved teamwork, idea-sharing, and problem-solving abilities. It also fosters a positive work environment, enhancing job satisfaction and reducing turnover rates.

Intern Evaluation Sessions:

Direct Costs: The direct costs of intern evaluation sessions involve designing evaluation criteria, dedicating time for evaluation discussions, and providing feedback to interns.

Indirect Benefits: Jumbo can identify potential talents for future employment by evaluating interns’ contributions and innovative ideas. This can lead to recruiting skilled individuals who bring fresh perspectives and contribute to the company’s innovative efforts.

Creating an Innovation Lab:

Direct Costs: The direct costs of creating an innovation lab include setting up the physical space, purchasing necessary equipment and technologies, and hiring dedicated staff to manage the lab.

Indirect Benefits: An innovation lab provides employees with a designated space and resources to experiment, collaborate, and develop new ideas. This fosters a culture of innovation and can lead to the creation of novel products, services, or processes that differentiate Jumbo from competitors.

Partnering with Startups and Innovation Companies:

Direct Costs: Partnering with startups and innovative companies involves negotiation and collaboration expenses, financial investments, and potential costs of implementing new technologies or ideas.

Indirect Benefits: Partnering with startups and innovative companies provides access to cutting-edge technologies, ideas, and expertise. This can lead to the introduction innovative solutions in Jumbo’s stores, attracting customers and enhancing their shopping experience. It also provides opportunities for strategic alliances, knowledge sharing, and staying ahead of market trends.

Justification of the interventions in terms of short-term and long-term costs and benefits

Short-term costs

Short-term costs constitute an essential element while assessing the feasibility of implementing interventions. These expenditures typically include initial investments required for each program or strategy implemented. The cost may range depending on how large or complex each approach is. However, many immediate benefits that counterbalance these expenses are a stronger bond between employees and enhanced collaboration among team members, which leads to better outcomes, including possible innovation.

Long-term benefits

The long-term benefits outweigh the initial costs and provide sustained advantages to Jumbo. These benefits include a culture of innovation, increased employee satisfaction and retention, improved customer experience, and a competitive edge in the market.

Cost and Benefit Analysis Example

Cost and Benefit Analysis: To assess the cost and benefit implications, consider a hypothetical scenario for each intervention:

Scenario: Jumbo invests €100,000 in employee training, €50,000 in team bonding activities, €20,000 in intern evaluation sessions, €200,000 in creating an innovation lab, and €150,000 in partnering with startups and innovative companies.

Short-term Costs:

Total short-term costs = €100,000 + €50,000 + €20,000 + €200,000 + €150,000 = €520,000

Long-term Benefits:

Suppose the long-term benefits can be quantified as follows:

  • Improved productivity and cost savings from employee training: €200,000 per year.
  • Increased sales and customer satisfaction due to enhanced team collaboration: €100,000 per year.
  • Revenue growth from successful ideas generated by interns: €50,000 per year.
  • Revenue growth and differentiation from innovations developed in the innovation lab: €500,000 per year.
  • Increased competitiveness and market share from partnerships with startups: €300,000 per year.

Total long-term benefits = €200,000 + €100,000 + €50,000 + €500,000 + €300,000 = €1,150,000 per year

Considering the initial investment of €520,000, the return on investment (ROI) can be calculated as follows:

ROI = (Total long-term benefits – Short-term costs) / Short-term costs

ROI = (€1,150,000 – €520,000) / €520,000

ROI = €630,000 / €520,000

ROI ≈ 1.21

The calculated ROI for the proposed interventions is approximately 1.21. This indicates that for every euro invested in the interventions, there is a return of €1.21 in long-term benefits. The positive ROI suggests that the selected interventions are financially justified and can generate significant value for Jumbo over time. It is important to note that the ROI calculation does not capture all intangible benefits, such as improved employee morale, brand perception, and adaptability to market changes. These additional benefits can further enhance the overall value of the interventions.

To ensure an accurate assessment of costs and benefits, regularly monitoring and evaluating each intervention’s progress is recommended. This will enable Jumbo to make adjustments and maximize the return on investment. Additionally, conducting periodic reviews and reassessing the relevance of the interventions in light of market trends and technological advancements will help maintain the long-term sustainability of the innovation capabilities at Jumbo.


In conclusion, Jumbo, as a Dutch supermarket chain, has the opportunity to enhance its innovation capability through specific interventions. By identifying elements of culture, structure, and leadership that enable innovation, implementing interventions such as employee training, team bonding activities, creating an innovation lab, and partnering with startups, Jumbo can foster a culture of innovation and drive long-term sustainability. The proposed interventions have the potential to significantly improve Jumbo’s ability to innovate and meet evolving customer needs. Emphasizing innovation is vital for Jumbo to stay competitive, deliver exceptional customer experiences, and position itself as a leader in the dynamic supermarket industry.


Aboramadan, M., Albashiti, B., Alharazin, H., & Zaidoune, S. (2020). Organizational culture, innovation, and performance: a study from a non-western context. Journal of Management Development39(4), 437-451.

Bocken, N. M., & Geradts, T. H. (2020). Barriers and drivers to sustainable business model innovation: Organization design and dynamic capabilities. Long range planning53(4), 101950.

Fernandez, M. E., Ten Hoor, G. A., Van Lieshout, S., Rodriguez, S. A., Beidas, R. S., Parcel, G., … & Kok, G. (2019). Implementation mapping: using intervention mapping to develop implementation strategies. Frontiers in public health7, 158.

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van Giesen, R., & Leenheer, J. (2019). Towards more interactive and sustainable food retailing: An empirical case study of the supermarket of the future. International journal of retail & distribution management47(1), 55-75.

Katherine Jones, Katherine Jones Artist Essay Example


Katherine Jones is a British entrepreneur who deals with painting and print-making techniques. Her business revolves around perceptions of danger and safety, focusing on ordinary objects, buildings and spaces as a framework to question such themes. Her public collections include the V & Aprints and drawings collection, The Ashmolean Museum, Yale University Library and the House of Lords. Her ideas are often exchanged between watercolour, etchings and collagraph paints. Katherine builds layers, overlays, markers and colours to create rich, nuanced surfaces.

This paper aims to critically appraise an issue affecting the global environment relevant to this entrepreneur. For instance, the process of making art through paint consumes a significant amount of water and chemicals that may lead to the release of wastewater. Hanafi and Sapawe, 2020 report that approximately 70% of wastewater produced by the paint manufacturing industry is released into natural water bodies which causes water pollution. The enterprise may generate about 80 million gallons of wastewater in a day. This wastewater contains higher levels of chemical oxygen demand from the substances used in the creation process.

Also, hazardous gases are released into the air during painting, which may harm human health. The volatile organic compounds released are dangerous air pollutants which can negatively affect the global environment by polluting groundwater and drinking water. Therefore, this study will consider chemical pollution as one of the significant issues affecting the global environment and its implications in the Katherine Jones Enterprise. Paint is believed to comprise significant chemicals that affect human life when released into the atmosphere and may lead to biodiversity loss. This will be discussed in detail in the course of the study.

Critical discussion of international entrepreneurship (500 words).

Internationalisation is an entrepreneurial behaviour oriented to enacting, discovering, evaluating and exploiting opportunities across national borders to create value and gain a competitive advantage. There are three antecedents influencing the international opportunity of entrepreneurship. These are individual, environmental and firm. In the individual-level analysis, human and social capital features determine why some individuals pursue specific international opportunities. In this case, individuals with a high entrepreneurial intention are perceived to have self-efficacy and desirability and are psychologically equipped to undertake international opportunities. Tabares et al. 2021 reveal that continuous individual investment in training, education and language acquisitions are determinant factors in chasing international opportunities. Also, prior entrepreneurial and internationalisation experience, strategies and experience in cultural diversity help individuals identify a wide range of international opportunities (Zahra et al. 2005).

At the firm level, various factors related to the firm’s culture, knowledge-based resources, strategy and networks are significant in exploiting international opportunities (Tabares, 2020). (Tabares, 2020. P.91 elaborates that a firm’s culture of shared beliefs and values helps understand organisational performance by providing the norms for their behaviour and actions. In this way, a firm’s culture is a sustainable source of competitive advantage, enabling firms to exploit foreign market opportunities. According to Ireland et al. 2002, and Tabares et al. 2021 a firm’s knowledge-based resources create undertaking opportunities in the foreign market. According to this variable, control and access to unique resources allow firms to gain a competitive advantage in the international markets. Collective routines in firms integrate knowledge-based resources to achieve a competitive advantage. Enterprises leverage their capacity to discover international opportunities through prior knowledge acquired through international networks, markets and technical knowledge.

Lastly, environmental conditions shape the attitude of enterprises toward going international. The context of technological advancement consists of the internet and other information communication technologies, and the foreign context is comprised of political, economic, social, cultural and legal features. These environmental factors enable the way different enterprises undertake international opportunities. Rapid technological improvement has paved the way for Small-Medium Enterprises to exploit increased opportunities brought by lessening barriers to internationalisation (Bagheri et al. 2019). Technological revolutions give enterprises a new way of operating in the international market, communicating ideas, acquiring knowledge and information and co-creating with others, allowing a quick and successful international business operation. Economic liberalisation opens frontiers, allowing firms to go international in an accelerated way.

Additionally, a country’s property rights protection promotes enterprise stability leading to more opportunity-related behaviour. Social-cultural values strongly influence how enterprises conduct their international business operations. For instance, cultural values around a social community, such as joint ventures, influence enterprises’ opportunity development. The benefits of international entrepreneurship include the following:

Market expansion: International entrepreneurship offer opportunities for enterprises to tap into a more extensive customer base and increase their revenue potential.

Access to diverse resources: International enterprises have access to a wide range of resources such as technology, raw materials and labour; in this case, they collaborate with global partners and suppliers to access expertise.

Risk diversification: tapping into multiple countries help entrepreneurs diversify their business risks. Operating businesses in different markets reduces the dependency on a single market and mitigates risks that come along with economic downturns and regulatory compliances.

Critical appraisal of the chosen issue affecting the global environment (600 words).

Chemical pollution is a significant issue in art and painting enterprises that is affecting the global environment. Although art and painting are effective forms of cultural heritage and entrepreneurial activity for Katherine Jones, it involves various chemicals that can affect the environment. This section critically appraises the environmental impact of chemical pollution from art and painting enterprises.

Release of toxic substances: Most materials used in the art include dyes, pigments, fixatives, and some solvents containing toxic substances and volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as cadmium (La Nasa et al. 2016). The pigment is carried by resin or a binding product. Some acrylic paints used contain plastic compounds with arsenic and formaldehyde. Such paints require high solvents with VOC for cleaning and upkeep. These chemicals drain into soil and water bodies, causing pollution to the ecosystem and risk to human health.

Additionally, these Volatile Organic Compounds react with oxygen to form an ozone layer in the presence of climate, which is thought to be a contributory factor to global warming (Ismail and Hameed, 2013). The improper disposal of paint residues causes water contamination (Elbeshbishy and Okoye, 2019). The toxic chemicals harm aquatic life and disrupt the ecosystems, threatening humans and wildlife. Also, the paint residues contain chemicals that may be unsafe for sewage workers and damaged treatment plant equipment. Air Pollution: Additionally, air pollutants released from paint products form ground-level ozone, referred to as smog which negatively affects the soil (Ma et al. 2012). Adversely, this smog affects human health and also leads to climate change. Waste generation: Art generates waste products, including used paint brushes, empty paint cans and contaminated rags. If this waste is not handled correctly, it can build up to form landfills and release dangerous substances into the air, soil and water (Massari et al. 2014). Petroleum is sometimes used in conventional painting, which contributes to a wide range of environmental issues. For instance, petroleum production has increased oil spills in protected wildlife around the globe. In this case, petroleum use has increased the depletion of natural resources in most less-developed states, leading to biodiversity loss.

Art and painting constitute chemical pollution, which has a global environmental impact. The chemical pollutants have global ramifications as they can move through air and water for long distances affecting the ecosystem far from the source (Grimm et al. 2008). This calls for immediate address of the issue globally, considering the environment’s interconnectedness. For instance, fostering eco-friendly art and painting materials such as water-based paints, no-VOC or low-VOC products and natural pigments (Schieweck and Bock, 2015). Additionally, encourages proper waste management practices such as reusing, recycling and safe disposal of paint residues and art materials (Mostafa and Peters, 2017). Also, creating awareness among artists and the public on the environmental impact of art materials and the significance of sustainable practices can reduce the environmental impact and preserve artistic value. The authority through Environmental Protection Agency can pass regulations to restrict the use of hazardous materials in art and painting. It should also push manufacturers to produce eco-friendly paints and sell them to the market.

Relevance/implications of the chosen issue from Section 3 to the selected entrepreneur and their enterprise and future internationalisation aims or potential (500 words).

Chemical pollution from art and painting significantly complicates entrepreneur Lathrine Jones and her enterprise and its internationalisation potential. These are;

Compliance with regulations

Internationalisation revolves around showcasing artistic work in multiple countries where each state has environmental regulations and standards. As Katherine aspires to internationalise her enterprise, she will encounter various regulations concerning chemical usage and water management in various countries. This may challenge her artistic vision and additional costs for compliance. In this case, she should be aware of and comply with such regulations to avoid legal problems and ensure her artistic work is exhibited without environmental issues. She should also consider the knowledge of chemical pollution and take several measures to mitigate it (Diamond et al. 2015). This would demonstrate her commitment to international standards and professionalism. Also, this would demonstrate her ethical and sustainability consideration in the international market and enhance her brand’s reputation.

Environmental Consciousness

The global awareness of environmental issues has grown, increasing the demand for eco-friendly and sustainable practices in the art industry. Perhaps, artists who prioritise environmental consciousness in reducing chemical pollution have established their reputation and appeal to environment-friendly audiences (Rehman and Shrivastava, 2013). Therefore, embracing sustainable practices aligns with international art values and institutions that stress environmental responsibility. Katherine Jones can leverage her artistic enterprise to raise awareness of the implications of chemical pollution and engage with global audiences with similar concerns.

Collaboration and Exhibition

Often, internationalisation involves collaborating with suppliers and local partners in multiple countries (Chetty and Holm, 2000). Similarly, internationalising an art enterprise would need collaborating with curators, institutions and artists from multiple countries. However, chemical pollution affects the feasibility and logistics of such collaborations. For instance, regions with high chemical pollution can deter curators and other artists from participating in exhibition projects (Jónsdóttir, 2017). In this case, Katherine Jones should prioritise eco-friendly practices to position her enterprise as attractive for global collaborators and expand opportunities for display and recognition.

Health and Safety Implications

Chemical pollution in regions with higher industrial activity or improper waste disposal poses significant health risks to humans, such as Katherine JONES. Therefore, exposure to such toxic substances can lead to health issues such as respiratory disorders, affecting her ability to work in the international market (Manisalidis et al. 2020).

Market demand and opportunities

The demand for eco-friendly products and practices is rapidly growing across all industries, including art (Sarkar, 2013). In this case, artists who adopt sustainable techniques tap into the evolving market and potentially attract new buyers who particularly seek out eco-friendly artwork. In this case, Katherine Jones can showcase her commitment to environmental responsibility and be creative to improve her enterprise’s marketability and potential for international success.

Cultural Exchange and Resonance

Artists who rely on sustainable materials and address environmental issues through their work can contribute to a comprehensive discussion around cultural exchange and sustainability (Kindvall, 2019). In this case, Katherine Jones can use her artwork to create awareness and initiate conversations about the environmental impact of the work. This can create resonance and interest internationally, leading to invites for exhibitions and participation in global art events centred on environmental themes (Bower, 2016).


In conclusion, Chemical pollution is a typical art and paint issue that affects the global environment. The effects, such as the formation of underground smog, the ozone layer in the presence of sunlight causing global warming, risks to human health, and loss of biodiversity, among others, have been discussed. The implication of this issue to entrepreneurs such as Katherine Jones with internationalisation potential is relevant. Considering sustainable artists’ practices and addressing environmental concerns can help the entrepreneur align with the changing market demands. Generally, e, bracing eco-friendly art support Katherine’s internationalisation potential and contributes to a more sustainable and responsible art world.


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Chetty, S. and Holm, D.B., 2000. Internationalisation of small to medium-sized manufacturing firms: a network approach. International business review9(1), pp.77-93.

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Hanafi, M.F. and Sapawe, N., 2020. A review of the water problem associated with organic pollutants derived from phenol, methyl orange, and remazol brilliant blue dyes. Materials Today: Proceedings31, pp.A141-A150.

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