Human Resources Plan For Monteville ClubHouse


With its upcoming renovation and reorganization, the Monteville ClubHouse is setting out on a transformative journey. We recognize the crucial part that Human Resources (HR) plays in assisting this effort as thе newly appointed HR consultancy. The strategic initiatives and policіеs in our HR plan will be used to improve employee engagement, make the most of the workforce, and match HR procedures with thе overarching organizational goals. The ClubHouse will achieve its mission of offering “High quality hospitality at affordable prices” thanks to this detailed HR plan. It will also maximize the beneficial effects of its charitable endeavours.

HR Strategy and Objectives

The ClubHouse’s mission and vision will be closely aligned with the HR strategy. Our main goals will be to find and kеер talented people who share ClubHousе’s passion for hospitality excellence. Creating a thorough training and development program to upskill the workforce and give them the tools they need to adapt to the changes brought on by the renovation and restructuring will be a top priority. Additionally, we’ll promote a positive workplace environment and еmployее engagement through initiatives for empowerment and recognition. Wе will put performance mаnаgеmеnt procedures in place to match individual performance with organizational goals.

Workforce Planning and Recruitment

During the renovation and reorganization, a thorough workforce plan will be created to evaluate thе ClubHousе’s present and future staffing requirements. This strategy entails assessing current positions and roles, identifying skill gaps, and figuring out thе іdеal combination of talent nееded to achieve thе ClubHouse’s goals. Based on the workforce plan, we will create targeted recruitment strategies to draw candidates with the appropriate skills and attitudes to fill important positions. To ensure a smooth lеаdеrship transition during this time of transformation, succession planning will also be a crucial еlemеnt.

Talent Acquisition and Onboarding

The success of the ClubHouse depends on its ability to draw in and keep top talent. To do this, we’ll put in place a strong talent acquisition procedure that entails creating an alluring employer brand, carefully crafting job postings, and actively seeking out candidates via a variety of channels (Cepin, 2013). The onboarding process will be carefully planned to aid new hires in assimilating into thе ClubHousе’s distinctive culture, comprehending their roles, and quickly developing into productive team members. An effective onboarding program will lay the groundwork for sustained employee commitment and engagement.

Training and Development

We will put in place a thorough training and development program to make sure the ClubHouse staff is competitive and flexible. Training in compliance, leadership development, and technical skills will all be included in this program (Scullion, & Collings, 2011). Wе will enable еmployее to advance both personally and professionally by offering ongoing learning opportunities. To ensure that every employee receives the right support to perform their jobs to the highest standard, training programs will be tailored to different staff levels and roles.

Performance Management

To foster a culture of accountability and continuous improvement, a strong performance management system will be implemented. In this system, performance expectations will be set, regular coaching and feedback will be given, and formal performance reviews will be conducted. Employees will comprehend their contributions to the success of the organization by coordinating personal goals with ClubHouse’s goals. Еmployее motivation and morale will increase if outstanding performance is acknowledged and constructive criticism is given.

Employee Engagement and Morale

Productivity and job satisfaction depend heavily on high еmployее morale and engagement. Initiatives to promote a favourable work environment where employees feel valued and connected to the ClubHouse’s mission will be included in our HR plan. To foster a sеnsе of community and ownership, regular tеam-building exercises, staff recognition schemes, and opеn communication channels will be encouraged. Fееdback from the workforce will be actively sought out, and suggestions for improvement will be warmly received. To encourage employee commitment and loyalty, opportunities for career advancement will also be highlighted.

Compensation and Benefits

To draw and keep the best candidates, a compelling bеnefits and compensation package will be created. To make sure that the pay scales at the ClubHouse remain competitive, we will conduct a thorough market analysis. To support employees’ wеll-bеing and work-life balance, we will also review and improve the benefits package. Building trust and enhancing еmployее satisfaction are two benefits of opеn and transparent communication about pay and benefits.

Employee Relations and Grievance Handling

To foster a positive work environment, a strong framework for еmployее relations will be established. To quickly address employee concerns and complaints, open communication channels will be established. To guarantee that all еmployее issues are handled fairly and with respect, conflict resolution mechanisms will be developed. We sееk to uphold a positive workplace culture and lessen potential conflicts by responding promptly to еmployее concerns.

Health and Safety

Employees’ and members’ safety and well-being come first. To establish a safe working environment, our HR plan will give priority to health and safety measures. All еmployее will receive safety training, and regular risk assessments will be carried out. This proactive approach will contribute to accident avoidance and thе general wеlfаrе of thе ClubHouse nеіghborhood. We strongly support health and safety among our clientele to promote effective and legal operations.

Compliance and Legal Matters

Wе will routinely review and update HR policіеs and prаcticеs to make sure they comply with applicable laws and regulations (Howse, & Teitel, 2010). To ensure that every employee has access to a fair and moral workplace, all HR procedures will strictly adhere to all applicable employment laws. We’ll also put in place procedures to inform the ClubHouse of any modifications to employment law and HR policies and procedures, as well as to provide guidаncе in those cases where it’s necessary. Thе ClubHouse will be protected from costs rеlаtеd to breaking thе law by adhering to the law. This factor will result in an improvement in the organization’s financial performance.


The HR plan for Monteville ClubHouse acts as a strategic road map to support the organization’s transformational journey through its impending renovation and restructure. We want to create a workplace where employees can thrive and support the accomplishment of thе ClubHousе’s charitable endeavours by fostering a positive work environment, implementing еfficiеnt HR practices, and ensuring compliance with employment laws. The management’s priority of having solid HR policies and practices in place to successfully advance the ClubHouse is supported by the HR plan, which is a key tent of the structure.


Elements of Our Performance Management System

Figure 1.0: Elements of Our Performance Management System


Cepin, G. (2013). Talent acquisition: What it is, why you need it, what is involved, and where to start. CPA Prac. Mgmt. F.9, 13.

Howse, R., & Teitel, R. (2010). Beyond compliance: Rethinking why international law really matters. Global Policy1(2), 127-136.

Scullion, H., & Collings, D. G. (2011). Global talent management: Introduction. In Global talent management (pp. 19-32). Routledge.

Lazada Vs Shopee

1.0 Introduction

The paper compares Lazada and Shopee, which are top e-commerce platforms. It focuses on key performance measures, including market share, revenue growth, customer happiness, and brand awareness. It identifies which platform has experienced tremendous success through this evaluation and various underlying reasons. Most importantly, it pinpoints the components of elements that have fueled their successes by drawing on models, ideas, and concepts from the literature review. The study offers a thorough knowledge of the two organizations’ performance. It highlights the crucial role of innovation, entrepreneurship, and leadership in today’s competitive market by combining rigorous analysis and pertinent examples from their websites and reports.

2.0 Discussion

2.1 Comparison of innovation strategies

According to Shao et al. (2020), innovation mainly consists of organizational, marketing, process, and product strategies.

Product innovation

Product innovation is introducing a new product or service significantly improved in specifications, materials, components, and functionality (Aydin, 2021). This mainly involved a combination of knowledge e and technology to enhance and improve the customers’ experience. Product innovation helps achieve the customer’s needs and enhances a competitive advantage hence is essential for every organization.

Table 1: Product innovation strategy

Definition Introducing a new product or service significantly improved specifications, materials, components, and functionality.
Method Combination of existing knowledge and new technology.

New Design

How to achieve it Proper interaction with the customers and suppliers.

Collaborate with other brands and manufacturers.

Objective Increased Competitiveness.

Increased product cycle.

Improved Customer satisfaction

Regarding product design, Lazada’s strategy is based on usability and simplicity. The website dashboard has an easy-to-use design with distinct product categories and a powerful search tool (Tan, 2020). The site also offers a simple checkout process and several payment alternatives, enhancing the user experience (Huang and Lu, 2020).

On the other hand, Shopee’s product design strategy focuses on engagement and interactivity. The app’s interface is made to be visually appealing and immersive and includes features that encourage social engagement and gamification (Yang et al., 2022). For example, the users can participate in live-streamed seller showcases and have in-person interactions with sellers and other customers. Shopee’s interactive features and in-app games enhance the shopping experience and foster a sense of neighbourhood.

Lazada understood the necessity for a customer-centric strategy to market engagement. The company has invested considerably in fulfilment and logistics infrastructure to provide quick deliveries and a seamless customer shopping experience (Linh, 2020). Contrarily, Shopee has embraced a more creative and technologically oriented approach to market contact. The business heavily emphasizes gamification and interactive features in its mobile app to give users a fun and enjoyable buying experience (Amin, 2023).

In terms of product Mix, Lazada has a broad selection of goods from a range of categories, which it uses to meet the various demands of its customers. The business has concentrated on creating a broad marketplace where buyers can find things in various categories, including electronics, fashion, home goods, beauty, and more (Hati, 2019).

Shopee, on the other hand, provides a variety of products in line with the tastes of its primarily young and mobile-first user base. The business takes a more discriminating stance, ensuring that the goods offered on the platform meet the needs and trends of its intended market (Nguyen, 2021).

Table 2: Comparison of product innovation strategies between Lazada and Shopee

Lazada Shopee
Offers a vast selection of products in many different areas. Offers a carefully curated range of goods that are in line with trends.
Focuses on being a one-stop shop for a variety of consumer demands. Emphasizes the use of products that appeal to a young, tech-savvy audience.
Allows for the listing of products on the site by outside sellers. Checks sellers to make sure their products are in line with customer desires
Relies on a user-friendly UI and customer testimonials. It incorporates interactive features, live streaming, and gamification


Process innovation strategy is the purposeful approach that companies use to enhance and optimize their internal processes (Chirumalla, 2021, p.102256). Increasing productivity, lowering costs, and improving overall performance entails finding inefficiencies, bottlenecks, and opportunities for improvement within the company’s operations and putting new processes, technology, or organizational changes into place. Process innovation is essential for maintaining competitiveness, optimizing processes, and fostering sustainable growth (Le, 2022).

Table 3: Process innovation strategy

Definition Implementation of new product or service delivery method.
Method Changes in techniques and software.
How to achieve it Invest in new knowledge and technology.
Objective Maintaining Competitiveness.

Optimizing operation processes.

Fostering sustainable growth.

Lazada’s process innovation involves operational effectiveness and logistics, guaranteeing on-time deliveries and a positive customer experience (Anantachaiyong, 2023). They streamline processes and increase efficiency by utilizing cutting-edge technology like automation and predictive analytics.

In contrast, Shopee’s process innovations focus on involving the user and developing a fun and interactive buying experience. Shopee caters to its young, tech-savvy clientele by integrating live streaming, in-app games, and influencer partnerships, increasing user engagement and creating a sense of community (Sheu and Chang, 2022).

Table 4: Comparison of process innovation strategies between Lazada and Shopee

Lazada Shopee
Uses robotics and automation to achieve optimum Employs gamified shopping order processing and faster delivery to focus on user engagement.
Data analytics is used in predictive analytics to forecast customer behaviour. Integrates real-time interactions with live broadcasting to meet demand and improve inventory control.
Enhancements to Mobile Apps constantly improve and refresh the mobile application. Provides in-app gaming and incentives via Shopee Coins, with user-friendly features and targeted encouragement for user engagement and loyalty.
Provides training and support for the third party. Collaborates with influencers and celebrities to launch.

Organization innovation

Organizational innovation incorporates the company’s method in the business process, workplace organization, and external relations. It involves deploying new organizational structures, procedures, or management practices to increase effectiveness, efficiency, and flexibility (Van Looy, 2021, p.103413). Developing an innovative culture, increasing employee engagement, and accomplishing strategic goals, entails making significant changes to how the organization runs and is controlled. Organizational innovation is crucial for firms to maintain competitiveness, adapt to market changes, and promote long-term sustainable growth.

Table 5: Organization innovation

Definition Implementation of the new strategy.
Method Establish clear long-term goals.

Review the allocation of resources.

How to achieve it Training programs for growth and development for the employees.

Effective customer relationship.

Objective Improved productivity and overall performance.

Promote long-term sustainable growth.

Adapt to market changes.

Lazada and Shopee use various organizational strategies to accomplish their objectives in the e-commerce industry. To serve a large client base, Lazada concentrates on developing a diverse product catalogue and establishing business alliances (Gunawan, 2020). Through cutting-edge technology and dependable logistics, the organization strongly emphasizes operational efficiency. Shopee, on the other hand, takes a more dynamic and exciting tack, relying on influencer partnerships and gamification to appeal to a youthful, tech-savvy clientele (Linh, 2022). The company encourages users to participate in live-streamed events and in-app games to foster an innovative and flexible culture. Despite their differences, both businesses place a high priority on innovation and customer happiness to be competitive.

Table 6: Comparison of organization innovation strategies between Lazada and Shopee

Lazada Shopee
Creates a culture that favours creativity and innovation. Emphasizes the importance of having a flexible and dynamic culture.
Encourages staff members to collaborate and try new things. Encourages a growth attitude and prudent risk-taking.
Methodologies use agile project management techniques. Uses Scrum or Kanban to facilitate inter-functional cooperation.
Adopts a flatter organizational structure. Promotes independence and decentralized decision-making.

Marketing innovation

Market innovation is the introduction of a new marketing method that mainly takes keen consideration of the market’s four Ps. It is discovering and putting fresh ideas into practice to broaden a company’s market appeal, draw in more clients, and boost sales Gao, C. and (McDonald, 2022). It entails locating untapped market niches, fresh geographical areas, or fresh client demographics to promote already-existing goods or services. A market innovation strategy is essential for organizations to expand and diversify their consumer base, particularly in competitive and saturated sectors.

Table 7: Marketing innovation

Definition Introduction of new marketing method.
Method Marketing four Ps
How to achieve it Changes in the product mix, activities, distribution, and pricing strategy.
Objective Meet customers’ demands.

Increased sales volume and market share.

Increased competitiveness.

There is a significant difference between the marketing innovation strategies between Lazada and Shopee. By using data-driven insights to tailor marketing efforts and increase customer interaction, Lazada strongly emphasizes a customer-centric strategy (Nguyen, 2021). The company works with influential people and partners with well-known brands to establish credibility and draw in a wide range of customers. Shopee, on the other hand, uses in-app games, live streaming, and time-limited discounts to make shopping more entertaining. Shopee also embraces a more gamified and interactive marketing strategy (Tseng et al., 2022). With its young, tech-savvy clientele, Shopee’s emphasis on user-generated content and social connections distinguishes it from Lazada’s conventional marketing strategies.

Table 8: Comparison of marketing innovation strategies between Lazada and Shopee

Lazada Shopee
Product- Provides affordable pricing along with frequent deals. Focuses on flash sales and limited-time specials.
Promotion: Collaborates with influencers to promote a brand Focuses on forming ties with influencers for notable launches.
Place- Operates throughout the nations of Southeast Asia Operates in several Southeast Asian markets.
Product mix- Offers a wide range of products across various categories. Provides trending and well-liked products to the intended market.

3.0 Which is more successful and why?

Shopee’s agile strategy and creative marketing efforts most certainly produced a significant return on investment. Interactive shopping events on the site drew a sizable user base and increased revenues, demonstrating a great return on investment. Shopee’s success was probably aided by its emphasis on establishing seller relationships and providing incentives. According to (Yeh, 2022), the Shopee platform has dramatically improved gross orders, especially in the corvid period and over time. The figure provides for the shopee Gross orders from 2017 to 2022;

: Shopee Annual Gross Orders

Figure 1: Shopee Annual Gross Orders


Because of its more established status and association with Alibaba Group, Lazada had access to stability and a wealth of resources. While Lazada’s hierarchical management structure may have needed to be more adaptable than Shopee’s to the continuously shifting market demands, the ROI may have been significant owing to consistent performance.

Lazada has ensured a continuous increase in revenue over the years, enabling it to withstand the tough competition in the market. According to eConomy Spotlight by Google-Temasek: The SEA e-commerce market experienced a 43% compound annual growth rate from 2015 to 2017 as of SEA 2017. By 2025, the market is projected to reach $88.18 billion, from $5.58 billion to 10.98 billion. The figure illustration is provided below;

SEA e-commerce market size

Figure 2: SEA e-commerce market size

Both Lazada and Shopee have experienced improved sales and revenue, thereby influencing the return on investment. A study conducted by (Jaipong, 2022). examined the comparison in the number of customers visiting the websites monthly. The results are provided in the figure below;

Monthly web visits

Figure 3: Monthly web visits


The figure provides for the comparison of monthly visits between different companies over time. Lazada had higher visits than Shopee. Being one of the more established businesses in the market, Lazada had built up a sizable user base, which led to consistently high monthly traffic counts. It was well-known for its wide range of products and dependable services and had a significant presence in various Southeast Asian nations. Shopee, on the other hand, took a more creative strategy, utilizing gamification and interactive marketing efforts to draw users. This tactic helped generate a large number of monthly visits. Shopee rose to the top of the download charts in five years, topping all other shopping apps internationally and in Taiwan and Southeast Asia. Lazada was more well-known and had been in business longer in the area (Ness, 2021). It had a significant presence in many nations, offering a broad product selection and strategic alliances with numerous businesses. However, Shopee has multiplied and is well known for its creative and gamified approach, especially among younger consumers.

By consistently improving its user experience, extending its product line, and forming strategic alliances with well-known businesses, Lazada has shown successful product innovation. It, therefore, continues to lead overall performance, although Shopee is just a little behind.

4.0 Leadership and Covid Season

Leadership was essential in determining the success of e-commerce behemoths like Lazada and Shopee during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lazada’s more experienced leadership style emphasized stability and long-term planning, prioritized customer pleasure, and worked with stakeholders to guarantee a consistent supply of necessities (Zhu 2022). On the other hand, the agile leadership style of Shopee enabled it to quickly adjust to changing consumer expectations while fostering innovation and establishing a rapport with vendors through innovative marketing initiatives. During the COVID season, both businesses saw growth. Lazada used influencer marketing and collaborations, while Shopee gained a sizable user base with its interactive shopping events (Loh, 2021). The pandemic served as a stimulant for the e-commerce sector, and Lazada and Shopee’s leadership tactics were crucial to ensuring their sustained supremacy in Southeast Asia.

5.0 Model/Theory Application

The “Technology Acceptance Model” (TAM) is valuable in examining Lazada and Shopee’s success. TAM, created by Fred Davis in the 1980s and expanded by numerous scholars, looks at the elements that affect how users accept and use technology (Christian and Agung, 2020). According to this model, individuals’ intentions to utilize technology are determined mainly by its perceived usefulness and usability, which impacts how often people use it.

TAM offers valuable insights into understanding consumer behaviour and the achievements of Lazada and Shopee in the context of e-commerce platforms (Hairuddin et al., 2019). Both businesses have prioritized making their platforms more convenient and user-friendly by the TAM’s emphasis on perceived ease of use. They have promoted great user experiences and raised adoption rates by providing user-friendly interfaces, safe payment options, and effective delivery services.

Integrating the Technology Acceptance Model enhances a better understanding of how Lazada and Shopee have successfully recruited and kept customers by concentrating on improving perceived usefulness and simplicity. This approach emphasizes how important user-centric design and technology adoption are in fostering the success of these e-commerce behemoths in the rapidly changing industry.

6.0 Conclusion

The study compares and contrasts the market engagement and innovation strategies of Lazada and Shopee, two well-known Southeast Asian e-commerce platforms. Both businesses have had great success with their respective approaches to innovation. The secret to Lazada’s success is its comprehensive and customer-focused commitment to innovation. Lazada has developed a solid brand name and encouraged customer loyalty by significantly emphasizing steady product expansion, strategic partnerships, targeted marketing, and constant customer involvement. Its dedication to comprehending local markets has also aided in its development.

On the other hand, Shopee’s innovative strategies have led to its success. The platform has quickly gained market share and attracted a younger and more digitally engaged client base because of its aggressive growth into new areas, gamified shopping experiences, and creative marketing strategies. Lazada and Shopee have shown innovation excellence, providing services to various market sectors and finding success using various business models.

To serve Southeast Asia’s growing mobile user base, Lazada and Shopee should both prioritize improving their mobile app experiences in the future. Investing in user-friendly interfaces, quick load times, and personalized recommendations can increase customer engagement and retention. Additionally, adopting eco-friendly and sustainable methods helps meet the rising consumer desire for environmentally responsible shopping. To ensure prompt and effective deliveries, it would be essential for them to strengthen their alliances and logistics networks. To provide their users with distinctive and exciting purchasing experiences, both platforms should keep encouraging innovation in marketing methods, utilizing data analytics, and embracing upcoming technologies like AI and augmented reality.


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Appendix 1: Company Websites

Figure 4: Lazada Website

Company Websites

Figure 5: Shopee Website

Shopee Website

Secure Attachment And How To Achieve It.


Looking back on history and the evolution of human relationships, it is evident that attachment styles have always played a major role in determining how long and deep the connection of relationships goes. Looking at literal works of Levine and Heller share startling insights behind the mysteries of emotional connections. Revelations from their seminal work reveal that only 50% of humans possess a secure attachment style (Levine & Heller 16). Delving deeper into this exploration, there is the realization of different factors that contribute to the prevalence of relationships in any contemporary society. The ideology behind different attachment styles has also been rooted in other influential research psychologists. Good examples include Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby, who strongly affirm that our early emotional bonds play a pivotal role in shaping adult relationships. This compelling lens back to the mysteries behind intricate human relationships that manifest in present-day relationships as both tribulations and triumphs (Harcourt, 144)

Among the many determinants of approaching intimacy and genuine romantic relationships, are the patterns of attachment. These inevitable patterns come in all disorganized manners, leaving countless individuals searching for romantic partners carrying conflicting emotions with them. What follows next is the struggle of finding someone compatible amidst the emotional complexities, translating to a continuous cycle of pain and disappointment. Exploring growth, understanding, and unlocking wisdom in such cases, can serve as the cornerstone of interpersonal bonds through secure attachments. This essay explores whether secured attachment bonds do foster healthy relationships and improve the quality of life both physically and mentally. In other words, does properly identifying our own and our partner’s attachment style when choosing a partner guarantee fulfillment?

Traditional thoughts and new science

The understanding of childhood development has over the decades if not centuries been subjected to a paradigm shift. For the longest time in the twentieth century, the idea of leaving children to grow by themselves has been considered of great benefit. Leaving them alone has always been perceived as a way of fostering independence, self-reliance, and resilience among children. These notions were, however, countered by a different alternative ideology backed by groundbreaking research from John Bowly and Mary Ainsworth. The emotional bond between children and caregivers also known as secured attachment has proved to be transformative and with long-lasting impacts. Their revolutionary works on the understanding of childhood development revealed that secured attachment has a profound impact on a child’s development both emotionally and psychologically (Ainsworth & Bowlby 335).

Today’s modern society can be described as fast-paced and dynamic as the days go by. Over the years, learning to be independent has always been cheered on as early as childhood days both at school and at home. True to the idea behind being independent, many have been empowered and turned out successful. Children have always been pushed to make their first step by themselves and congratulated for it, use the washroom, and even making own decisions as they grow. While the universe accepts this as the ideal way to go about life, the truth that people possess unique neurological pathways and physiological structures is often ignored.

In trying to navigate human attachment and get a better understanding of social identity, breaking down the fundamental human need for attachment is important. The Dependency Paradox explores how connections are a crucial role they play in establishing the characters of individuals. The theory contradicts the idea of being independent. It stresses that people need each other if they are to coexist in the communities they live in. Despite the desire to be self-sufficient, human beings are designed to seek a sense of belonging or companionship. On the other hand, as they go about building these connections, attachment patterns profoundly influence the types of relationships formed. As the paradox further reveals as highlighted by Levine and Heller (Levine and Heller, pg24) there are about three types of attachments that form distinct relationships. For instance, secure attachment is associated with nurturing relationships, anxious attachment with intense relationships, and avoidant relationships often associated with independence.

Looking at how attachments differ from one person to the other from a biological perspective, it is true to claim that intimate partners share their well-being both physically and emotionally. Citing the works of Levine and Heller, the need for independence varies, and embracing diversity is the way to go if we are going to have a compassionate and understanding society. Intimate relationships have proved that emotional bonds can lead to synchronizing of physiological activities among people who share such kinds of bonds.

Celebrating individuality in relationships has always been a very major focus by scholars in a try to understand whether the need to be self-sufficient in a relationship overpowers embracing codependency. This has in turn led to the emergence of the Codependency Myth perpetuated by Levine and Heller (Levine & Heller, 28). It puts focus on promoting healthy interdependence instead of pushing for rigid expectations. It is important to note that the myth overlooks the inherent nature of people and does not advocate for the obvious reality that interdependence is a crucial aspect. So, instead, individuals should practice interdependence within the relationship. Each individual comes into the relationship with unique physiological structures, it is better to foster healthy interdependence rather than total independence. Therefore, embracing the myth of Codependency creates an avenue for a more compassionate, understanding, and inclusive approach to relationships (Lawson). What comes out of this are meaningful connections without losing one’s true identity.

Different types of Attachment

As observed from previous findings, human beings are wired to be emotional, right from the date of birth. Evidently from how they interact with their caregivers and those they interact with through their lives as they venture into their societies, the need to be connected remains a very core thing. Levine and Heller have in their research shown how different attachment types are connected with specific people that translate to very unique relationships that shape identities. Here are some of the attachment types and the relationships they are tied with:

Secure attachments and nurturing relationships

Also known as the cornerstone of human development, it is characterized by comfort and reliability. A good example is that of caregivers, primarily the parent, and children. As they nurture the young ones with a sense of safety and security, emotional bonds are fostered. What results from this is a life of confidence and the ability to form even healthier relationships with others. A child that grows up knowing that their emotions are valid and acknowledged navigates without the fear of being themselves. It extends into adulthood bringing a sense of self-worth and the ability to rely on support from others.

Anxious attachments

Early childhood experiences are also known to be the biggest factor for this form of attachment. It is brought about by unpredictable or inconsistent parental responses during infancy. Children who have grown up in environments that did not give consistent emotional support, heightened fear of being abandoned, or longing for closeness with their caregivers fall under this type of attachment. They grow up with anxiety and are in constant need of reassurance and emotional validation (Lane). The effect flows into their social interactions, romantic partnerships, and even friendships. Being clingy or overly dependent on their partners and seeking constant attention can be a few of their many coping mechanisms.

Disorganized Attachments

Disorganized attachments are always seen to be inconsistent patterns and often unpredictable towards caregivers by a child. Such individuals are insecure and get comforted in contradicting responses such as seeking comfort by avoiding their primary caregivers. It often appears when a child’s emotional needs are responded to in the same manner. Disorganized attachments stem from childhood experiences that were traumatizing or frightening. It manifests itself into adulthood in the form of struggles with trust in relationships and low self-esteem.

Exploring Secure Attachment Through the Situation Test Among Children

Making observations through the Strange Situation Test, it is discovered that secure attachment is pivotal in shaping curiosity among children. The concept has its roots based on the idea of a “secure base” as explored by Levine and Heller (Levine &Heller, 32) that comes with the parent or whoever assumes the role of a caregiver. Mary Ainsworth developed the test to assess the level of attachment in a child by assessing how secure they felt around someone or something. In this test, the child is taken away from their caregiver and then reunited in a controlled experiment. Observations made are the child reacts differently depending on the episodes of separation providing meaningful insights into their level of attachment (“Childhood attachment: The strange situation study”). Children are usually interested in exploring the unknown and exhibit curiosity when they are around an environment that feels safe. It gives them a secure base to take a risk without the fear of being abandoned when they get the reassurance of reliable support. The Harlow monkey experiment on the other hand revealed how emotional support plays a major role in attachment and fostering relationships (Harlow 90). It teaches that attachment goes beyond biological needs.

Benefits of secure attachment among adults.

Individuals that grew up without the experience of secure attachment are often faced with the challenge of building nurturing relationships as they grow through adulthood. To be interpersonally fulfilled and stable emotionally when building relationships, secure attachments have to be the bedrock. Secure attachment gives individuals the confidence to establish a relationship with confidence and belief in being safe and truthful. This serves as a stepping stone to building healthy emotional connections with other people.

Research by Brian Baker goes ahead to prove the bond born out of secure attachment extends to even better overall health between the two (Baker 229). Close connectedness affects the immune system function and can sync heart rates or even hormonal regulation (Coan 1032). Oxytocin, also popularly known as the “love hormone” is released when intimate relationships are formed. These hormones in return foster feelings of trust and affection and even strengthen their bonds. Acknowledging the different biological make-up will create safe spaces for everyone to grow authentically and be empowered for who they are.

How to Cultivate Healthy Relationships

It goes without a doubt that attachments are often deep-rooted and can be hard to unlearn. However, it is difficult to break from the shackles of negative attachments. Undergoing therapies or even individual efforts to become self-aware or build emotional resilience can be one way to go about it. If proper groundwork was not laid early enough, supportive partners can help to open up emotionally and even learn to do it by themselves over time (Burling, 25). Understanding and recognizing individual types of attachments can make the first and most crucial step to fostering healthy relationships even easier. Acknowledging the origins of attachment tendencies and how they affect emotional responses can be a starting point. Expressing feelings and communicating intimately bring understanding among partners as it provides individualized solutions for the specific relationship (Kay).

Call to Action

Navigating through interpersonal relationships calls for healthy connections and a solid bedrock of healthy emotional development since childhood. To enjoy fulfilling and satisfying lives, breaking from the cycle of any attachment that holds them back. Communicating honestly and openly without the fear of being judged gives security and greater intimacy in forming partnerships based on trust. Redefining relationship expectations from a societal perspective can also be a game changer. It is not in all scenarios that a one-size-fits-all model should be applied, instead celebrating diversity should be the new societal expectation.

Knowing that attachments extend from childhood to adulthood, future generations can start by offering the recommended foundation for their children consistently. Instead of fostering strict independence, teaching individual variability and remaining true to oneself can also be another starting point.


Conclusively, this exploration is not a gesture of despair but an eye-opener instead. With more authors and scholars dissecting this wide field of study, a glimmer of hope stares. With an even clearer roadmap and enough tools to shine more light on attachment and relationships, there is a need to keep the human nature of staying connected under meaningful and healthy relationships even more alive.

Work Cited

Ainsworth, Mary D., and Bowlby, John. “An Ethological Approach to Personality Development.” American Psychologist 46 (1991): 333-341. 1991. APA PsycNet

Burling, A. Healthy romantic relationships. ABDO, 2020.

Baker, Brian, et al. “Marital support, spousal contact and the course of mild hypertension.” Journal of psychosomatic research vol. 55,3 (2003): 229-33. ScienceDirect. doi:10.1016/s0022-3999(02)00551-2

Coan, James A et al. “Lending a hand: social regulation of the neural response to threat.” Psychological science vol. 17,12 (2006): 1032-9. PubMed. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2006.01832.x

“Childhood attachment: The strange situation study.” 2016, doi:10.4135/9781473984653

Feeney, Brooke. “The dependency paradox in close relationships: Accepting dependence promotes independence.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(2), 268–285. 2007. APA PsycNet.

Harlow, H F et al. “Total social isolation in monkeys.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 54,1 (1965): 90-7. PubMed.

Harcourt, E. “Two routes from secure attachment to virtue.” Attachment and Character, 2021, pp. 137-153, doi:10.1093/oso/9780192898128.003.0008.

Kay, N. Relationships matter: Manage your thoughts, feelings, and actions to develop and maintain healthy relationships | Simple tips to improve self-esteem. Crystal Books LLC, 2021.

Lane, B. Anxious attachment recovery: Go from being clingy to confident & secure in your relationships. 2023.

Lawson, D. Anxiety in relationships: 3 books in 1: Attachment theory workbook, insecure attachment, and Codependency. Overcome the severe damage caused by the fear of abandonment. 2020.

Levine, Amir, and Rachel Heller. Attached: The New Science of Adult Attachment and How It

Can Help You Find–and Keep–Love. Penguin, 2010.