Humanities are a set of studies and disciplines referring to literature, art and human sciences. The study of humanities seek the systematic and general development of the human being, as a rational, critical, ethical, and moral individual within the framework of society. The humanistic education becomes important in order to project an integral and interdisciplinary development, generating a universal, tolerant and comprehensive vision of the environment.
The education of humanities is vital for anyone specifically for a university student. It is essential because of the fact that such knowledge contributes to the development of sensitivity, fraternity and imagination. The study of humanities is not a “decoration” of a discipline or career, but a constituent part of any formative discipline. To them we must pay as much importance as we give to those other courses some consider fundamental of a program. Humanities is an essential course to study to clarify values and improve critical thinking.
To begin with, humanities courses provide the clarification of one’s values. Someone who studies literature, who studies historiography, who does theater, is more willing to capture the nuances of things and the behaviors of people. The humanities contribute to understand that the world is not black or white, that it cannot be conceived from irreconcilable oppositions. On the contrary, what exist are nuances, tonalities and more than one facet of the same subject.
For this reason, humanities make the professional more academically suitable to understand the variable condition of men, and the not always linear and uniform evolution of their peers. But, in addition, the practice within humanities give a swaying consistency to the ideas and ways of thinking. With humanities the thought is accustomed to live in tension without breaking, to support different points of view, not to assume easy dogmatic or excluding positions.
On the other hand, another benefit that humanities allow is to improve critical thinking. It is crucial to mention that this course put students in contact with argumentative skills. How useful it would be if engineers, dentists, architects – to name a few professions – took three or four courses of in depth humanities throughout their academic careers; but not as historical illustration or ‘general culture’, but to learn the importance of giving reasons and organizing thoughts in a logical and convincing way.
If all the professionals of the so-called hard sciences went into reading some Platonic dialogues, they would discover interesting ways to discuss without having to disqualify the opposite; and how to maintain a point of view despite the objections of the antagonist. The humanities are definitive in the learning of the reasoned capacities of communication and in the language games necessary to participate as citizens in political decisions or to have linguistic tools to defend a project or claim right without resorting to physical violence or arbitrary intrigue.
Finally, the humanities are a set of knowledge that helps to have a common language to understand each other despite the differences in language, ethnicity or religion. Without it there would be loss of common references that allow dialogues with foreigners or with distant generations in time. If we have that common meter of the humanities, that sensitive translator of the arts, we can have the opportunity to see ourselves as brothers of the same tradition or of a similar symbolic inheritance.
This can be an advantage; being able to join a conversation about a painting by Rembrandt or tune into Boccherini’s music or converge on the moral conflicts of a Thomas Mann novel. And although some people think society is separated by language or closed codes of a profession, the education of humanities will definitely allowed them, in an airport or a city cafe, to engage in a dialogue from which shared affinities and tastes arose.
Historiography Of Sexuality And Sexology
As the result of new discoveries in biology, sex research in its modern form began among practitioners and students of mental illness and medicine in the mid- to late-nineteenth century as an intra-European intellectual project that centered in Germany, France, Austria and England. Similarly, modern debates about sexuality emerged in the two main urban centers of the Middle East of the time – Beirut and Cairo – through the dissemination and exchange of ideas in journal articles, and the publication of monographs written by medical doctors who translated and incorporated into their local professional communities this corpus of European sexological discourses. This paper intends to study the mobility, translation and reception of these European sexologies by examining the writings of two late nineteenth century Syrian medical practitioners – Sa‘id Abu Jamra and Shakir al-Khuri.
In the context of the “first modern globalization,” the advance of secular science and technology, urbanization and industrialization, the emergence of an urban (bourgeois) middle and working classes, and the developments in communications and transport, these doctors’ writings form part of a middle-class vision of modernity and fin de siècle anxieties and preoccupations with degeneracy and disease.
A central aspect of their work aimed at regulating and containing the threats coming from deviant sexualities that were encountered and mushrooming in the rapidly growing urban centers of the Levant. For example, numerous chapters and entries on masturbation, hypersexuality, anatomy, physiology, hygiene, and sexual development and pathology appear in al-Khuri’s book. Its popularity reached its apogee in 1899 when, twenty years after its publication, a second edition was published. In it, the author proudly proclaimed: “There is no Arabic speaker who did not benefit from this book or who had not heard of it.”
Hanan Hammad, Joseph Massad, and Wilson Chacko Jacob have already written on gendered debates of sexuality centered around the body of the young male middle-class professional or effendi. Most recently, Liat Kozma has examined instances of these debates “as a body of textual products inspired by European scientific sexology of the time” in the Jewish Yishuv in Palestine and in Egypt. Also, Sabine Frühstück and Brian James Bauer’s works have scrutinized how Japanese and Russian environments, respectively, engaged with fin de siècle Western scientific sexology. This paper builds on and contributes to this blossoming corpus of literature on the translation and adaptation of sexual science outside of the European continent, and the development of modern sex research and related socio-cultural debates in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century Middle East.
In addition to solely focusing on Arabic sexological writings produced by Syrian practitioners , my work will also methodologically depart from Kozma’s literature in that it will adopt a transnational framework in the study of the intersection between sexuality and modernity in the Levant. This paper will explore the limits and possibilities of studying a global history of sexuality through the examination of the proliferation of these sexological scholarships. It aims to shift the focus away from Europe and North America which have dominated the historiography of sexuality and sexology during the twentieth century.
Moreover, other than the two aforementioned doctors’ monographs, the paper will rely on letters and articles published in al-Muqtataf (The Digest), al-Hilal (The Crescent) and al-Jinan (The Gardens) – three popular Arabic periodicals that presented in their pages a tasteful amalgam of scientific, humanistic, and adapted or originally authored stories to their readership in Egypt and the Levant. So, not only did these journals offer their audiences advice columns and informative scientific and political articles but also, they featured “cheap love stories” that appeared in juxtaposition with discussions of sex, health and hygiene.
As such, a growing literate middle-class public in Beirut, Damascus, Alexandria and Cairo concurrently learned about modern understandings of romantic love, consumed these disciplinary sexological writings, and also, participated in these literary, scientific and political debates. Consequently, this work surveys the open traffic between science and culture and relations between specialists and lay people in the development of modern sexual politics.
Both abovementioned experts position themselves as harbingers of modernity and progress, and as social reformers advising their compatriots in notions of physical fitness, the improvement of middle-class bodies and the formation of normative family units. In doing so, they become new sources of authority playing a foundational role in the demarcation of contours between public and private spheres and the consolidation of the ever-growing consumer middle class of the new age (al-‘aṣr al-jadīd). In the Levantine context, this sort of “epochalism” became a potent social and moral tool employed by this class of bourgeois intellectuals who sidelined the practices of other non-conforming classes as antiquated and pre-modern superstitions and asserted themselves as “the vanguards of provincial modernity.”
Historiography Of The Revolution
Study of an open society, without estates, but classes; without subjects, but citizens; without royal Absolutism or any state monopoly, but with a dynamic and varied civil society, et al. And it is that, quite possibly, Americans have a rich modern history (lato sensu), with extensive experience in the coexistence of crowds, the management of migratory waves, the implantation of democratic culture, etc. Even when addressing the historical study – as has also been noted – Americans seem to show greater availability and sensitivity to the attention of other social and cultural factors.
The American national identity construction was never ideological or a monopoly of any government or nation-state (as it did in much of Europe after the Enlightenment), but has been in the hands of a people – believed – united and protected by God (foundation of their civil religion, which in turn is the sustenance of their Americaness). Reflected said in discarded authors like Gary Nash and Gordon Wood.
Thus, to study American history, it is lawful, as well as very convenient, to question why and how colonial settlements begin in the current US. In this regard, although it is considered for this thesis, it is not taken advantage of here by any of the epistemological reformulations related to the controversial debate about the discovery of America, since each variant of Cultural Studies that comes about defends its own in a way almost exclusive and exclusive.
As written by Cobbs et al., 2012, the analysis of the two perspectives indicated can be determined. No doubt there are representative authors in the Neowhig. His contributions have transcended the postwar consensus itself, constituting a thesis of the main lines of interpretation of the period studied throughout the historiography of the Revolution. Gordon Wood is a historian, therefore fundamentally political and his work is a vital reference. Ideology of the revolutionary period, starting from the colonial.
The basic theory connects colonial political thought with metropolitan English, can be found with political radicalism as a characteristic source to understand the oppositional character of said colonial thought, relating as key ideas for the perspective in Wood in virtuosity, a thought socially homogeneous and national. As evidence, consensus is found throughout the social community. Highlighting political philosophy, and not based on the idea of liberalism, but of republicanism. A republicanism that emphasizes the ideas of virtue and citizenship, sharing principles of moral unanimity and conservative revolution.
On the other hand, with Gary Nash, the New left History, the socio-cultural history is highlighted, keeping the plural subject as perspective, and an emphasis on conflicts and social differences, with a Neoprogressive school. With the thesis the new manual, reflecting generations of critics, respondents and revisionists.
Special attention is given to the ideas, forms and movements, which have best contributed to the sustainable and harmonious progress of the relations between power, the sacred and freedom, of the United States. In addition, there was undoubtedly the delimitation of the established or challenges to overcome, to continue progressing (it is about reach the limits and cross them, hence the role of religion, to set the moral minimums that separate civilization from barbarism, just as they coincide The historians of the border, vid. supra).
Therefore, everyone who had different proposals to what was already established, had to go to the border to rehearse, and if it was successful and beneficial, these proposals would be integrated into the acquis common. Thus the new peripheral and interior colonies were founded (e.g. Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Ohio), with irradiated dissidents from the theocracies of New England; or impulse was given to the conquest of the West, stimulating the nascent and unbound.
In times when history is considered of great value, in times when discourse, our discourse, historical narration, has become from the postmodern perspective, one of the central axes of the analysis, a set of readings and interpretations always variable The tip of an iceberg that examines each and every one of the aspects in which the task, the social role, the media impact or the professional relevance of the historian is called into question. The frontier of progress is present in American history, even in public policies, to consolidate the US welfare state, as well as give momentum to the special race.
The generation of historians who devoted the study of the border factor to explain the American evolutionIn addition, our definition of culture along with history reflects the vision of a contemporary, globalized social space, whose operation is so familiar to us that the regularities and the rules that govern it escape. To address a national problem, and analyzing historical perspectives, it can be seen that there is elite culture and the tradition of the people, the positions are based on historical hierarchy.
Based on this, it is important to take into account postmodern relativization, of all fundamentalism, with analysis in the popular, and the massive about modernity, elaborating open, progressive thoughts, between levels, genres and forms of social sensitivity. Integration of American progressivism, with radical American singularity (from its foundational roots), resulting in the historiological proposal of integration, the American case is different for having conformed oblivious to the great conflicts and problems of other powers. The techniques, the historiological proposal of analysis, the American case is different because oblivious to the conflicts and problems of other powers.