Hyatt Regency Miami’s Human Resource Training On Job Satisfaction Homework Essay Sample


This article analyzes employee satisfaction with work, commitment to the organization, and other metrics that affect employee performance. The hypothesis is put forward that guests’ satisfaction depends on the satisfaction of the employees, and as a result, improving the competitiveness of the hotel in the market. The article deals with the problems of assessing the satisfaction and, consequently, the effectiveness of employees and the possibility of their regulation. These studies were conducted considering the current situation with the spread of COVID-19 and the specifics of the hotel business. Various theoretical models, learning models, and statistical methods for finding correlations and structural analysis are analyzed. The methodology for improving the quality of customer service is presented in the Hyatt Regency Miami hotel example.


Employee satisfaction is a relatively new but essential indicator of work performance. For a long time, this indicator was not studied at a deep level of analysis and was not associated with the activities of specific sectors of companies. However, current research shows that employee satisfaction affects workflow and overall team success in a company. However, there are two main problems with this issue. Firstly, management often does not know how to evaluate such indicators in the team of employees and what measures need to be taken to improve these indicators. Secondly, the professional training of employees for a long time did not involve reading their emotional and internal states. Therefore, even a direct assessment, even on a personal level, is like uncertainty. Certain activities are being carried out to teach modern methods and methods of both company management and employees to eliminate such misunderstandings.

Guest service quality scores are typically used in the form of a feedback system. However, guests do not always leave reviews, and hotels rarely interpret this information in the context of HR. This paper tests the hypothesis of the correlation between employee and guest satisfaction. Therefore, it is necessary to determine all possible methods for assessing these categories and those related to them, such as employee efficiency and engagement. In addition, every aspect that affects the work and performance of employees should be examined in both directions since success at work also affects the emotional state of employees, so the primary goal of any organization, regardless of the business sector, is to maintain a high level of employee satisfaction.

Training in this work is considered one of the practices of human resource management. Each category is multi-criteria and depends on many factors, both individual and global, from relations with the leadership and organization to the political and economic situation in the country. It is an important topic to explore because hotels are at a high cost during a pandemic, and it is difficult for management to maintain a high level of employee satisfaction due to the current situation. In this regard, it is necessary to find a correlation between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction to recover from the effects of the pandemic and remain competitive in the market.

As a rule, employees with a high level of satisfaction, physically and mentally, feel better in the workplace, are confident in their responsibilities and usually work in a good mood. In the hotel business, such an attitude towards the guest on the part of the employee can be ideal since the guest can count not only on professional politeness but also on a sincere benevolent attitude. Thus, this fact proves that the correlation between employee satisfaction and their performance and customer satisfaction is relatively high but requires a practical experiment.

Literature Review

Employee satisfaction with work is quite multi-criteria, so there is no single correct solution even in a particular business sector. Research on this issue has dealt with categories such as motivation, engagement, and mediation issues. In any case, satisfaction is studied from the psychology of human relationships since most of this approach is used in large companies, where there is a specific team and premises for the constant presence of people in it (Judge et al., 2020). However, due to certain restrictions caused by the COVID-19 epidemic, the percentage of employees working remotely has increased. Modern trends still presuppose human communication, but they are changing due to the specifics of remote communication using Internet technologies.

Competitiveness is an important performance criterion in any business industry. Using employee satisfaction as one of the tools to create competition is a relatively fresh approach in the hotel business. As a rule, studies mention partnerships and mutually beneficial cooperation as the main mechanisms of competitiveness (Mishurova et al., 2020). By proving the correlation between employee and customer satisfaction, finding dependence on marketability aspects is entirely possible.

Many studies show that customer service quality and satisfaction depend on the quality of human resource management within the hospitality industry. Ranging from obvious factors such as inadequate wages, short-term employment due to the seasonal nature of work, or overwork are characteristic negative features of any workplace, not only in the hotel industry (Milićević & Petrović, 2019). High-quality regulation of such conditions is a hallmark of the competitiveness of representatives of this industry. In addition, other surveys and studies confirm the development of talent through training and continuous improvement of communication skills (Ņikadimovs & Ivanchenko, 2020; Simbine & Tukamushaba, 2020). Employee behavior depends on the size of the salary, as well as on the ability to be involved in immediate problem solving, which is based on communication skills, once again emphasizing their criticality.

There are several teaching methods used in the hospitality business. A transformational leadership method or model involves using the leader’s personality as an example to employees to increase their satisfaction. Research shows that this model does indeed correlate with performance metrics as measured by annual income levels. Moreover, good leadership, with a clear understanding of the company’s goals and values, almost always guarantees the company’s success, which is a consequence of the work of many employees. Secondly, this model is only adequate when applied over a long distance and perspective (Eliyana & Ma’arif, 2019). Another theory includes the aspect of employee autonomy and personal freedom. Autonomy has a particularly positive aspect, which includes responding to violations by employees themselves, who, through experience, improve their skills within their profession (Hewagama et al., 2019). The hospitality industry uses a “step-by-step” version of this model, which explains that employees need confidence in working with customers since each person is unique, and it is impossible to prepare for all occasions in the hotel.

Education and training, as such, also have an impact on employee commitment. However, many criteria must be met, such as the relevance and need for training, the quality of the material provided, and the effect of employee engagement. In addition, consistently delivering high-quality training often contributes to recognizing work and improving corporate ethics within the team (Bercu, 2017). Professional development programs keep the intellectual activity of employees in good shape and provide an opportunity to follow modern trends in the profession, remaining a relevant and in-demand employee in the labor market. Their success and engagement give employees confidence, and continuous training allows them to constantly build up the theoretical knowledge base for future application in practice (Okechukwu, 2017). A confident and constantly learning employee responds more adequately to failures and mistakes in his activities and can conduct a critical analysis of his actions and the actions of colleagues, which makes it possible to develop leadership skills in the future, move up the career ladder and take leadership positions.

It is worth mentioning the problems an employee may face when communicating with clients or within the work team. Typically, organizations promote the “client is always right” approach, but the boundaries of “rightness” are often not specified, which leads to negative consequences for employees. Verbal or personal skirmishes that clients allow themselves can lead an employee to burnout. In addition, in some cases, physical violence is often based on discrimination based on external signs or social status, which modern society is trying to eradicate. Moreover, there are older employees, or vice versa, at the beginning of their careers and do not yet have the necessary psychological preparation, which can subsequently turn into health problems for both groups (Ravenswood, 2017). Research in this area aims to study specific cases and find out their reasons for further prevention and prevention. In the conditions of the hotel business, as well as this study, the contact of guests with employees is critical since it is the results and the process of communication that will influence customer reviews.

Learning is a factor affecting efficiency. It has been proven by a group of researchers whose study results in the correlation of commitment to work with learning was higher than with satisfaction (Ocen et al., 2017). However, these variations in satisfaction and efficiency categories reflect only one side of the interaction aspects. However, this research activity is helpful in specific cases when, for example, a comprehensive study of a specific branch of business cannot consider the entire multi-criteria nature of the problem. An iterative approach is possible within the framework of analyzing one specific company, which will be considered one of the possible methods in this study.

Most satisfaction surveys are conducted using questionnaires, but the lack of preparation of employees for this type of activity is a problem. For various psychological or personal reasons, an employee may refuse to take the questionnaire or not give sincere answers to these questions. In addition, the lack of a tradition of such practice leads to the fact that employees often choose neutral answers to questions that do not contribute to any kind of quality assessment. Further statistical calculations suffer from this inaccuracy, and the absence of such an answer option reduces the variability for the interviewed employees. However, in the case of honest filling of the questionnaires, there are many methods of statistical estimates that allow interpreting this data. First, it is a correlation analysis used to establish the relationship between two quantitative indicators. This analysis is often used to assess the impact of training on productivity in the hospitality industry (Kanapathipillaii, 2021). The second is structural equation modeling, which is also used in this field to measure satisfaction with work and with the services provided (Islam & Ahmed, 2018). These methods will be used to interpret the data in this work.

In the hospitality industry and, in part, tourism, customer interaction is the core of the workflow. Therefore, employee satisfaction with work directly depends on this. Learning is also a determinant of quality customer service for several reasons (Shen & Tang, 2018). First, the theory of social exchange includes an analysis of the behavior of two parties, each of which, in turn, conducts its analysis of costs, benefits, and risks. Secondly, the experience of continuous training in communication skills, which, among other things, develops practical communication skills, allows the employee to achieve the skills and speed of decision-making, which is a sign of professionalism. Third, clients are more supportive of professionals in their field, which immediately contributes to the positive collaboration necessary for the organization’s success. Finally, tipping is the norm in the hospitality context, so understanding such norms and theories contributes to better customer service, which leads to some success and increases employee satisfaction.

One of the essential properties of an employee who interacts with clients in the hotel business is improvisation. The sheer number of people with different needs, cultures, behaviors, expectations, and communication styles is a challenge for employees, who must receive dozens of guests every day. Uncertainty conditions arise pretty often, in connection with which researchers even try to integrate improvisation into the organizational structure, creating operational competence (Secchi et al., 2019). Moreover, improvisational behavior has a positive dynamic of influence on customer satisfaction, contributing to the development of the hotel’s competitiveness.

Studying contributes to the development of skills and, as a rule, interest. Researchers have shown that interest and self-confidence are critical factors in employee satisfaction (Kong et al., 2018). Continuous learning can affect employees in different ways, but the rapid nature of change in the world instead obliges them to do so. This fact also applies to hotel managers since, for example, they also need to act according to modern trends in marketing matters. For example, maintaining a competitive edge is possible by gaining positive customer reviews, but more granular feedback intelligence can help marketing. In addition, many hotels have high ratings; however, the important characteristics and distinctiveness of the brand play an equally important role when a client chooses a hotel from the list (Xia et al., 2020). Distinguishing characteristics can be embedded in an organizational culture, which will include training and monitoring employee satisfaction. The set of data above allows theoretically proving the hypothesis put at the beginning about the relationship between the satisfaction of employees and hotel customers.

On the other side, namely, what in the scientific literature most often determines customer satisfaction, then, as a rule, they are described by aspects of sustainability. Firstly, this is already a successful, positive experience, which, as a result, affects brand awareness and increases guest loyalty (Rather et al., 2018). Secondly, the surrounding infrastructure, including transport, food, and accessibility to attractions or the sea. Also, among the factors, as one of the current trends, environmental friendliness is distinguished. This information is obtained from online reviews, which are increasingly being investigated using computer technologies for analyzing big data or intelligent systems (Gerdt et al., 2019). This fact indicates a massive layer of possible research since online reviews in various special-purpose applications reach a considerable number. However, in this matter, there is the problem of cheating and reviews left for the purpose of advertising. This fact can confuse statistics and give a certain margin of error.

In the hotel business, the consumer, as a rule, more or less represents the bar of the declared quality, so the price error in this area is quite large. The slightest detail can diminish the customer’s grade. Nevertheless, studies that, at a theoretical level, partly confirm the hypothesis put forward at the beginning of this work. Ali et al. investigate the correlation between the quality of service and customer satisfaction, which is evident at first glance (2021). However, this article sheds light on the hidden mechanisms that make this relationship obvious using the deductive method.

Theoretical Underpinning

The models and theories studied above can be applied in the hospitality industry with certain restrictions. This work focuses on the activities of the Hyatt Regency Miami. It is a 4-star hotel located 11 kilometers from the airport in Miami, which has about six hundred rooms, including suites, beautiful views, and various furniture. A deeper analysis of the infrastructure of this hotel showed that it belongs to the Hyatt holding, which has hotels around the world. Currently, an HR coordinator is required for a hotel in Miami, which is not a management position and is required for the season (Hyatt Careers, 2021). With about a hundred other similar vacancies in the HR industry alone at Hyatt hotels around the world, we can conclude that at the moment, the hotel in Miami employs highly qualified personnel in the field of human resource management.

Hyatt’s worldwide hotel revenues more than doubled in 2019. If the company has experienced growth since 2009, which has stabilized from 2013 to 2018, the company broke all of its profitability records in 2019, after which it fell by more than $ 3 billion, which was more than 50% of revenue in 2019 (Statista, 2021). There may be several reasons for this, but the most important one is obvious – the COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictions imposed in connection with it. These restrictions included the complete closing of air travel between countries, the transition to remote work, the cancellation of business travel, and the complete cessation of tourism activities. Losses are suffered by all travel agencies, hotels, and other organizations, one way or another, tied to tourism. This section will look at all of the above theories to address business recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic and improve employee satisfaction in such a challenging environment.

Greater job satisfaction leads to greater efficiency, and greater efficiency leads to greater guest satisfaction. This thesis should be confirmed in practice using the theories listed below. First, employee satisfaction can be achieved through transformational leadership, autonomy, and learning techniques. The assessment is carried out using a questionnaire, which can be further processed by various methods of structural analysis and statistical searches for correlation dependence. However, several other methods can be taken to interpret personal data. For example, they are modeling the path of partial least squares, which was used to determine the dependence of leadership, loyalty, and efficiency of employees (Farrukh et al., 2019). These studies aim to identify the reasons for employee satisfaction and determine the roles of managers and the share of their intervention in the processes (Phuong & Tran, 2020). The use of these theories will allow us to assess the many criteria of this issue.

As noted in the literature review, communication skills are crucial both between clients and staff and within the staff. According to the theories listed above, the application of learning involves open communication and analysis of situations in which mistakes can be made and discussed. These facts will increase employee engagement and the quality of communication skills, which contributes to competitiveness in the hospitality industry through qualified service and a lack of staff turnover. The categories of employee satisfaction, on-the-job learning, engagement, productivity, and guest satisfaction are closely related, and the quality of the organizational culture directly affects the performance of any hotel, increasing its competitiveness.

Training can be applied in three ways, as indicated in the literature review. Firstly, through the application of the transformational leadership model, secondly, through the provision of a certain autonomy to employees, and thirdly, through the classical types of learning through lectures, seminars, and pieces of training. However, training is a method of treatment, and quantitative assessment can only be obtained from changes in employees’ responses during the survey and, therefore, from customer feedback.

Learning models are essential for all hotel employees because of their effectiveness. Training is integral to employee commitment and performance, so models like these cannot be ignored. It can lead to improved communication skills that are required when dealing with clients. The rich experience of the Hyatt holding allows it to create a particular classification of customers in accordance with their external behavior and, in this regard, develop a training program to work with the satisfaction of their internal behavior, which in the context of current conditions, everyone needs to remain calm, beware of anxiety, panic, and other psychological adversity.

Dependencies can be analyzed using structural equation modeling, a method already actively used to measure employee satisfaction (Islam & Ahmed, 2018). Through these approaches, connections can be made between specific events undertaken and quantitative measures of the data collected in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be built on the principle of using the ready-made model of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, where 20 points are evaluated on a five-point scale. These include ability utilization, achievement, activity, promotion, power, company politics, compensation, colleagues, creativity, independence, moral values, recognition, duty, safety, social status, social service, supervision – human relations, supervision – technical, diversity, terms labor (the University of Minnesota, n.d.). Such questionnaires in the hospitality industry often investigate the relationship between satisfaction and emotional intelligence (Koronios et al., 2019). Emotional intelligence is essential when communicating with customers, and in the case of hotels, it also requires international experience and knowledge of cultures.

All hotel staff is obviously used as a sample. The emphasis should be placed on those employees who are in contact with customers more often or whose responsibilities include this communication. As a rule, in such studies and questionnaires, the method of total sampling is used (Folakemi et al., 2018). The survey will be carried out iteratively in order to assess the impact of certain events, as well as to establish correlations. The customer review system should also be improved, but it should be left voluntary for the highest customer comfort.

The determinants of competitiveness are not limited to the usual indicators of income, development, and high rankings on specific platforms, although these factors are still important. Research shows that innovation and collaboration, related industries, government policies, and factor conditions are also crucial indicators of competitiveness in the hospitality industry (Nunes, 2018). Imposing a struggle on the market is hard enough, but applying innovation is also beneficial for a brand whose uniqueness is always its strong point. This uniqueness can manifest itself both in the eyes of clients and in the labor market, attracting specialists from all over the world.

Therefore, several hypotheses can be made that need to be tested using questionnaires and structural analysis methods. First hypothesis: Transformational leadership contributes to customer satisfaction. Second hypothesis: Worker autonomy contributes to customer satisfaction. Finally, the third hypothesis is that teaching techniques contribute to guest satisfaction. Each of these hypotheses runs through categories of employee satisfaction and performance.


The most common method is a questionnaire survey of employees, as it is the most accessible and easiest to implement, where a significant amount of time is spent only on drawing up a questionnaire. However, within the hospitality industry, this approach has its drawbacks. Firstly, almost any employee of a hotel or hotel during the work process is busy every second due to the likelihood of the need for the client. Working with questionnaires outside of working hours looks like overtime, and not every employee will be happy to remember work processes and their attitude to them on their legal days off. Secondly, inexperience in such approaches and filling out questionnaires on such a topic can lead to distorted assessments, consequences, and interpretation, which can only harm potential employee satisfaction. It is vital in a pandemic when the risk of psychological disorders increases.

Thus, the primary method would be structural equation statistical analysis, which includes a partial least squares path modeling approach. Twenty items of an extended variation of the Minnesota Employee Satisfaction Survey will be collected over a specified amount of time iteratively. At the same time, customer feedback data is collected, and hotel revenues as another indicator of employee performance and competitiveness in the hospitality market. Various theories are also applied in parallel that positively affect employee satisfaction, engagement, and performance. Such theories include transformational leadership theories, autonomy theory, and learning. After each set of activities, a new iteration of the questionnaire is carried out. Then, using structural analysis, correlations between the observed phenomena and the hidden variables are revealed. This observation aims to identify those activities that increase the satisfaction and efficiency of hotel employees.

It is essential to clarify the format of training in the framework of human resource management. First, training should not take place in the format of monotonous lectures. On the contrary, the event should be like a dialogue, an open discussion, where employees will express their fears and concerns about the work process as the reception from a psychologist. Secondly, the availability of specialists will help not only to find a compromise in these problems but also to involve staff in the acquisition of new skills. Finally, the presentation of the material includes highlighting only the positive aspects of the current situation, which can be used as a springboard to improve their competence.

The next step in interpreting quantitative assessments is to directly prove the hypothesis about the relationship between employee and customer satisfaction. Customer reviews, if possible, also distributed in the form of questionnaires collected during the study period, are also searched for dependencies between the given coefficients of efficiency and employee satisfaction obtained at the previous stage. The search will also be carried out using statistical evaluation by structural analysis. The search for dependencies will occur between each variable of the twenty indicators of the questionnaire and customer reviews. Thus, using the data obtained and alternate application of teaching methods, the three hypotheses obtained in the previous section are sequentially tested iteratively. The dynamics of hotel revenues are also taken into account as evidence of competitiveness. It will be most significant during a pandemic when tourism and travel are meaningfully reduced.

Anticipated Results

Such a deep and detailed analysis will allow Hyatt’s management to identify various hotel internal structure problems and find leverage over the external market and competitors. Training is an initiative of the management; therefore, its organization must be approached very carefully, as well as the selection of the time for its conduct. A seemingly simple data collection tool with the above studies – a questionnaire – with structural analysis provides a flexible analytical approach. In case of positive dynamics in the long term, the hotel will have a sufficiently reliable, mathematically backed mechanism for monitoring success. In case of negative dynamics, the management will immediately receive alarms through questionnaires until they have time to affect the global results of the hotel’s work – customer reviews and income or occupancy rates. Naturally, there are many more determinants of competitiveness and a host of other criteria and factors that can affect customer feedback and hotel revenue. Nevertheless, by receiving such a control mechanism, management saves itself from emergencies within a certain maturation period. It can also regulate employee satisfaction, who will be required to report it much more often and more comprehensively than they did before or even might have thought.

Ultimately, in addition to maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction, management will be able to connect with the majority of their employees, increasing their engagement, loyalty, and confidence. Creating close communication within the team and increasing the level of involvement in the general goals of the company contributes to the creation of a loyal and professional team of hotel personnel, which will be practically devoid of conflicts that disturb the atmosphere and disagreement that can lead to mistakes in front of customers. In addition, confidence in the workplace encourages improvisation, which, as noted above, is an essential component in dealing with a large flow of guests. More detailed communication can prompt management to create additional unique amenities for employees, becoming an original and competitive hotel for guests and potential highly qualified specialists. Innovation and collaboration are some of the most important determinants of competitiveness, as indicated above, and a positive experience of communication between management and staff contributes to the development of new solutions in human resource management.


Employee satisfaction training is a complex task that requires a complex solution. The pandemic has hit the whole world and lost the tourism industry, in which the hotel sector receives the lion’s share of revenues. The impact of training and other theories on employee satisfaction, and subsequent study of the impact on customer satisfaction, can provide Hyatt Regency Miami with a control mechanism for detailed analysis to avoid problems within the team. The application of statistical analysis methods, modeling of structural equations, and correlation with selected variables will allow the deeper study of the issue and the most important results in Hyatt Regency Miami.


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The Impact Of Burnout On The Quality Of Medical Care


One of the central focuses of clinical care continues to be the unwavering desire of workers to provide the best possible care for the patient’s health and to create the most constructive environment for rapid, pain-free, and effective recovery. Patients use clinical organizations for this very purpose, but it is not uncommon for the treatment experience to be not only ineffective but even damaging. In this sense, special attention should be paid to the problem of nurses’ professional burnout, which is spreading increasingly widely, all the more so in conditions of pandemic stress. It is believed that clinical care from nurses with professional burnout is comparably worse than from nurses without burnout. The present research paper seeks to evaluate this thesis critically.

PICOT Question

Are patients who received medical care from nurses suffering from job burnout less likely to recover at the same time compared with Patients who received medical care from nurses who are not suffering from job burnout?

The Topicality of the Problem

Burnout in this research work is understood as a mental and physical state of a worker that is accompanied by cynicism, apathy, and lack of interest in the work performed. Burnout in the conditions of the health care sector, as it seems obvious, is the most serious problem because it is expected that such a state of a clinical worker has a destructive impact on the patient’s recovery experience. Meanwhile, occupational burnout is not an uncommon problem, and statistics report an increasing trend. Specifically, there are reports that nearly 43% of all nurses in the United States have symptoms of burnout (Reith, 2018). A more recent study reported that two-thirds of nurses appear to be at risk for emotional burnout (Bruyneel et al., 2021). Meanwhile, approximately one in three nurses in the U.S. fired in 2018 were fired for reasons related to professional burnout (Shah et al., 2021). Such data creates tension in the issue of quality patient care, as it becomes apparent that patient interaction with a nurse experiencing burnout is not an uncommon practice.

Providing Quality Care

A nurse experiencing burnout is psychologically and physically drained and visibly loses interest and motivation to work successfully. In such a state, many people cannot be motivated even by intentionally increasing salaries because they are already satiated with the activity they are performing. Nevertheless, it is essential to emphasize that burnout is not the same as ceasing to do professional work because often, especially in medical personnel, the activity being performed is critical to society. To put it another way, nurses, as a rule, may not be able to take a break and leave their jobs, which means that the problem of burnout will continue to catalyze.

Particularly burnout among nurses has become a problem in the last two years, associated with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of the destructive effects of an unknown virus, tens of millions of people around the world have found themselves in need of medical care, putting a natural strain on the clinical system (Bruyneel et al., 2021). The unrelenting flow of new inpatients in a bed-strewn environment forced medical personnel to work at their very best to provide at least minimal care for the sick. It turned out that under such conditions, nurses developed the symptoms of professional burnout much faster, which means that the deleterious effect of burnout is intensified.

One of the main consequences of a nurse’s burnout includes the lack of interest in the result of a patient’s treatment. Seeing an endless stream of patients constantly changing, a nurse finds herself in danger of losing her personalized approach to them. Patients may become just another object for her to implement her professional competencies, which means that their personal experiences, interests, and needs risk going unnoticed by the nurse. In addition, this has the potential to affect the effectiveness of communication between the nurse and patients. Communication is known to be a predictor of quality nursing care, as it is communication that helps identify critical issues and adjust recovery in a personalized way. Nevertheless, a burned-out nurse may not be interested in communicating with the patient, which consequently affects the quality of care received.

Because the professional focus of any nurse’s activity is set on ensuring patient safety, burnout can interfere with this outcome. Because of difficulties related to emotional well-being, nurses may feel unappreciated and insignificant (Dalmolin et al., 2012). During interactions with patients, these feelings may be relayed to them, leading to moral decline in sick people. In addition to the fact that their physical health was already under stress, additional emotional pressure from nurses can only delay recovery. Thus, the burned-out nurse has difficulty being empathetic and interested in the patient’s problems.

A central determinant of professional burnout remains overwork when nurses are forced to work more than work commitments require. This problem seems especially urgent now when the COVID-19 pandemic is forcing clinics to be overproductive. Literature data clearly shows that for those healthcare organizations where nurses worked more than thirteen hours, the rate of burnout was higher (Stimpfel et al., 2012). In turn, this affected clients’ perceived care: average service scores were significantly lower for such clinics. In other words, patients who interacted with burnout nurses were not willing to recommend these clinics because of substandard care.

Meanwhile, another threat of burnout to patient safety is increased staff turnover. As noted above, one in three nurses in the United States has been fired for reasons associated with burnout problems. This creates an environment within a single clinic in which nurses are very often fired, and new employees take their place. Although there is no problem with staff renewal per se, high turnover threatens ineffective communication between the workforce and in the patient-nurse system. In particular, new nurses must build relationships with patients from the ground up and integrate them into the workforce, which takes time and effort from all stakeholders. Potentially, there is a threat when the current team will not accept a new employee since it is likely that they will quickly as it is. Ultimately, all of these issues have an impact on patient safety.


To summarize, burnout is a serious professional problem that is critical in the medical sector. Burnout nurses have low engagement and interest in the operational processes of the clinic, which has an expected impact on patient well-being. Such nurses may reduce the intensity of communication, ignore the client’s personal interests, and be generally disinterested in the outcome of patient care. In addition, the problem of burnout creates a high turnover rate, which in turn can be disruptive to the patient and the workforce. As a consequence, nurse managers should carefully monitor the problems associated with burnout of their subordinates and suggest preventive actions to contain these threats.


Bruyneel, A., Smith, P., Tack, J., & Pirson, M. (2021). Prevalence of burnout risk and factors associated with burnout risk among ICU nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak in French-speaking Belgium. Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, 65, 1-7. Web.

Dalmolin, G. D. L., Lunardi, V. L., Barlem, E. L. D., & Silveira, R. S. D. (2012). Implications of moral distress on nurses and its similarities with Burnout. Texto & Contexto-Enfermagem, 21, 200-208. Web.

Reith, T. P. (2018). Burnout in United States healthcare professionals: A narrative review. Cureus, 10(12), 1-9. Web.

Shah, M. K., Gandrakota, N., Cimiotti, J. P., Ghose, N., Moore, M., & Ali, M. K. (2021). Prevalence of and factors associated with nurse burnout in the US. JAMA Network Open, 4(2), 1-11. Web.

Stimpfel, A. W., Sloane, D. M., & Aiken, L. H. (2012). The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction. Health Affairs, 31(11), 2501-2509. Web.

Marijuana Abuse: Annotated Bibliography

Substance selected: Marijuana

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2021). SAMHSA releases 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Web.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration reports that the COVID-19 pandemic had a highly negative impact on the nation’s overall health and wellbeing. The organization does not have a solid and specific stance on marijuana, but it states that almost 50 million people aged 12 and older have used the illicit substance in 2020 (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2021). However, SAMSHA clearly indicates that there is a trend in the growth of the number of individuals using marijuana, which might be contributing to the worsening of public health (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2021). In other words, the COVID-19 impacted the population’s marijuana consumption by increasing its use. The organization claims that there needs to be an intervention in order to reduce substance use disorders (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2021). SAMSHA also admits that there are limitations in regard to the data collected due to the restrictions brought by the pandemic. Therefore, the marijuana abuse numbers can be potentially higher than observed.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2021). Adolescent marijuana, alcohol use held steady during COVID-19 pandemic. Web.

National Institute on Drug Abuse reports that marijuana abuse by adolescents did not change significantly due to the COVID-19 pandemic despite a sharp decline in perceived availability of the substance for the target group (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2021). Therefore, the trend is that both alcohol and marijuana will not change in the near future and might even increase with more access to these drugs as the lockdown restrictions will be gradually removed. It is important to note that “before the pandemic, 23% of students said they had used marijuana in the past 30 days, compared to 20% during the pandemic” (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2021, para. 7). The report suggests that marijuana abuse cannot be prevented solely through supply reduction measures, which is why demand reduction is critical.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021). COVID-19 and people at increased risk. Web.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that substance abuse disorders put individuals in a high-risk group for COVID-19 complications. It is stated that marijuana smoking “can make chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and other lung conditions worse” (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2021, para. 7). The organization also reports that the pandemic caused an increase in marijuana abuse due to elevated stress levels. CDC also reports that the rate of drug abuse and overdoses has been increasing both prior to and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The agency is clearly against marijuana abuse and related disorders due to possible complications under the impact of the coronavirus.

Overall prediction

Based on these three resources put together, we can conclude that after COVID, we are likely to see an increase in marijuana abuse, especially among adolescents, as restrictive access elements will be removed. It is evident that the adult population’s consumption of marijuana increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, which requires intervention in terms of policies and programs. The trend of increase in drug abuse is partly due to increased levels of stresses brought by the coronavirus and related ramifications, such as economic and social stressors.

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