# Hypothesis Test Study Description Homework Essay Sample

### Summary

The hypothesis test study selected to help work on the conclusion is the Z-test. Z-test is a widely used hypothesis testing method that evaluates and determines whether or not an association or a finding is statistically significant (Dziak et al., 2020). A z-test examines the mean of a distribution and compares it to the expected value. To calculate the z-score, a researcher subtracts the mean from the raw score and then divides the result by the standard deviation. The main assumption when calculating the z-score is that the data is normally distributed (Illowsky, & Dean, 2018). The test can only be performed for a population greater than 30. The central limit theorem underscores the assumption because it is likely to be normally distributed as a sample size gets larger.

### Example Scenario

When a business person wishes to know whether the daily returns on stock are above 1%, the z-test is paramount. The test can be calculated using a sample of 30 entries of daily recovery. If the sample is calculated and is found to have an average mean of 2%, and assuming that the standard deviation is 2.5%, then the claim that the mean is great than one percent is justified by calculation when the alpha value is 0.05.

### Variables for Testing and the Guess

In the case of the businessman, the important variable under test is the population means and whether its value is higher than 1.5%. The guess set at the beginning of the test is that the mean is 1.5%. Based on the guess, the null and alternative hypotheses are given as H0: z = 1.5% H1: z > 1.5%, respectively. Given the condition, the z-score will be computed as:

Where:

•  a value from the population is,
•  is the population mean, and
•  is the standard deviation for the population.

The critical value can be obtained from the z-table by looking up from the left side of the column at 0.4 and checking the corresponding value, 0.65542. The corresponding value is then used to decide whether the variables are statistically significant (Dwijayanti et al., 202). The decision rule, in this case, is that the null hypothesis is rejected when z is greater than the critical value. In the case of the businessman, the null hypothesis is accepted because the available evidence refutes the claim that the mean is greater than 1.5%.

### References

Dwijayanti, I., Nugroho, A. A., & Pratiwi, Y. I. (2020). Meta-analysis: Effect of problem approach and inquiry approach toward students’ mathematical critical thinking skill over the past 4 years. Al-Jabar: Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika, 11(1), 1-10.

Dziak, J. J., Dierker, L. C., & Abar, B. (2020). The interpretation of statistical power after the data have been gathered. Current Psychology, 39(3), 870-877. Web.

Illowsky, B., & Dean, S. (2018). Introductory Business Statistics [PDF document]. Web.

## The Russian Revolution In October 1917

The Russia Rebellion of 1917 became one of the most explosive political uprisings of the 19th century. This Revolution was violent, ending the Romanov throne and decades of imperial rule. During this Rebellion, the Bolsheviks, spearheaded by the Marxist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin, grasped the power and obliterated Russia’s bizarre ruling tradition. In this video, the Revolution drives the governmental and social upheavals that lead to the foundation of the Soviet Ussr (Mediaclash, 2008). The Revolution in the film induced the Industrial Revolution, resulting in this paradigm shift in governmental and social structure. The Revolution was a bloodless coup that led to the leader of the Revolution, Lenin, calling for a government led by workers, peasants, and a council of soldiers. It, therefore, makes it clear that the Revolution was about change. The Bolvisheks and their allies occupied strategic locations such as government buildings and formed a new government headed by Lenin.

Political parties in Russia by 1917 were the leading organizations. The Revolution was a struggle between the socialist parties and the liberals on one side and moderate socialists and radicals on the other. The Bolsheviks, the Mensheviks, and the social revolutionaries were considered socialists (Russian Revolution, 2022). The liberals were constitutional democrats, while the moderate socialists consisted of centrist socialist revolutionaries, right-wing socialists, revolutionaries, and Mensheviks. Social revolutionaries were engaged in terror and autocracy. Mensheviks were proponents of the socialist Revolution that took place in Russia.

Lenin headed the Bolshevik movement during the Russian Revolt, a communist uprising. Lenin’s personality was a dictatorship, and his political ideologies were founded on dictatorship (Vladimir Lenin, 2020). He rose to power as ruler of the globe’s first communist nation. The article on the remnants of the Russian royal family killed confirms that the Romanov family was killed. This is a confirmation that the Revolution was violent.

### References

Russian Revolution. (2022). History. Web.

## Cancer Treatment Process Perceived By Women With Ovarian Cancer

### Introduction

The article “Preserving oneself in the face of uncertainty: A grounded theory study of women with ovarian cancer” explores how the process of treating ovarian cancer affects the well-being and physical and emotional state of women. The research aimed to analyze the “theme of preserving oneself in the face of uncertainty” and to develop recommendations for nurses to help patients in a similar situation (Pozzar & Berry, 2019, p. 595). A search for evidence was conducted based on a grounded theory approach, and the data was gathered via individual interviews (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). The article was found on the PubMed database, and the following keywords were used to search: decision-making, ovarian cancer, patient-centered care, and self-concept. This research was carried out on adult women with ovarian cancer, studying its influence on patients’ physical and mental health, and comparing patient-centered care to what is practiced now in achieving patients’ well-being during the treatment process.

### Summary of the Research Article

In this article, a female gynecological disease, ovarian cancer, was investigated. It is the leading cause of cancer death among women and has a 47% survival rate (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). Treatment of ovarian cancer is a long and challenging process, so the mental state of patients affects the effectiveness of therapy (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). Accordingly, this study aims to develop a recommendation for improving the quality of care for women with ovarian cancer. Therefore, the authors interviewed patients to describe their perception of the treatment and care process and to find areas for improvement.

The article is based on an observational study as the authors use case reports of a small selection of patients that reported their impressions of the treatment process. Well-planned and well-regulated observational research is considered level II or III evidence. Case reports are recognized as level III testimony and highly criticized for exposure to unpredictable confounders. Since the authors examined a small number of stories, they still represent an insufficient representative sample to transfer the results to a broad practice. On the other hand, such studies allow collecting qualitative information about patient experience to make a simpler and cheaper quantitative study based on it in the future.

Participant sampling took place in two phases to provide different characteristics of patients by age, educational level, and family income. The first sample included six women aged 49 or younger with a college education and an income of \$60,000 or more (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). The second sample included 12 patients, on average, older, and with different income and education levels (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). As a result, the study’s results included interviews with 18 participants with high-risk cancer.

Data were collected from individual interviews with open-ended questions in which patients were encouraged to speak freely. Topics discussed included care management, treatment planning, decision-making, communication with providers, practical aspects and effectiveness of treatment, side effects, use of alternative methods, and family issues (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). Each participant was interviewed verbally, recorded on audio, and then processed manually. Additionally, demographic information was collected, and the final notes were anonymized.

The authors concluded that the main concern for study participants was how to preserve themselves in the face of uncertainty, which created a risk to physical and mental health. Patients faced problems with “psychological well-being, self-concept, self-image, and social role” (Pozzar & Berry, 2019, p. 601). Women with ovarian cancer improved their well-being by participating in treatment and communicating with providers, supporting family and friends, and other social support groups (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). The article’s authors believe that high-risk cancer creates constant emotional tension, which can lead to burnout and a decrease in resistance to the disease.

### Nursing Implications

This article can be used in nursing practice since nurses provide patient-centered care and have the closest interpersonal relationship with patients and their relatives. First, it is necessary to involve women in proactive participation in the process of treatment and communication with providers, as it improves their morale (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). Second, nurses can provide information about support groups and other social organizations to help reduce stress and adapt to new roles (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). Third, developing educational and communication activities will help patients understand what they are going through and prepare for possible symptoms and side effects of treatment (Pozzar & Berry, 2019). In general, nurses should create an environment for interprofessional cooperation and a network of mutual help and support for women with ovarian cancer.

### Conclusion

The topic of preserving oneself in the process of treating high-risk diseases is crucial for the health of patients and treatment outcomes. Observational case reports, while limited, show concerns and issues that ovarian cancer patients go through. The study shows that women of different ages and social backgrounds experience similar mental challenges in the face of uncertainty and need nurses’ assistance to navigate. Nurses can significantly contribute to patients’ well-being and treatment by helping them build connections with providers, other professionals, support groups, and social workers. Moreover, they can involve patients in self-care routines and provide the necessary information to reduce patient anxiety.

### Reference

Pozzar, R. A., & Berry, D. L. (2019). Preserving oneself in the face of uncertainty: A grounded theory study of women with ovarian cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 46(5), 595-603.

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