Identification Of An Unknown Sample Writing Sample

Introduction

This laboratory test aimed to recognize one unknown species from a diversified culture. The researcher conducted three trials in the laboratory to ascertain the unidentified species. The experimenter’s tests include; Columbia CNA Agar, Eosin Methylene Blue Agar, and the Phenol Red Test (Vega & Dowzicky, 2017). The analyzer realized that the unknown species were the Proteus mirabilis bacteria and the streptococcus pyogenes bacteria. Bubbles were not observed in Columbia CNA Agar Test, indicating that the bacteria are Gram-Negative; catalase was not produced. Colonies with dark halos appeared; the Columbia Agar Test did not break down the red blood cells, indicating that the specimen was gram-positive.

Bubbles were observed in Eosin Methylene Blue Agar Test, which indicates that the bacteria are Gram-Positive; catalase was produced. Bacteria are categorized into Gram-positive and Gram-negative depending on their vulnerability to staining a chemical die during a standard biochemical technique (Vega & Dowzicky, 2017). The possible results during the Phenol Red Test include; colored colonies, which indicate that the species are Gram-positive because they ferment lactose. The sample in the test tube turned yellow, showing the pH of the species in the test tube dropped because of the acid creation and fermentation of the sugars available in the species. Bubbles were not observed during the Phenol Red Test, indicating that the bacteria are Gram-positive; catalase was not produced. Unknown specimens have been used in this report by the researcher to identify the bacteria of the species.

The tester doing this lab test has sufficient information relating to the procedures used in researching and cultivating microbes. The scientist will identify the unknown specimens by analyzing their sugar fermentation, growth properties, and enzyme production (Vega & Dowzicky, 2017). Identifying the unknown species will help the researcher to identify various bacteria via distinct biochemical characteristics and tests. This is crucial in medicine because identifying unknown bacteria helps treat patients by being aware of the bacteria or species contributing to the origin of the illness. Additionally, being knowledgeable about various bacteria is vital because it enables people to develop more antibiotics that patients will use shortly.

Methodology

The scholar inoculated distilled water with a sole bacterial collection to protect the liquid media by touching a pure protecting colony, immersed the loop into distilled water, and thoroughly mixed the solution. To inoculate an agar state medium, the fieldworker placed a small specimen into the agar plate using a sterile swab. The scientist then lifted the lid from the petri dish to inoculate an agar slate medium (Vega & Dowzicky, 2017). The researcher added 5% of the unknown specimens in distilled water to conduct the Columbia CNA Agar Test. The mixture was thoroughly mixed and heated until it boiled. The experimenter then autoclaved the solution for 15 minutes at 121 degrees Celsius (Vega & Dowzicky, 2017). The solution was then allowed to cool to 50 degrees Celsius.

For the Eosin Methylene Blue Agar Test, the researcher suspended 35.96 grams of the species in 1000 ml of distilled water and mixed the solution until the suspension was uniform. The researcher then heated the mixture until it completely dissolved. The expert did sterilization by autoclaving the mix at 121 degrees Celsius for 15 minutes. The third test that the researcher conducted is the Phenol Red Test. The scholar used an inoculating needle and aseptically protected the 30 grams of the species in a test tube (Vega & Dowzicky, 2017). After that, the scholar incubated the test tube holding the species at a temperature ranging between 35 to 37 degrees Celsius for approximately 18 to 24 hours and checked for color changes.

Results

Bubbles were not observed in Columbia CNA Agar Test, indicating that the bacteria are Gram-Negative; catalase was not produced. Colonies with faint halos appeared; the Columbia Agar Test did not break down the red blood cells, indicating that the specimen was gram-positive. Bubbles were observed in Eosin Methylene Blue Agar Test, which suggests that the bacteria is Gram-Positive; catalase was produced. Colorless colonies also appeared in the test tube, indicating that the specimen is Gram-negative because it did not ferment lactose. Colored colonies observed in Phenol Red Test show that the sample is Gram-positive because it ferments lactose. The piece in the test tube turned yellow, indicating the pH of the species in the test tube dropped because of acid creation due to the sugar fermentation of the species. Bubbles were not observed during the Phenol Red Test, indicating that the bacteria are Gram-positive; catalase was not produced. The species in the test tube did not make any gas from the fermentation of the species, hence indicating that the species in the test tube was an acrogenic organism.

Discussion

Eosin Methylene Blue Agar Test is essential in distinguishing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. The bacteria that use oxygen generate the catalase enzyme to respire and protect the microbes from toxic by-products eliminated by oxygen metabolism (Vega & Dowzicky, 2017). Eosin Methylene Blue Agar differentiates and isolates gram destructive enteric bacteria from nonclinical and clinical specimens. The researcher used Antimicrobial Drug Susceptibility Disc Diffusion Assay to determine the antimicrobials inhibiting the growth of the fungi causing infections (Vega & Dowzicky, 2017). Columbia Agar is a very nutritious medium applied to isolate and grow different microorganisms, specifically very fussy bacteria such as pneumococci and streptococci in animal samples. Scholars use Columbia Agar for general purposes; researchers can improve the technique by using pure blood. The Phenol Red Test is used for general purposes in the lab to distinguish gram-negative enteric bacteria. It is also used in determining microorganisms depending on their fermentation reactions.

The Phenol Red Test has a pH indicator (phenol red), peptone, one carbohydrate (either sucrose, lactose, or glucose), and a Durham tube. The lab tests performed by the learner on the unknown specimens detected that the species were Proteus mirabilis bacteria and streptococcus pyogenes. The species had colorless colonies, Gram-negative, and did not ferment lactose during the Eosin Methylene Blue Agar Test (Vega & Dowzicky, 2017). Colorless colonies also appeared in the test tube, indicating that the specimen is Gram-negative because it did not ferment lactose. The sample in the test tube turned yellow, showing the pH of the species in the test tube dropped because of the acid creation and fermentation of the sugars available in the species. Colored colonies observed in Phenol Red Test show that the sample is Gram-positive because it ferments lactose. The presence of the Phenol Red Test is not critical in retaining cell cultures. Researchers often use the Phenol Red Test as a quick way of detecting unknown species. Health practitioners could use the test results to assess effective medicines when treating patients with unknown species.

Reference

Vega, S., & Dowzicky, M. (2017). Antimicrobial susceptibility among Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms collected from the Latin American region between 2004 and 2015 as part of the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 16(1).

VTE Prophylactic Treatment

Conducting a literature search is essential for evidence-based nursing practice as it helps improve the quality and cost-effectiveness of care via the combination of current research evidence with clinical expertise. According to Gray et al. (2016), the focus of clinical research in the 21st century has shifted from the treatment of health issues to their prevention, along with the promotion of patient education. The process of literature search might be challenging for several reasons, especially if the research requires the highest level of evidence on a specific topic. On the one hand, many current resources containing high-quality evidence are still dedicated to the treatment of diseases rather than patient education. Moreover, the sources with relevant information and evidence might be outdated. Therefore, the challenges of performing a literature search are associated with finding a current source that contains high-quality evidence related to a particular research topic and combines all aspects of a particular issue. Since secondary sources are not evidence, I used primary sources, including two peer-reviewed scholarly articles, for my EBP project research based on the clinical practice problem of patient non-compliance with VTE prophylactic treatment.

The search terms and keywords I used during my online search included “VTE patient non-compliance risks”, “VTE patient compliance management and improvement”, and “VTE prophylaxis non-compliance complications”. The nature of the research topic required finding resources focused on the management of patient non-compliance and thromboembolism prevention rather than the treatment of VTE. Systematic reviews are at the top of the evidence pyramid, so I began my literature research with the PubMed database looking for systematic review articles. During the literature search process, I came across multiple systematic reviews examining VTE’s problem but disregarding patient non-compliance and VTE prophylaxis. PubMed database search eventually led me to one critically-appraised, peer-reviewed individual article investigating the risks of VTE non-compliance and the improvement of health outcomes via patient education on VTE prophylactic measures. Since Google Scholar includes articles from many databases and scholarly journals, I decided to search for additional literature sources there. Google Scholar helped me to find the article listing the risks and outcomes of VTE non-compliance, including the increased expenses for healthcare providers and the significant number of preventable deaths caused by hospital-acquired VTE complications.

The easiest step in the process of the literature search was selecting the database. Brown (2018) claims that PubMed is one of the most accessible online databases containing primary and secondary healthcare sources. As the systematic reviews available in the database did not meet the requirements for my research, I had to move down the evidence pyramid and search for critically-appraised individual articles. Choosing the proper database and expanding my search by including peer-reviewed articles helped me to save time and effort as I found the relevant article in about 20 minutes. However, I had difficulty finding another primary source to support my research, so I had to look for it using additional resources. While the topic of VTE was frequent in the database search results, there were little to no sources on patient non-compliance with VTE treatment. When I entered the search terms, Google Scholar displayed the list of current articles, including one primary source related to my research topic and covering the most important aspects of VTE patient non-compliance. Overall, I had to spend about an hour completing the literature research.

References

Brown, S. J. (2018). Evidence-based nursing: The research-practice connection (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2016). The practice of nursing research: Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences.

Vietnam’s Emerging Market Potential

The western countries can help Vietnam improve its business climate by assisting the country in improving its legal, political, and regulatory frameworks. Since Vietnam’s exports depend on multinationals such as Samsung, the country must focus on providing opportunities for local companies. Western nations can instruct the Vietnamese officials on how to conduct a reform which would facilitate the process of business registration and company formation. Additionally, they can help Vietnam in establishing clear tax legislation which would not undergo any sudden corrections and changes.

Companies conducting market research in Vietnam risk encountering numerous challenges. For example, due to the fact that the country’s economy is to a large extent unofficial, collecting precise and correct information about its size and potential can be problematic. Moreover, the data provided by the government can be unreliable since the authorities may want to overstate different results to attract foreign investment (Wild and Wild 336). Subsequently, there are issues concerning determining the market consumption capacity and consumption levels because the majority of citizens do not register their earnings. Moreover, the data provided by the government can be unreliable since the authorities may want to overstate different results to attract foreign investment.

The products which are labeled “Made in Vietnam” do not affect my perception in any considerable way because they can be both of good and poor quality.

Work Cited

Wild, John, and Kenneth Wild. International Business: The Challenges of Globalization. 9th ed., Pearson, 2021.

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