The unprecedented growth of the COVID-19 pandemic brought unprecedented challenges to education worldwide. With schools and universities closing down to curb the spread of the virus, online education became the norm, affecting students and teachers alike. The shift to online learning was not without challenges, and some of the most significant impacts of the pandemic on education are discussed below. The pandemic impacted most students in different ways. While some could adapt to online learning seamlessly, others needed help with the transition. For many students, online learning was challenging due to limited access to technology and internet connectivity, especially in rural and low-income areas. This led to disparities in access to education, with some students needing more resources. The pandemic also impacted teaching and knowledge dissemination. Teachers had to quickly adapt to new technologies and learn new skills to teach effectively online. Some teachers found it challenging to create engaging and interactive online lessons that kept students motivated and focused. Additionally, teachers had to find new ways to assess student learning, as traditional forms of assessment, such as exams and quizzes, were only sometimes feasible in an online environment.
Maintaining student engagement and motivation was one of the most significant issues in the transition from face-to-face to online learning. Online learning can be isolating, and students may struggle to stay motivated and focused without the social support and interaction provided by traditional classrooms. Additionally, the pandemic has created a range of new stresses for students, including financial instability, health concerns, and disrupted routines. These factors can impact a student’s ability to engage with online learning. Another important issue was ensuring the quality of online education. While many schools and universities already used online learning platforms, others needed more preparation to transition quickly. This led to concerns about the quality of education students received and whether they were adequately prepared for future academic and professional pursuits. Effectively, the pandemic highlighted the need for greater flexibility in education.
Traditional forms of education may only sometimes be feasible, and online learning can provide new opportunities for students who face barriers to traditional education. However, the shift to online learning also highlights the need for greater investment in technology and internet infrastructure to ensure that all students have equal access to education. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted online education, affecting students, teachers, and the quality of education provided. While the transition to online learning has been challenging, it has also highlighted the need for greater flexibility and investment in technology and infrastructure to ensure that all students have access to quality education, regardless of their location or circumstances. This research aims to identify the effects that COVID-19 has had on learning, especially by outlining how students and various learners have been affected by the shift to online by reviewing student academic performance before COVID-19 and during the pandemic and evaluating the availability of online learning materials, and how it impacted their performance.
Effectively this research paper establishes critical themes and issues related to the broader topic of online education during the COVID-19 epidemic, including access to technology, student engagement, academic performance, and the role of educators in the online environment. Effectively it evaluates whether access to technology is a significant issue for many students, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Expounding on issues such as how access to devices such as laptops or tablets, limited internet access, and insufficient technical support may affect overall academic performance. It seeks to establish whether poor or inadequate access to technology, students may need help to engage with online learning materials and may fall behind in their studies. Student engagement is also a critical issue in the online education environment. Here this research evaluates whether students may feel isolated and disconnected from their peers and educators and how it impacts their motivation and participation in the learning process. It also evaluates if the online environment may require new skills and strategies for effective communication and collaboration and if these aspects can pose challenges for students.
Overall it seeks to establish that academic performance is a key concern in the context of online education during the COVID-19 epidemic. The shift to online learning has disrupted traditional teaching and assessment methods, and some students may need help to adapt to the new format. This may impact their grades and overall academic performance. In the study, the role of educators will be evaluated and defined as to whether it is crucial in supporting students’ success in the online environment. The study also evaluates whether educators must adapt their teaching methods and strategies to the online format, support, and guide students, and create a positive and engaging learning environment. An example of demographics’ descriptive information that may be relevant to this topic is the digital divide, which refers to the gap between those who have access to technology and those who do not. This study may be key in evaluating how low-income households, rural residents, and Black and Hispanic Americans are more likely to lack access to high-speed internet and devices, which can create barriers to online learning. This highlights the importance of addressing issues of access and equity in the context of online education during the COVID-19 epidemic.
Face-to-face learning has some advantages over online learning, such as the ability to ask questions and receive immediate feedback, more opportunities for social interaction, and the opportunity to engage in hands-on activities. Face-to-face learning also provides a more structured learning environment, which can help some learners stay on track with their studies. This key aspect of education dissemination ensures proper/ improved academic performance. The impact of online learning generally affects students in positive and negative ways. Majorly, the lack of provision of more support and resources to students, such as access to high-speed internet, devices, and online learning tools, lack of social interactivity, such as virtual study groups or online discussions, and poorly trained educators contributed greatly to the poor quality of academic performance for the students.
Background/ Literature Review
The aim of assessing the impact of the shift from face-to-face to online learning/education during the COVID-19 pandemic was to ensure that students continued to receive an education despite school closures and social distancing measures. Here my research focused on both qualitative and quantitative data based on secondary sources of academic articles, all peer-reviewed, to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on learners. Effectively, online education provided a way for educators to deliver instruction and for students to continue learning from their homes. The shift was important because it allowed education to continue during a time of crisis. However, it also highlighted the potential for online education to be used more significantly in the future. The topic of the shift from face-to-face to online education during the COVID-19 pandemic is essential because it has significant implications for the future of education, especially with regard to online learning and how it may impact future generations of learners and policymakers alike in boosting the quality of education for all in an increasingly technology-dependent world. While online learning has been around for many years, the pandemic has accelerated the adoption of online education on a large scale as social distancing measures were instituted across the globe. COVID-19 forced educators and students to adapt to new technologies and teaching methods, highlighting the need for greater investment in online education infrastructure and resources. The COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant shift in the way education is delivered, with online education becoming the primary mode of instruction for many students.
Availability of Tools for Online Learning
Qualitatively, researchers outline that the shift to online education has raised questions about the effectiveness of online education methods compared to traditional in-person instruction (Clark et al., 2021). In their article “Compensating for academic loss: Online learning and student performance during the COVID-19 pandemic,” by Clark et al. explored the impact of online learning on the academic performance of students in China during the pandemic using the difference-in-differences approach to compare the academic performance of students in a large urban university before and after the pandemic. Effectively, they outlined that online learning had a negative impact on student’s academic performance, with a significant decrease in grades compared to the pre-pandemic period, particularly due to a greater lack of access to online learning tools to help learners maintain accurate study management. They effectively summarized that “online learning resources are beneficial for students and reduce inequality in exam performance (as compared to no academic involvement) as students with worse exam results benefit more” (Clark et al., 2021, p. 12). Showing clear implications that with a lack of materials and necessary infrastructure to support online learning quality of knowledge acquisition depreciated significantly among learners.
In India, Gopal, Singh, and Aggarwal (2021) evaluate the impact of online classes on the performance and satisfaction of undergraduate students during the pandemic period. The study used a sample size of 205 students and utilized a survey questionnaire to collect data. The findings revealed that online classes significantly impacted students’ academic performance, with 76.6% of respondents indicating that their performance improved. Additionally, 68.3% of respondents reported being satisfied with the online classes. In contrast, Clark et al. (2021) evaluated the effectiveness of online learning in compensating for academic loss resulting from the pandemic. The study used a sample size of 138 undergraduate students and utilized academic records to assess students’ performance before and after the shift to online learning. The findings revealed that online learning did not adequately compensate for academic loss, with the overall performance of students declining after the shift to online learning. Lastly, Omar, Ali, and Balbase (2021) explore graduate students’ experience and academic achievements during the pandemic. The study used a sample size of 160 graduate students and employed a mixed-method approach to collect data. The findings revealed that online learning was an effective means of achieving academic goals, with 80% of respondents indicating that they achieved their learning objectives. Additionally, the study found that online learning was an enjoyable experience, with 79.4% of respondents reporting that they enjoyed the online learning experience.
Quality of Educators and Their Impacts on Online Learning
Other aspects that they mentioned play a role in improving academic performance, such as boosting the quality of educators and providing resources through collaboration with third parties, such as telecommunication networks, as being key in boosting overall learners’ academic performance (Clark et al., 2021). Other researchers similarly outlined a need for learners to be provided with reliable internet and technology resources. In their UAE research, Omar, Ali, and Belbase (2021) outlined that students who had better access to the internet and, more importantly, good reliable devices ultimately had better academic performance than those who did not. The third quantitative article examined the impact of online learning on the academic performance of students in India. Gopal, Singh, and Aggawal (2021) found that online learning had a negative impact on student’s academic performance, with a significant decrease in grades compared to the pre-pandemic period. The authors also found that students who were more motivated and engaged in online learning had a better academic performance.
Comparing these quantitative articles reveals several similarities and differences in their findings. All the studies explore the impact of online learning during the pandemic, utilizing a sample size of undergraduate and graduate students. Additionally, all the studies utilized surveys to collect data on students’ satisfaction and academic performance, except the second study, that used academic records. However, the studies differ in their findings regarding the effectiveness of online learning. The first and third studies by Gopal, Singh, and Aggarwal (2021) and Omar, Ali, and Belbase (2021) found that online learning was an effective means of achieving academic goals, with a majority of students indicating that their performance improved, and they achieved their learning objectives.
In contrast, the second study found that online learning did not adequately compensate for academic loss resulting from the pandemic. The studies also differ in their focus, with Gopal, Singh, and Aggarwal (2021) exploring the impact of online learning on satisfaction and performance, the second study exploring the effectiveness of online learning in compensating for academic loss, and the third study exploring the experience and academic achievements of graduate students. Furthermore, the studies differ in their methodology, with Indian and UAE studies employing survey questionnaires to collect data, while the second study used academic records. The third study also employed a mixed-method approach to collect data, combining surveys and interviews. Conclusively, the three articles reviewed provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of online learning during the pandemic period.
Effectively research outlines that Gopal, Singh, and Aggarwal’s article mainly examine the impact of online classes on student satisfaction and performance. The article highlights that online learning has led to a decline in the satisfaction of students with their academic experience. However, the study does not explore the reasons behind the decline in satisfaction. Additionally, the article does not consider the impact of factors such as the quality of teaching, course design, and technology infrastructure on student satisfaction and performance. Here there is a need to evaluate the impact of these factors on student satisfaction and performance. Clark et al. (2021) additionally focus on the impact of online learning on student performance. The study highlights that online learning has led to a decline in student performance.
Clarke et al.’s article does not consider the impact of the learning environment on student performance. Factors such as internet connectivity, availability of technology, and home environment could significantly impact student performance. A proposal that could be effective in my own research would be that, as a future study, I could address these gaps by examining the impact of the learning environment on student performance. In the UAE study, researchers Omar, Ali, and Belbase (2021) examine the experience of graduate students with online learning. The study highlights that online learning has led to a decline in the academic achievements of graduate students. However, the article does not explore the impact of online learning on the mental health of graduate students. Graduate students, in particular, are vulnerable to mental health issues due to the increased workload and pressure to perform. Future studies could address this gap by examining the impact of online learning on the mental health of graduate students.
Poor Policy Formulation and Lack of Learning GUidelines Impacted Learners Negatively
Qualitatively researchers similarly identified the potential for better policies to be implemented in order to create a better learning environment for all in extensive research done through interview studies with teachers in Indonesia, aimed at investigating their experiences and perceptions of teaching with technology during the pandemic. Rahayu et al. (2021) employed a qualitative research design, using semi-structured interviews to collect data from ten teachers. Their findings revealed that technology adoption was a significant challenge, as many teachers lacked the necessary skills and resources to integrate technology effectively into their teaching. Here many educators in Indonesia verily recognized the potential benefits of technology in enhancing student engagement and learning outcomes. Imouri and Oussama’s (2021) article, which partly focused on the integration of social networks in Moroccan higher education during the pandemic, effectively revealed that social networks such as WhatsApp and Facebook were widely used to support communication and collaboration between teachers and students, and while they were effective, these technologies were widely available due to their predominant use by the learners out of class.
Dependency on Social Media as a Platform for Learning
The government of Morocco and its policymakers on education were severely constrained in providing adequate systems for all learners to merge and learn. As such, the use of social networking tools as learning platforms effectively revealed that “the impact of the course content on students is very limited. They have also expressed their very positive views about social networks.” This disconnect is largely due to a lack of dedicated platforms for learning. Some of the challenges that were also highlighted to downplay the importance of the use of social media platforms for learning included the lack of technical support, the digital divide, and privacy concerns. In the USA, a focus on K-12 teachers by Akojie, Laroche, and Schumacher (2021) saw findings reveal that the transition was challenging for many teachers, who faced numerous technical, pedagogical, and social challenges. There were few benefits, though, as the authors also identified several benefits, including increased flexibility, personalized learning, and improved student engagement (Akojie, Laroche, and Schumacher, 2021). Qualitatively all these researchers emphasized the challenges associated with the shift to virtual instruction, including the constant presence of technical difficulties, pedagogical challenges, and social isolation. Additionally, they highlighted the potential benefits of technology in enhancing student engagement, personalized learning, and communication.
The proposed research question for this study seeks to evaluate the impact of online education methods/tools ( as the independent variable) on students’ academic performance (as the dependent variable) during the COVID-19 epidemic and the period preceding the outbreak. Below are some of the proposed hypotheses to be tested.
Hypothesis 1: Online education has a negative impact on student’s academic performance during the COVID-19 epidemic: In this case, this hypothesis suggests that the transition to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a decline in students’ academic performance compared to traditional in-person learning.
Hypothesis 2:The quality of online instruction has a significant impact on student’s academic performance: This hypothesis suggests that the quality of online instruction, including factors such as instructor engagement, use of interactive teaching methods, and technological resources, can influence the effectiveness of online education and its impact on student’s academic performance.
Hypothesis 3:Students’ prior experience with online learning and access to technology and resources affect academic performance. Here researchers suggest that students who have prior experience with online learning and have access to reliable technology and resources may perform better academically than those who do not.
Hypothesis 4:The impact of online education on academic performance differs based on demographic and socioeconomic factors: Effectively, the impact of online education on academic performance may vary based on factors such as age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and geographic location. It is important to consider these factors in the analysis of the relationship between online education and academic performance during the COVID-19 epidemic.
Method and Data Analysis
This research will be approached using a multiple methods approach (qualitative, quantitative, and interview) is important because it allows for a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of the shift from face-to-face to online education. A qualitative approach can help researchers gain insight into the experiences and perspectives of educators and students. This type of research can be particularly useful in understanding the challenges that educators and students faced during the transition and the strategies they used to overcome them. Quantitative research will provide a more objective and generalizable view of the impact of the shift on student learning outcomes, such as academic achievement and engagement. This type of research can help to identify which factors are most important in determining the success of online education and how educators can optimize their teaching strategies to improve student outcomes.
Overall, interviews with students can provide an in-depth understanding of their experiences and perspectives on the shift from face-to-face to online education. Interviews can help researchers understand the challenges that educators and students faced during the transition and the strategies they used to overcome them. Interviews can also provide insight into the potential long-term impacts of the shift in education. Effectively, the shift from face-to-face to online education during the COVID-19 pandemic was essential for ensuring that students continued to receive an education during a time of crisis. The topic is important because it has significant implications for the future of education. Research using a multiple methods approach (qualitative, quantitative, and interview) is crucial for understanding the impact of the shift on educators and students and identifying strategies for optimizing online education in the future.
For my research, I sought to evaluate and outline that proper policy formulation on learning guidelines, infrastructure provision, and improving the quality of educators is ultimately the best way to create better learners academically. This will ultimately create a better or positive perception of online learning effectively being key in improving the performance/educational outcome of the students. This research also seeks to conceptualize how online learning is administered in my school and how the students perceive it negatively or positively. Why they perceive the online processes either positively or negatively and how they score in either case. The perception evaluation will be established under an index of attributes that consider the primary independent variable to be the impact of online education methods (Independent variables);
- Adaptation of online learning for student courses
- Adaptation of online learning across different computer devices/ computer devices compatibility
- Level of interaction with other students
- Level of motivation to collaborate and work with others online
- Technical issues presence, internet issues, data privacy, and security
The benefits that will be evaluated in line with those described in the literature review will be mainly the ability to achieve self-learning, low-cost learning, convenience, flexibility, and motivation to participate in learning sessions with others. The main dependent variable will be student achievement/ student academic performance at the end of their course, compared across three courses.
My ideal sample size for this research will be 120 students in their third and fourth years. I obtained consent from the school to run this research, a consent form that will promise secrecy, and I will enlist random sampling methods over an online survey method. This will be achieved by sending a link to Google forms questionnaires containing at least 40 questions within three different sections, namely the demography section, student experience section, and performance improvement. The questionnaire will contain a Likert scale chart that provides four pointers (from strongly dislike to strongly love). I will also add an open-ended section that lets the student highlight how they feel in the performance section that ultimately seeks to maintain neutrality and create subjectivity, improving the quality of the research.
The questionnaire will help me gather qualitative data on students’ experiences, challenges, and suggestions for improving online learning. After the survey, the study will conduct focus group discussions to gather in-depth qualitative data on students’ experiences with different learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools. The focus group discussions will be conducted with 20 participants, consisting of students from different universities and diverse backgrounds. The discussions will be audio-recorded and transcribed for analysis. My study will also review the literature to explore previous research on online learning, learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools. The review will focus on identifying the most effective learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools that enhance students’ performance and perception of online learning.
The quantitative data from various surveys will inform the descriptive statistics in my data analysis. This will include mean, standard deviation, and frequency distribution. The qualitative data from the survey’s open-ended questions and focus group discussions will be analyzed using content analysis. The content analysis will involve identifying themes, patterns, and relationships in the data to identify factors that influence students’ perception of online learning and effective learning models, teaching models, and online education tools. My research, evaluation, analysis, and findings will contribute to the knowledge base on how available learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools can enhance students’ performance and perception of online learning.
This research’s findings will also inform educators of effective strategies for improving online learning experiences and promoting a positive perception of online learning. Additionally, the study’s findings will provide insights for future research on online learning and contribute to developing effective online learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools. Effectively, this research proposal explores how available learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools can be utilized to enhance students’ performance and positive perceptions of online learning. The proposed study’s mixed-methods research design will provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing students’ perception of online learning and the effectiveness of different learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools in enhancing students’ performance.
This will be effective in understanding the overall perspective of online learning as it pertains to students who attend schools in the Irvine area. I seek to obtain consent from the school to run this research, a consent form that will promise secrecy, and I will enlist random sampling methods over an online platform to identify my respondent. This will be achieved by sending a link to Google forms to potential students, and based on their responses, I will randomly class them and select one.
My pilot study effectively had a total of 15 questions that queried a singular respondent on their student experience section and performance improvement. My pilot mirroring the study explored how available learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools can enhance students’ performance and positive perceptions of online learning. The content analysis will involve identifying themes, patterns, and relationships in the data to identify factors that influence students’ perception of online learning and effective learning models, teaching models, and online education tools. Through my pilot, I identified that my research, evaluation, analysis, and findings would effectively contribute to the knowledge base on how available learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools can enhance students’ performance and perception of online learning. This research’s findings will also inform educators of effective strategies for improving online learning experiences and promoting a positive perception of online learning.
Additionally, the study’s findings will provide insights for future research on online learning and contribute to developing effective online learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools. Effectively, this research proposal explores how available learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools can be utilized to enhance students’ performance and positive perceptions of online learning. The proposed study’s mixed-methods research design will provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing students’ perception of online learning and the effectiveness of different learning models, teaching methods, and learning tools in enhancing students’ performance.
For my research data analysis and based on the interview with the student and the six articles, an effective data analysis approach that I will use to argue for better learning resources and qualified educators in order for learners to attain higher better academic performance could be evaluated through regression analysis. Regression analysis, in this case, examines the relationship between the type of online learning method used and academic outcomes. In this case, defining the independent variable as learning methods and the dependent variable as academic outcomes will be important. Learning methods can be categorized into synchronous (real-time instruction) and asynchronous (self-paced instruction) methods. Grades, retention rates, and student satisfaction can measure academic outcomes. A regression analysis will then be performed using data from the six articles to investigate the impact of learning methods on academic outcomes. The analysis can include control variables such as age, gender, and prior academic achievement.
For my research, I will seek to evaluate through regression analysis whether students who participate in synchronous online learning methods have higher grades and retention rates than those who participate in asynchronous online learning methods. Furthermore, the regression analysis will be used to demonstrate that students who have access to better resources, such as reliable internet and technology, and are taught by qualified educators, have higher academic outcomes than those who do not have access to such resources.
The qualitative articles highlight the challenges and opportunities of online learning. Akojie, Laroche, and Schumacher (2021) found that K-12 teachers faced challenges such as a lack of technology and training; Imouri and Oussama (2021) found that social networks played a critical role in supporting higher education students in Morocco during the pandemic. Meanwhile, Rahayu et al. (2021) found that teachers in Indonesia faced challenges with implementing online learning but found ways to adapt and improve their teaching practices. The quantitative articles provide statistical analysis of academic outcomes. Omar, Ali, and Belbase (2021) opine that graduate students who participated in online learning during the pandemic had similar academic achievements as those who participated in traditional face-to-face learning primarily because they had access to the resources and tools for learning. Clark et al. (2021) found that online learning compensated for academic loss when there was better management by the teachers of their learners.
By presenting this data analysis, it can be argued that providing students with access to reliable internet and technology, as well as qualified educators, can lead to better academic outcomes in online learning. This can also highlight the importance of implementing synchronous online learning methods, as they have been shown to lead to better academic outcomes than asynchronous methods. In conclusion, a regression analysis that examines the relationship between learning methods and academic outcomes while controlling for relevant variables can be an effective way to argue for better resources and qualified educators for better academic performance in online learning.
Overall, the pilot study sought to understand the impact of COVID-19 on academic performance, particularly in relation to online learning methods. The study conducted one in-depth interview with a student who had experienced online learning during the pandemic. Based on the findings from the pilot study, a finalized qualitative design was developed. This design proposal suggests a sample of 120 students from a local university who had experienced online learning during the pandemic. The setting for the study will be a university campus in Irvine, and the data collection method was through in-depth interviews. Data collection for this study would take place in a virtual setting using video conferencing software such as Zoom or Skype. This approach would allow for the collection of data from participants in different geographic locations. Data collection would involve semi-structured interviews with participants. The interview guide would consist of open-ended questions that allow for a comprehensive understanding of the participant’s experience with online learning during the pandemic.
The interview guide will be designed to explore the students’ experiences with online learning, including their perceptions of the effectiveness of online learning, the challenges they faced, and the strategies they employed to cope with those challenges. The proposed analysis strategy for the study, along with the regression analysis, will also feature a thematic analysis. Thematic analysis will also be a qualitative research method that involves identifying patterns or themes in data.
Coding and Justification for the Chosen Qualitative Design:
The research will involve a systematic process of coding data and identifying themes that emerge from the codes. The coding process involved open coding, where the data was broken down into smaller parts and then categorized into broader themes. The data would be analyzed using an inductive approach to coding, allowing themes to emerge from the data rather than imposing preconceived codes or categories. The coding process involved several steps, including identifying meaningful units of text, creating codes that reflect the meaning of the text, and then categorizing the codes into themes. The themes will then be reviewed, refined, and redefined as necessary to ensure they are accurately reflected in the data.
Another proposed analysis strategy of the research would follow a phenomenological approach. This approach seeks to identify the essential meaning of an experience for a particular individual or group. The data collected in this study will be analyzed using thematic analysis to identify common themes and patterns that emerge from the data. Overall, this approach would involve multiple rounds of coding to ensure that all relevant themes are identified and understood. The phenomenological approach was chosen for this study because it seeks to understand how individuals experience a particular phenomenon. The aim of this study will be to explore the impact of online learning during the pandemic on academic performance.
Discussion and Conclusion
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced educational institutions worldwide to shift from traditional face-to-face learning to online education methods. This abrupt change has significantly impacted students’ academic performance, with some students experiencing a decline in academic performance due to a lack of access to online tools for success. This research proposal aims to explore the impact of online education methods on students’ academic performance during the COVID-19 epidemic, focusing on the importance of access to online tools for success. It provides a strategic framework that it believes will effectively attain this outcome. Effectively, it establishes that Online learning tools such as learning materials, internet access, and online support resources have become increasingly important for student’s academic success in the online education environment. Students who lack these tools may face difficulties in accessing information, completing assignments, and engaging in discussions, which can negatively affect their academic performance. The research will examine the impact of online learning tools on students’ academic performance and explore ways in which educational institutions can support students access to these tools. This proposal also provides a thesis statement that considers the challenges that students and educators face in the online education environment, such as the need for effective communication and collaboration strategies. There are four hypotheses that overall seek to contribute to a better understanding of the impact of online education methods on students’ academic performance during the COVID-19 epidemic and provide insights into how educational institutions can support students’ access to online learning tools for success.
Based on the pilot study design and the findings, I conclude that the COVID-19 epidemic has brought unprecedented changes to the educational sector, with traditional face-to-face learning being replaced by online education methods. This transition has had a profound impact on student’s academic performance, with access to online tools becoming a critical determinant of success. This thesis will examine the impact of online education methods on students’ academic performance during the COVID-19 epidemic, with a focus on the importance of access to online tools. Online learning tools have become essential for students to achieve academic success during the pandemic. These tools range from learning materials such as online textbooks, lecture videos, and quizzes to internet access, digital devices, and software applications.
Students who lack access to these tools are likely to experience academic difficulties and may fail to meet their learning objectives. This research paper as such explores the various online learning tools that are critical to student’s academic success and how they can be made more accessible to all students. To ensure better learning outcomes and academic performance from learners in the online environment, and aims to outline how educators can enact several policies. First, it suggests a need for setting clear expectations and guidelines for online learning, including deadlines and grading criteria. Second, it suggests provision for regular feedback and support to students. Finally, it queries whether policymakers can provide opportunities for student engagement, such as virtual office hours or online discussion forums, and insists on the provision of a variety of assessment methods to ensure that learners are comprehensively evaluated, including projects, presentations, and exams.
Akojie, P., Laroche, I., & Schumacher, J. 2021. Moving from Face-to-Face Instruction to
Virtual Instruction in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Narratives of K-12 Teachers. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 6(1), 59-72.
Clark, A. E., Nong, H., Zhu, H., & Zhu, R. 2021. Compensating for academic loss: Online
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Imouri, E. M., & Oussama, E. A. 2022. Social Networks Integration in Moroccan Higher
Education during COVID-19: Opportunities and Challenges. American Journal of Qualitative Research, 6(2), 207–219.
Omar, H. A., Ali, E. M., & Belbase, S. 2021. Graduate students’ experience and academic
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Rahayu, S., Rahmadani, E., Syafitri, E., Prasetyoningsih, L. S., Ubaidillah, M. F., & Tavakoli,
- 2022. Teaching with Technology during COVID-19 Pandemic: An Interview Study with Teachers in Indonesia. Education Research International, 2022, 1–9.
1. How would you describe your overall experience with online learning during the pandemic?
Answer: “Overall, it was a challenging experience. I struggled to stay motivated and engaged without the structure of in-person classes.”
2. What challenges did you face while taking online classes?
Answer: “The lack of face-to-face interaction and hands-on learning made it difficult to fully grasp certain concepts and material.”
3. Did you collaborate with other students during online classes? Why or why not?
Answer: “It was difficult to coordinate with other students, and the quality of collaboration was often lower than in-person.”
4. How did you stay motivated and focused during online classes?
Answer: “I tried to create a dedicated workspace and stick to a routine, but it was still a challenge to stay motivated.”
5. What did you find helpful about online learning?
Answer: “The scheduling flexibility was a big benefit, and it was nice to not have to commute to campus.”
6. What did you find challenging about online learning?
Answer: “It was hard to feel connected to my peers and instructors, and the lack of face-to-face interaction made it difficult to fully understand the material.”
7. How did you feel about the technology used for online classes?
Answer: “Overall, it was pretty straightforward, but there were a few tools that were challenging to use.”
8. Were there any particular assignments or assessments that were more difficult to complete in the online format?
Answer: “Group projects were especially difficult to coordinate, and it was challenging to get the same level of feedback as in-person classes.”
9. How did you feel about the level of support and guidance provided by your instructors during online classes?
Answer: “Some instructors were great at adapting to the online format, but others struggled to provide enough support and guidance.”
10. How did your personal life and circumstances affect your experience with online classes?
Answer: “I had to balance online classes with work and other responsibilities, which made it difficult to stay on top of everything.”
11. Do you feel that online learning is an effective way to learn?
Answer: “It can be effective in certain situations, but I think it’s important to have some level of in-person interaction so as to be more contextually aware of the theoretical knowledge being given.”
Date: March 4th, 2023
Location: Starbucks at Spectrum Center in Irvine
Interviewee: Student, age 20
- The interviewee arrived at the location on time, wearing a hat and carrying a laptop bag.
- Starbucks was busy with a mix of students and professionals, most of whom were sitting alone and working on laptops.
- The interviewee ordered a latte and sat at a small table in the corner of the café.
- The interviewee expressed frustration with the sudden shift to online learning during the pandemic, noting that it was difficult to stay motivated and engaged without the structure of in-person classes.
- They described feeling disconnected from their peers and instructors and struggled to participate in class discussions and group projects.
- However, they also noted that online learning had some benefits, such as increased flexibility in terms of scheduling and reduced commuting time and expenses.
- When asked about their observations of the shift from in-person to remote learning, the interviewee noted that many instructors struggled to adapt to the new format and that some courses were not well-suited for online delivery.
- They also observed that some students thrived in the remote learning environment while others struggled with the lack of in-person interaction and accountability.
- The interviewee also expressed concerns about the quality of their learning experience during online classes. They felt that the lack of face-to-face interaction and hands-on learning opportunities made it difficult to fully grasp certain concepts and material. They also felt that online classes made it easier to procrastinate and be less productive.
- When asked about their performance during online classes, the interviewee said that they felt they performed worse than they did in in-person classes. They attributed this to a lack of motivation and engagement, as well as the challenges of working independently.
- The interviewee also noted that they had limited opportunities to collaborate with other students during online classes. They said that some instructors tried to facilitate collaboration through group projects and online discussions but that it was difficult to coordinate with other students and that the quality of collaboration was often lower than in-person.
- When asked about their preference between online and face-to-face classes, the interviewee said that they preferred face-to-face classes. They felt that the in-person interaction and ability to ask questions and get feedback in real time were crucial to their learning experience. However, they did acknowledge that online classes could be beneficial in certain situations, such as for scheduling flexibility or for students who prefer to work independently.
Overall, the interviewee expressed mixed feelings about online learning during the pandemic, noting both the challenges and benefits of the shift from in-person to remote learning.
Implementation Plan Of One-Stop Processing System Sample College Essay
The Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) has been under increased criticism due to its inefficient services. The major problem at DMV is the long wait times, which average 75 minutes that customers must endure before they are fully serviced. The problem has been noted, and implementing changes at DMV can address the inefficiencies. To improve customer experiences and streamline operations, DMV can introduce several strategies. However, after considering and studying the strategies, the DMV has settled for providing one-stop kiosks at the DMV where people can register online but get assistance from staff when needed to reduce wait times, eliminate the need for multiple visits, and improve overall efficiency. This implementation plan outlines the steps we will take to ensure the success of this strategy.
Implementing a one-stop processing system for all DMV registrations through kiosks would require several financial, human, and other resources. Financial resources would be needed to purchase and install the necessary kiosks at all DMV locations. The kiosks must have the hardware and software to support online registration and payments. Additionally, funding would be required to train DMV staff to assist customers using the kiosks and hire additional staff if necessary. The DMV will have ten kiosks to cater for ten customers at a go. Human resources would also be required to maintain and update the kiosks, troubleshoot technical issues, and assist customers with questions or problems (Demilliere, 2014). Furthermore, other resources such as office space, utilities, and internet connectivity would also be needed to support the kiosks and staff.
The table below shows the resources required to implement the strategy of setting up computerized kiosks. The resources have been denoted in monetary value for easy visualization. However, the data in the table could be more accurate, but it estimates how much resources it would cost the DMV to set up and run the kiosks.
|Kiosk computer hardware and software (Jess, 2021)||$150,000|
|Internet connectivity and maintenance (Anders, 2022)||$50,000 initial + $25,000 annually|
|Staff training and hiring (Payscale, 2023)||$200,000|
|Marketing and Promotion||$50,000|
|Maintenance and upgrades (Jess, 2021)||$75,000 annually|
|Total||$525,000 initial + $100,000 annually|
Table 1: Resources Required for DMV online kiosks
The process of installing the DMV kiosks will take time and will need various stakeholder approvals. Different stakeholders have different impacts or are differently impacted by the DMV. The impact that the DMV will have on each stakeholder or the impact that the stakeholder will have on the DMV determines their criticality on the strategy implementation. The stakeholders are identified below based on their criticality in the DMV.
DMV Management and Staff
They are responsible for operating and maintaining the kiosks. Their effectiveness directly translates to DMV effectiveness. The staff working at the DMV will thus play a crucial role in successfully implementing the strategy. They must be trained to use the kiosks and assist customers needing help. It is essential to obtain their support to ensure that they are motivated and committed to the initiative’s success.
However, people only sometimes accept change. The staff at DMV are probably now used to the old working methods and may prefer to continue working in that manner since it already works (Rehman et al., 2021). To gain their support, however, they would be actively involved in the planning and decision-making and ensure they are adequately trained and supported throughout the implementation. That way, they would feel part of the change and even give suggestions as the implementation continues.
The customers’ complaints are the driving force behind the implementation of the strategy by the DMV. They are a key stakeholder in the DMV since their satisfaction and convenience are at the heart of the strategy. Thus, the customers need to support the implementation for it to be a success. To rally customer support, the implementation team would need to communicate the benefits of the new proposed system to the customers earlier. The implementation team should show that the strategy would reduce wait time, which the customers have always complained about.
Government Officials and Legislators
As the DMV is a government agency, obtaining support from relevant government officials is essential to ensure that necessary resources and funding are allocated to implement the one-stop processing strategy. The officials responsible for overseeing the DMV and its operations, such as the Director of the DMV or the Secretary of Transportation, would be critical stakeholders to gain support. Just like with the customers, the officials need to be informed by the implementation team of the system’s benefits and how it would rectify the issue at DMV. Once the officials understand it is a worthwhile strategy, they should support it and provide resources for the implementation.
IT Support Team
The IT team will be the major implementation team. They will be responsible for installing and maintaining the kiosks, ensuring they function correctly, and troubleshooting any technical issues. Their support is essential to ensure the kiosks operate smoothly and avoid significant technical problems. They should thus be assured of resource availability and commitment to the project.
Generally, to gain support from these stakeholders, it is essential to clearly communicate the strategy’s benefits (Joubert, 2021). For example, government officials may be more likely to support the initiative if it is framed as a cost-saving measure that will reduce wait times and improve customer satisfaction. It is also useful to conduct a pilot test of the kiosks to demonstrate their effectiveness to the DMV staff, customers, and IT support team. Finally, it is essential to listen to feedback and address stakeholders’ concerns to ensure their continued support for the initiative.
|Conduct needs assessment||4/1/2023||Needs assessment report||Project team|
|Develop implementation plan||4/15/2023||Implementation plan||Project team|
|Secure funding||5/1/2023||Funding secured||Project manager|
|Procure equipment and software||5/15/2023||Equipment and software procured||Procurement team|
|Install and test equipment and software||6/1/2023||Equipment and software installed and tested||IT team|
|Develop training materials||6/15/2023||Training materials developed||Training team|
|Train staff and volunteers||7/1/2023||Staff and volunteers trained||Training team|
|Launch kiosks||7/15/2023||Kiosks operational||IT team|
|Monitor and evaluate the implementation||Ongoing||Monitoring and evaluation report||Project team|
Table 2: Project Implementation Plan
The critical tasks that must be completed include conducting a needs assessment to determine the specific needs of the DMV customers, developing an implementation plan to ensure that the project is completed within budget and on time, securing funding to cover the costs of equipment and software, procuring the necessary equipment and software, installing and testing the equipment and software, developing training materials, training staff and volunteers, launching the kiosks, and monitoring and evaluating the implementation to ensure that it is meeting the needs of the customers. Each task is critical to the project’s success and must be completed thoroughly and carefully.
The Gantt chart above illustrates the steps that will be followed to complete the project. It is assumed that each project task will begin after the previous task has been completed for simplicity and traceability of the tasks (Neumeyer, 2022). From the Gantt chart, the project will begin on April 2023 and end in July of the same year.
Overcoming Risks/ Barriers/ Challenges
Several key issues or challenges could derail the successful implementation of the strategy to enable one-stop processing for all registrations at the DMV. These include resistance to change, lack of buy-in from key stakeholders, inadequate resources, and technological barriers. Firstly, there may be resistance to change from staff who are used to the traditional way of processing registrations (Rehman et al., 2021). It is important to communicate the new system’s benefits to them and provide training and support to ensure a smooth transition.
Secondly, gaining buy-in from key stakeholders such as government officials and regulatory bodies is crucial to the strategy’s success. It may be necessary to provide data and evidence to demonstrate the new system’s benefits and engage in ongoing communication to address concerns and maintain support.
Thirdly, implementing a one-stop processing system will require adequate resources such as staff, technology, and physical space. Conducting a thorough resource analysis and allocating resources appropriately is important to ensure the system can operate effectively. Finally, technological barriers such as insufficient bandwidth or outdated systems could hinder the implementation of the strategy. It is important to thoroughly assess the current technology infrastructure and invest in necessary upgrades and maintenance.
To mitigate these risks and ensure the change is successful and sustained, engaging in ongoing communication with all stakeholders is important, as monitoring progress and making adjustments as needed (Joubert, 2021). Providing training and support to staff and investing in adequate resources will also help ensure a successful implementation. Regular monitoring and evaluation will also be necessary to identify and address any issues arising and sustain the new system over time.
In conclusion, the Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) has identified the need to implement strategies that improve customer experiences and streamline operations. After careful consideration, the DMV has chosen to implement a one-stop processing system for all DMV registrations through kiosks. This strategy aims to reduce wait times, eliminate the need for multiple visits, and improve overall efficiency. The implementation of this strategy would require several resources such as financial, human, and other resources. The stakeholders critical to the success of this strategy include DMV management and staff, customers, government officials and legislators, and the IT support team. To gain support from these stakeholders, it is essential to communicate the strategy’s benefits. Overall, implementing the one-stop processing system through kiosks would be a worthwhile strategy for the DMV, and it has the potential to improve customer experiences and streamline operations significantly.
Anders, D. (2022, October 26). What is the average internet bill? Allconnect. Retrieved March 23, 2023, from https://www.allconnect.com/blog/cost-of-high-speed-internet#:~:text=Theaverageinternetbillin,ormoreforselectplans.
Demilliere, A. (2014). The Role of Human Resources in Project Management. https://ideas.repec.org/a/rdc/journl/v5y2014i1p36-40.html#:~:text=HumanResourcesinProjectManagementfocusonProjectTeamrecruitment,toteambuildingandmotivation.
DMV Clerk Hourly Pay. (2023). PayScale. Retrieved March 22, 2023, from https://www.payscale.com/research/US/Job=DMV_Clerk/Hourly_Rate
Dresang, D. (2012). Case study. In The public administration workbook (pp. 97–99) (7th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.
Jess, J. (2021). How Much Do Computers Cost? We Love Prof – Superprof Blog. Retrieved March 22, 2023, from https://www.superprof.com/blog/cost-of-computers/
Joubert, S. (2021, August 6). The Critical Role of Communication in Project Management. Northeastern University Graduate Programs. https://www.northeastern.edu/graduate/blog/communication-in-project-management/
Neumeyer, A. (2022). Finish-to-finish dependency explained by example. Tactical Project Manager. https://www.tacticalprojectmanager.com/finish-to-finish-dependency/
Rehman, N. A., Mahmood, A., Ibtasam, M., Murtaza, S., Iqbal, N., & Molnár, E. (2021). The Psychology of Resistance to Change: The Antidotal Effect of Organizational Justice, Support and Leader-Member Exchange. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.678952
Psychology: Inattentional Blindness Writing Sample
In some instances, people fail to take note of something that is in the range of their view in a conscious state. This is perceptual blindness, referred to as inattentional blindness. As defined by Saryazdi et al. (2019), inaettentional blindness refers to the failure to notice an event or object when an individual is focusing more on something else. The complexity of the condition can be observed from factors such as the task one is initially focused on, the observer’s characteristics, and the nature of the second event. This topic is essential because it applies to everyday life, such as attention while driving, legal dealings with eyewitnesses, and forensic investigations, and it helps to study the human brain’s processing of information, perception, and attention for health research and academic purposes.
Consequently, I assert that this phenomenon can make individuals miss important information that is clearly observable in the immediate environment, which may be essential for reference later on. Therefore, it is important to understand inattentional blindness to improve observation abilities and control attentional resources to different stimuli. This paper aims to analyze this phenomenon by looking into topics of its historical background, causatives and contributing factors, application in daily life, the risks it poses to individuals, its implications in the legal system, its implication on technology, and possible control measures. The phenomenon of inattentional blindness underscores the importance of selective attention in our daily lives and the potential consequences of attentional limitations. By exploring the causes and consequences of inattentional blindness, we can develop strategies to improve our attentional abilities and reduce the risks associated with divided attention.
Inattentional blindness is a phenomenon that has been observed and studied for a long time. The study was not done in-depth and more scientifically until George Berkely, a philosopher, wrote the book,” A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge.” Berkeley (1710) argued that people could not perceive everything that exists in the world but rather only the sensations that are relevant to their goals and interests. Later on, psychologists began to study inattentional blindness more systematically. On this topic, and popular experiments was conducted by psychologist Ulric Neisser in the 1970s. In this study, participants were asked to watch a video of people passing basketballs and count how many times the ball was passed between players wearing white shirts. In the middle of the experiment, a person wearing a gorilla suit walks through the scene, but almost half of the participants failed to notice it because they were focused on counting the passes. As cited by Wulff & Hyman (2018), the intention was to prove that people are unaware of unusual events when focused on other activities. This gave way to more studies of inattentional blindness now concerning the cognitive response.
More research and experiments have been done in recent years on the field to explore its causes and consequences. The term inattentional blindness, as used now, was coined by scholars in the 20th century. Mack & Rock (1998) found that people are more likely to experience inattentional blindness when they are engaged in a demanding cognitive task, when the unexpected stimulus is outside their focus of attention, and when they are not expecting any unusual events to occur. In this research, they coined the term “inattentional blindness” to describe this phenomenon and began conducting a series of experiments to explore its causes and consequences. Today, inattentional blindness remains an active area of research in psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science. It has important implications for many real-world situations, such as driving, aviation, and medical diagnosis, where people’s attention can be easily diverted, and their perception of critical information can be compromised. It is a common study area in different fields, such as psychology, forensic studies, and medical-related courses.
Causatives and Contributing Factors
One factor that contributes to inattentional blindness is attentional load. When individuals are engaged in a demanding cognitive task, their attentional resources are limited, and they may be unable to process all sensory information in their environment. Swallow & Jiang (2013) cite that in such situations, there is selective attention, and the more critical tasks are prioritized. As a result, individuals may fail to notice unexpected or novel stimuli that are not directly related to the task at hand. Irrelevant stimuli reach awareness when a perceptual load is low. As cited by Pugnaghi et al. (2020), perceptual load affects individuals when it is high to focus unconsciously on urgent stimuli. Also, a factor that contributes to inattentional blindness is the salience of the unattended stimulus. If the unattended stimulus is relatively subtle or unimportant, individuals may be less likely to notice it even if their attentional resources are available. On the other hand, if the unattended stimulus is highly salient or relevant, individuals may be more likely to notice it even when their attention is focused elsewhere.
Another causative factor contributing to inattentional blindness is the nature of the individual involved. Individual differences in attentional abilities can play a role in assessing the condition. If they have low working memory, then it works as a causative factor for inattentional blindness. A study by Kreitz et al. (2015) shows that individuals have different cognitive responses and respond to stimuli differently because they have unique processing abilities. For example, individuals with higher working memory capacity may be more resistant to inattentional blindness because they can better allocate attentional resources to both the primary task and other stimuli in the environment. Similarly, individuals with better inhibitory control may be less susceptible to inattentional blindness because they are better able to suppress distracting stimuli and maintain focus on the primary task. Various factors, including genetics, early experiences, and environmental factors, such as education, training, and lifestyle, can influence these individual differences in attentional abilities.
Understanding inattentional blindness is applicable in daily life, such as sports, driving, and forensics. The first case, it can occur in sports, particularly when athletes are focused on a specific task, such as catching a ball or scoring a goal. As Furley et al. (2010) cited, basketball athletes experience visual awareness problems in a real-world basketball setting, especially under pressure. Critical aspects of visual processing are affected by inattentional blindness in this case. For example, a basketball player may overlook a teammate who is wide open for a pass because they are focused on dribbling the ball. Inattentional blindness can occur while driving, especially when the driver is distracted or has a high cognitive load. For example, a driver may overlook a pedestrian crossing the street, a stop sign, or a red light when they are conversing or using their phone.
Inattentional blindness can have severe consequences in forensic contexts, affecting eyewitness testimony or the perception of evidence. For example, a witness to a crime may fail to notice important details about the perpetrator or the scene of the crime if their attention is focused on a weapon or a specific feature of the perpetrator’s appearance. A study by Smith et al. (2015) discusses how inattentional blindness can affect eyewitness testimony in criminal cases. The authors conducted a series of experiments to test the impact of inattentional blindness on eyewitness memory. They found that participants asked to complete a challenging visual search task while watching a crime scene video was less likely to notice a salient and unexpected event and were less accurate in identifying the perpetrator in a subsequent lineup. These findings suggest that inattentional blindness can significantly impact the reliability of eyewitness testimony in criminal cases. The condition can also occur in medical contexts, such as in radiology. Radiologists may fail to notice subtle changes in an X-ray or a CT scan if they are focusing on a particular area of the image, which can lead to misdiagnosis or delayed treatment.
Risk to Individuals
Inattentional blindness has significant safety implications, particularly when divided attention is required. Divided attention happens when one attends to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously, and it is often necessary for many high-risk and safety-critical situations operating heavy machinery or monitoring complex systems. Research by de Pontes Nobre et al. (2020) shows that the overall effects of awareness changed depending on how demanding a process is or visual stimuli. inattentional blindness can occur when the demands of multiple tasks or stimuli exceed our attentional capacity. This can lead to a failure to notice important and potentially dangerous events or stimuli, resulting in accidents or injuries. For example, drivers distracted by their phones or other devices may fail to notice pedestrians or other hazards on the road, leading to accidents. Similarly, workers who are multitasking or distracted may need to be aware of critical safety information or notice hazardous environmental conditions.
Another risk that individuals face due to inattentional blindness is the potential for fatal accidents or injuries for large groups of people in high-risk, safety-critical professions and ones where the individual serves many people, such as aviation, healthcare, or emergency services. Inattentional blindness can occur when professionals must attend to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously, leading to a failure to notice critical information or hazards. According to White & O’Hare (2022), recognition accuracy among pilots is greater when there are no distractions from anywhere. When there is a distraction, this triggers inattentional blindness which lowers their abilities to adequately respond to simple tasks such as taking off. For example, pilots distracted by cockpit duties may fail to notice a warning light or other vital information that could indicate a potential safety issue. Similarly, healthcare providers managing multiple patients or tasks may overlook critical information, such as a change in a patient’s condition or medication order, leading to medical errors or adverse events. Emergency responders focused on a specific task or goal may overlook other hazards in the environment, such as live electrical wires or unstable structures, leading to injuries or fatalities.
Implication on the Legal System
In legal system investigations, inattentional blindness can have significant implications for eyewitness testimony, particularly when individuals are required to attend to multiple stimuli or events simultaneously. Eyewitness testimony is often a critical component of criminal investigations and legal proceedings, and inaccuracies in testimony can have serious consequences. According to Wulff & Thomas (2020), this blindness is also worsened by acute stress that directly affects victims of crime or any other witnesses. Therefore, they may fail to notice important environmental details or events. This can lead to inaccurate recollections of events, as they may have yet to notice essential information that could be relevant to the case. For example, a witness distracted by a loud noise or other stimuli may have missed essential details about a crime, such as a perpetrator’s appearance or the direction they fled.
In addition to missed details, inattentional blindness can lead to inaccuracies in eyewitness identification. When individuals are presented with a lineup or photo array, they may not recognize the perpetrator if they do not notice their appearance during the crime. This can lead to misidentifications and wrongful convictions, which can have severe consequences for both the innocent individuals who are falsely accused and the criminal justice system. Research by Wulff & Hyman (2022) on this case shows that individuals are more likely to accuse an innocent person of a crime falsely. In this experiment, the scholars observed that most people were likely to accuse a bystander of a crime just because they were now conscious of it.
Implications on Technology
One major factor that has significantly contributed to inattentional blindness is technology through electric devices. For example, notifications from smartphones or computers can interrupt people’s focus on a particular task, leading to a failure to notice important information in the environment. Chen & Pai (2018) cite that smartphone activities such as texting and talking on the phone while walking are one issue that impairs peoples’ awareness of their surroundings. Also, phones distract with notifications even when not using them. The continued use of these electronic devices creates competition among developers, and it is exploited as a strategy (Xiang & Chae, 2022). This can be particularly problematic in safety-critical situations, such as driving or operating machinery. Its implication on technology is the production of these electronic devices with unique features. Technology designers should consider how to minimize distractions that can lead to inattentional blindness. For example, they can provide options to turn off notifications or use less intrusive modes of communication, such as vibrations instead of audible alerts. Additionally, designers can employ techniques like ‘progressive disclosure,’ where information is revealed gradually to reduce the cognitive load on the user.
Another implication that inattentional blindness has on technology is application in crucial areas where humans are likely to be affected by this condition. One of the crucial areas is the health sector. Research by Park et al. (2018) shows that inattentional blindness is prevalent in nursing situations and can put a patient’s life in danger. Technology can monitor and track health metrics, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sleep patterns. Wearable devices like fitness trackers and smartwatches can collect this data and provide insights to users and healthcare professionals. This way, the patient’s safety is assured even when the attention of the health worker is lost. These technology devices can also help alert health workers when a situation requires urgent attention and monitor the patient’s health progress. Additionally, telemedicine technology can enable remote consultations with doctors and other healthcare providers, improving access to care for people who cannot visit a medical facility in person.
Mindfulness can be a helpful technique for reducing the occurrence of inattentional blindness. Mindfulness is practicing paying attention to the present moment with non-judgmental awareness. This involves being fully present and engaged in the current moment without being distracted by thoughts, worries, or external stimuli. A study by Pandit et al. (2022) in an experiment showed that mindful-based intervention among health practitioners provided better results in their practice regarding mental focus. By practicing mindfulness, individuals can develop greater awareness and control over their attentional focus. This can help reduce the likelihood of inattentional blindness by allowing individuals to focus better on the task at hand while still being open to unexpected stimuli. Also, improving attentional control through training or practice can help individuals be more adept at focusing their attention on specific tasks while ignoring distractions. This can help reduce the likelihood of inattentional blindness in situations where attentional control is critical.
Legal systems also suffer from individuals, such as eyewitnesses giving wrong statements due to inattentional blindness, which can cause wrongful convictions. This can be controlled by simply being aware of the phenomenon of inattentional blindness, which can help in being more mindful and vigilant in situations where they need to be alert. Knowing that it is possible to miss something even if it is clearly visible can prompt considerations of other possibilities in an investigation. According to Hyman et al. (2018), eyewitnesses are affected by conditions such as memory problems that make it unreliable to depend entirely on eyewitness statements. Providing education and training to jurors and judges about the limitations of eyewitness testimony and the factors that can influence its accuracy can also help them make more informed decisions. In this case, jurors should also be provided with clear and accurate instructions about the limitations of eyewitness testimony and how to evaluate it to help ensure that they make informed decisions.
In conclusion, inattentional blindness is a fascinating and potentially dangerous aspect of human perception that has implications across various fields. It can have far-reaching implications for safety, eyewitness testimony, and technology design. It is crucial to recognize the potential risks associated with divided attention and develop strategies to reduce them, whether through increased awareness, training, or technology design. Additionally, the potential for inaccuracies in eyewitness testimony highlights the need for caution when relying on memory and the importance of considering the influence of inattentional blindness in legal proceedings. A greater understanding of inattentional blindness can also lead to safer, more efficient, and more effective practices in various contexts.
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