This study analyzes Availability as internet connection affects social media utilization, what social media users are comfortable discussing opinions on social media i.e., politics, interaction, and blogging, and determines the trustworthiness of various posts and comments. The online usage survey of to obtain information. The target group consists of 65 people on the internet. The data suggest that blog and SNS use positively affect online political involvement. Most markedly, exposed Availability of the internet demonstrates the relationship between social media use. Online political engagement was the cross-cutting permeating the relationship between SNS use and social media user.
Today social media has proved to be among the most, but not the most efficient, methods for transmitting information to different audiences. The power of this type of media is phenomenal. It ranges from its capacity to overturn government agencies (e.g., Moldova), to motivate demonstrations, assist with receiving funding for humanitarian assistance, arrange election candidates, and organize groups to defer the passing of legislation (as in the case with the certification bill in Canada) to building social digital multimillionaires [16, 17]. The allowing nature and the design of the internet community’s media enable a huge variety of possibilities that were unachievable before technology. Facebook and YouTube advertising and trainers present two situations. Today individuals may interact with and gain from others millions of kilometers afar. The worldwide reach of this medium has erased all previous pre-defined restrictions, including geographical, social, or anything else that existed earlier. Technological breakthroughs such as Web 2.0 and Web 4.0, which offer a platform for cooperation, have given new life significance from multiple perspectives: political, and institutional (Miley & Fisher,2020).
The use of social media does not have an effect, positive or negative, on public opinion.
As far as social media activism is concern, doubts persist as to whether the increased knowledge of societal problems is really translating into genuine change. Some individuals believe that social networking has enabled people to use mobile devices such as smartphones to voice their worries about social problems without having to actively participate in campaigns in actual life. They believe that this is true. Their support is limited to pressing the ‘Like’ button or sharing information.
Availability of Internet connection is the fundamental element of social media use. Today 48 percent of the total global population are now actively associated with utilizing social media , and this pace of users is only anticipated to grow in connection with the continual development of technology. They are being connected anytime, and wherever has a tremendous effect on how a firm can create and keep its links with its clientele. Often, allowing those consumers who feel that their ideas are marginalized the option to interact, share opinions and find some common ground among like people. When a social media user comments statements about, or endorsement deals for, news articles, this behavior has a direct impact on the amount of awareness and favorability of those news articles among a specific user’s supporters ( Anspach, 2017).
Not all social media users are comfortable addressing things that demand public viewpoints, such as business and political problems on their platforms.
In every country, substantially fewer people believe social media are incredibly crucial for helping them remain up with current affairs than say the same of a more traditional sort of social socializing – having conversations in person with people they encounter regularly. In every country except Mexico, a majority feel in-person encounters are a vital way people remain informed. Around four-in-ten or more in most countries consider these talks are highly necessary. At the same time, viewpoints vary regarding the trustworthiness, bias, and antagonistic nature of social media information compared with other sources. Across practically all these indicators, persons who feel social media are very important sources of political news experience these platforms in different – and usually more severe – conditions than other social media users.
As digital data on people increases, journalists increasingly resort to social network platforms such as Twitter and Facebook to get information. One trend in journalism, particularly in political coverage, is the collection of publicly available social media data to interpret and report on public view. Whether it is reporting on what topics are going viral, analyzing whether Twittersphere is expressing negatively or positively sentiment toward a political figure, or quoting Facebook users’ comments in a news report, reporters are using internet comments and discussions to say a little about public opinion and empower their political reporting (Miley & Fisher,2020).
The credibility of information by social media users, especially whether they are bots or individuals.
Malicious nodes are no longer a mysterious and undefined entity; they now play an important role in certain agendas. As of December 2018, the European Commission (2018: 4) announced its Course Of Action Against Misinformation, which acknowledged social bots as a tool ‘to distribute and amplify disputed material and conversations on social media that may be used to encourage Misinformation. Digital misinformation’s rapid spread has been seen as a threat to democracy. Science and technology researchers are investigating the fundamental mechanisms of viral transmission of misinformation while online apps are including protections..
Political manifestations such as partisan material, misinformation, or fake news have been examined in recent research using bots (Shao et al., 2018). (Shao and colleagues, 2018) A study published in 2018 by Shao et al. According to experts, ‘the noise, spamming, and manipulation inherent in many bot installation strategies threaten to destroy civic discussions and organization around the globe’ Howard et al. (2018: 86) said that (Howard et al., 2018: 86). It’s important to note that Howard et al. Using automated and digital technologies such as social bots, the practice of misinformation propagation and public opinion manipulation via social networking sites is referred to as “computerized PR” (Woolley and Howard, 2019). (Woolley and Howard, 2019). ). (1999) (Wooley and Howard, 2019)
The overall number of respondents who attended an event all the time after receiving data from social media systems: was 65. The total number of responses was 65. Facebook and Twitter were the primary social networks comparable to Instagram and Linkedin
Availability of Internet connectivity is the primary determinant of social media use.
The above chart shows that internet connectivity was the most used social media compared to radio, TV, and telephone.
Although the use of social media plays a vital role in disseminating information that requires public opinions, it is relative that it does not affect these opinions, whether positively or negatively. Since some of these opinions, such as political issues, are relatively easy to access, it seems like a perfect idea to use social media to influence the opinion of citizens. However, various factors such as internet connectivity, the credibility of the information or comments, and the comfortability of online users in discussing different topics on their social media accounts affect their decisions. Therefore, most people do not access the information on social media, and the online users may choose to ignore thus not influencing public opinion (Bürgin, A. 2018).
Bürgin, A. (2018). Intra‐and Inter‐Institutional Leadership of the European Commission President: An Assessment of Juncker’s Organizational Reforms. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 56(4), 837-853.
Creely, A. J., Greenwald, M. J., Ballinger, S. B., Brunner, D., Canik, J., Doody, J., … & SPARC Team. (2020). Overview of the SPARC tokamak. Journal of Plasma Physics, 86(5).
Miley, K., Fisher, M., Nahum, M., Howard, E., Rowlands, A., Brandrett, B., … & Vinogradov, S. (2020). Six month durability of targeted cognitive training supplemented with social cognition exercises in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, 20, 100171.
Shao, C., Ciampaglia, G. L., Varol, O., Yang, K. C., Flammini, A., & Menczer, F. (2018). The spread of low-credibility content by social bots. Nature communications, 9(1), 1-9.
Sundar, S. S., & Nass, C. (2001). Conceptualizing sources in online news. Journal of communication, 51(1), 52-72.
Iberians Empires And Globalization In The European Union Sample Paper
Looking back, most of the empires went through renaissance or ‘revival’ as used in the European society to represent the utilization of acquired knowledge and ideas. Revival was triggered by the turnaround which was experienced in the economic growth in the European Union (Borges 2014, 2). Therefore, renaissance evidenced that there was an undeniable bond between globalization and empires. Globalization could be defined as the change that occurs among various regions through the interchanging of products, services or ideas (Palomo2016, 2). In addition to that, globalization in the early history promoted a symbiotic relationship among the Iberians and the countries which were part and pestle of the European Union at the time (Magone 2019, 9). The Iberian’s establishment of the empires was definitely significant in the early history and was also a way of showing how well they were able to utilize the knowledge they had acquired. Moreover, the countries which made up the European Union had a common goal of steering forward the economy during that era. The aim of this essay is to highlight about the Iberians empires and the globalization of the European Union (Yun-Casalilla 2019, 6).
Europe had experienced a load of challenges after the wrestle that came its way during the 14th century. However, was convinced that Europe had overcome its struggles as they ushered in 1450 following the mediation from state-based officials and authorities that assumed their mandate of bringing peace (Borges 2014, 2). This noble course was more focused on forming a proper connect between various countries around the world as a way of surging forward globalization. In the attempt of countries to form a perfect connect, the European Union was established although as it progressed the economy of the Iberians continued to rag behind (Pimentel2000, 15). Definitely, the economy of Iberian empires ragged behind because they held on to old beliefs and they were always pessimistic about the changes that would occur in the near future. Globalization began as a semi-economic unit which was mainly focused on shipping different goods from America all the way to Europe. Moreover, Europe as a sign of appreciation it manufactured products that were in turn shipped back to America (Magone 2019, 9).
America had transferred its highly valued assets to Europe though it lacked the competency and technology to produce and transfer products (Böröcz 2015, 59). Iberian was directly related to the countries of Spain and Portugal. Therefore, the country through the mandate given to Spain lacked efficient methods of sustaining huge production lines. According to the present-day academicians, they referred to Spain as a slow state as they paid reference to the early history because it was reluctant on economic growth (Yun-Casalilla 2019, 6). The escalation of many adored metals came from other foreign countries because America was not geographically enabled. Spain ended up increased the cost of production of products because they still put the cost of shipping into consideration. That being the case, the Spanish economy ended up deteriorating because America was prompted to consider liaising with other countries who offered cheaper services. Spain and Portugal were actually not part of the European Union because they believed in hiring manpower which was far more expensive as compared to other countries that were more focused on economic growth (Pimentel2000, 15).
Cultural compatibility of Spain and Portugal were mainly built on the principles of honour, minimal or no labour and the lack of an attempt to establish their own businesses (Borges 2014, 2). European Union was more focused on gathering and liaising with different countries that always put their best foot forward in inspiring themselves to establish small but highly sustainable businesses. The Iberian empire ragged behind as compared to the European Union which was always on the move economically (Magone 2019, 9). In addition to this, the Iberian empires began to experience a fluctuation in the income that they used to receive from agricultural activities in the past. The income had been affected following the deterioration in the quality of soils hence they could barely support the growth of many crops. Also, the deviation which came up in Spain and Portugal due to the evolvement of the Iberian empires into cities and a resultant increase in the population among both countries led to delayed economic growth (Hausser, Christian, & Horst Pietschmann 2014, 1).
Countries which became part and pestle of the European Union gradually experienced an improvement in economic growth since they invested in manual manpower and small business (Yun-Casalilla 2019, 6). The European Union took their time to level out the risks that would emerge within and beyond their investments as opposed to Iberian empires that were never prepared to resolve the risks that came their way. The inspiration that all the countries among the European Union offered each other was noticeable since it helped them to seek for demanding yet greater economic boosters (Del Valle, Anna &Rachel 2020, 4). Resultantly, the European economy from experienced a breakthrough in 1450-1550 although many academicians currently assume that it emanated from liaising with Asia. Undeniable changes in the economic growth towards the brighter side were actually because the countries put extra effort. However, total change came around in the European Union because the countries were determined to achieve a common goal which was definitely to achieve financial freedom (Böröcz 2015, 59). Definitely, the countries were further interested in developing new opportunities which would internally help them to sustain the wealth and improve their economy.
International interconnections in Europe and Iberian empires were prompted by Marco Polo’s expedition into China and other Italian influenced states which were allies with Asia (Magone 2019, 9). Creatively, the countries kept in touch with Asia because it was their only guarantee and link to Europe. Therefore, the countries resolved to commence the trading of goods like silk and native spices which were directly related to their way of living because they were of high value and could bring good returns. China and other Italian states had a tendency of foreseeing the economic growth of the European Union ion the near future (Del Valle, Anna &Rachel 2020, 4). They held to the fact that there would be the development of currency that would allow widespread exchange of goods and establishment of banking finances. However, that fact was farfetched considering that the Iberian empires, the European Union and their attempt to globalize were part of early history (Borges 2014, 2). The other countries were in fear that the European Union would cause a chaotic system in the economy if they began to wrestle for power.
Fear was cut across the diminishing economic growth that would be experienced when countries which formed the European Union begun to point out fingers at each other (Jacoby, Wade, & Sophie Meunier 2010,3). The allies of Asia thought that the European Union would pour out their energy in eliminating the competition around the trading territory they had acquired by making various products that would outdo the use of traditional spices and silk. However, countries in the European Union proved the allies of Asia wrong by sticking to their initial agreement which strictly required them to use native products from their countries (Böröcz 2015, 59). This was a good thought since the use of native and readily available products would help them to reduce the cost of production and risks that could emerge. This thought was believed to be wise enough because the countries would rise to an economic status of their own desire although it would take some time to achieve it. Sticking to the agreement helped the European Union to reduce the any chances that would prompt the development of new routes in the water bodies by malicious people from other countries (Jacoby, Wade, & Sophie Meunier 2010,3). Malicious people would definitely be in search of ways which could lead them to the high valued products which existed along the Mediterranean coast line Del Valle, Anna & Rachel 2020, 4). Furthermore, the European Union wanted to keep the good relationship that they had built over time with the Iberian empires although they were not very interested in trading activities.
The Iberian empires as indicated were mostly focused on agricultural activities rather than the production of high valued goods (Borges 2014, 2). This was as a result of their culture which restricted them from seeking help from casual labourers and being involved in any short-term or long-term investments (Magone2018, 9). The changes in human advancement were slow with relevance to early history because both the European Union and Iberian empires believed in staying in their own lanes. Greed was highly disliked since all parties were required to keep their end of the deal without compromising the trading routes of other states (Böröcz 2015, 59). Iberian empires were known for the great knowledge that they had acquired over the years hence it was a good ally for most countries despite of the difference in the way of living that they had. The way of living of countries that had a good interconnection with Iberian empires was evident in their choice of religion which majorly comprised of Christianity or Islamic (Jacoby, Wade, & Sophie Meunier 2010,3). Moreover, Iberian empires were very good at passing on their knowledge and way of living since they had Mallorcan schools within their vicinity. It is a little absurd that the empires did not find establishing small businesses at the time as a perfect method of investing because looking back at the early history they were absolutely knowledgeable (Magone2018, 9). Actually, the passing on of knowledge in Iberia led to the emergence of Ptolemy which was a reflection of Geographia. Ptolemy was a translation made from Latin all courtesy of the knowledge of Iberians and the benefits were immense (Magone 2019, 9).
The evolvement of the use of compasses to look for directions allowed for the ease of shipping goods since routes in water bodies could be found (Borges 2014, 2). There was a new development although in early history which was referred to as astrolabe which was born out of the knowledge that the northern and southern ships in Europe had (Polónia, Amélia, & Amândio Barros2012, 8). Surging forward to the 14th century ushered in new innovative methods from the European Union of conducting tasks. Small printing press evolved with an aim of replacing the development of road and sea maps hence some precision was achieved (Del Valle, Anna &Rachel 2020, 4). Trading became easier by the day as the states which formed the European Union borrowed China’s previous invention of the use of gunpowder. Therefore, it became safer for the countries to carry out their trading activities throughout the day and night since they could protect themselves from enemies. Early history agreed with the fact that this was an improvised way to sustain the economic growth that they had begun to achieve (Jacoby, Wade, & Sophie Meunier 2010,3). Mongolia was also working towards the utilization of gunpowder although it had not sought for help from the Chinese, Iberians or the European Union.
Iberian empires were not very interested in venturing along the coastlines of the Atlantic Ocean. However, Portugal and Castile had a lot of resources at their disposal and out of their curiosity they ended up discovering a lot of opportunities along the different coasts available in the continent of Africa. The Iberian empires had presumably adopted the expansion approaches to other states from the European Union. The African coastlines had a lot of resources as evidenced by later discoveries in the modern history which mainly showcase many precious metals and minerals (Yun-Casalilla 2019, 6). During the start of the 14th century Portugal experienced a turnaround in their interests which prompted them to refocus upon discovering more opportunities along the coastlines of the Atlantic Ocean. Still, this was not unexpected from the Portuguese considering the fact that the Iberian empires had begun to admire the economic growth that the European Union was experiencing. Iberian empires had resolved to keep Reconquista afloat which helped most of the countries to better societal advancement with regard to trading (Borges 2014, 2).
Black Death had been prevalent in most Iberian empires hence as a result the population remained constant for several years. That being the case, Portugal could not have dire need for edible resources while no new births were witnessed at the time (Del Valle, Anna &Rachel 2020, 4). The Iberian empires were definitely not in search of large modes of trading in foreign countries since their capability unlike that of the European Union restricted them ton small investments. Historians in the present-time applauded the small initiative that the Iberian empires had taken upon themselves to start small in trading since it would be the beginning of the escalation in their economic growth (Polónia, Amélia, & Amândio Barros2012, 8). The European Union was at a greater risk of attaining new competitors in the trading sector because the Iberians were very knowledgeable. Assumedly, they would come up with new methods that would allow them to ship their most required resources which would aid the production of goods (Magone 2019, 9).
The Iberian Peninsula experienced a change after their expansion which had resolved form the discoveries that they had made in other countries (Del Valle, Anna &Rachel 2020, 4). Likewise, the adoption of some of the approaches that the European Union had used to better their economic growth brought greater success for the Iberian empires. The economic growth among the empires began to shoot in a similar way to that of the European Union after the countries combined their efforts. Furthermore, the states formed other trading routes that gave access to the coastal regions that they deemed very beneficial for them (Hausser, Christian, & Horst Pietschmann 2014, 1). The Genoese resolved to shift to Sudan following their discovery of huge traces of gold which was normally shipped off to the northern part of Africa. Unfortunately, Genoese wanted to have the trading of gold to them hence a tussle raised between them and the Venetians. The Venetians were determined to stick to their own lane while the Genoese wanted to have it all since they believed more income would be generated. The Ottoman Turk had been present in Asia for some time since they benefited from the economic growth within the European Union (Borges 2014, 2).
The economic growth within the European Union profited other states that were not part of it but the reduction which was experienced in sugar production made business to deteriorate. Finally, the Ottoman Turk was pushed out of business following the reduction of sugar production although Genoese was ushered in to trading as per their wish (Böröcz 2015, 59). However, part of the Iberian empires had conquests whose pieces of land were huge enough to accommodate more sugarcane plantations in order to boost sugar production. The Iberian empires kept their focus clear since they admired the achievements that the countries which were part of the European Union had gained (Palomo 2016, 2). Moreover, Iberians used the acquired knowledge to better the agricultural activities within their reach and the results were an escalation in the movement of people from one place to another. A large percentage of people moved to the northern parts which were closer to Castile since they wanted to increase the production of edible crops. The food was meant to satisfy the many people who had begun to shift to more developed places in the Iberian empires (Magone 2019, 9).
Iberian empires which mainly consisted of Portugal and Castile had a tendency to made agreements among them in order to control their trading activities. However, the European Union suffered from the conflicts that would arise from the empires since they were close allies and the trading interconnection was still firm (Del Valle, Anna &Rachel 2020, 4). It was held that the Iberian empires were shadows of the economic growth within the European Union. This fact was actually thought to be truthful since the empires were only used as shipping routes for commodities that were being transported from America. The major and most essential trading activities like the production of the commodities from their raw materials were wholly carried out in states which were part of the European Union (Magone2018, 9). Practically, the largest share of the income which was got from selling the products would remain in the custody of the European Union. This was the main reason why the economic growth within the European Union continued to move upscale while that of the Iberian empires remained stagnant (Hausser, Christian, & Horst Pietschmann 2014, 1).
The establishment of the Iberian empires mainly in the thresholds of Spain and Portugal were the first recognition of the adoption of globalization. Unfortunately, the European Union had a new problem in its basket since it had progressed in terms of economic growth. The Iberian empires on the other hand needed to fit in the shoes of European Union because they also wanted to have an upgraded economic level. Still, the European Union was afraid of being put out of the trading sector because of the outlet of many precious metals and minerals continued to enlarge by the day (Del Valle, Anna &Rachel 2020, 4). Silver which was the most demanded precious metal became more consistent and readily available following the discovery which was made in Seville. Gradually, silver was shipped with some currency attached to its value although the traders within the Iberian empires and European Union were facing the same monetary challenges (Pimentel2000, 15). The countries during that era had not devised methods of making their own currencies let alone figuring out the different designs of the currencies that they would adopt (Böröcz 2015, 59). Spain was lucky enough to experience an escalation in their total population since the prices increased while the metals were shipped on time.
Globalization according to the early history could be termed as the combined effort among various countries to achieve a greater economic growth (Borges 2014, 2). The European Union was actually good at investing in small trading activities and had the culture of adopting manual labour. In addition to this, the European Union liaised with other neighbouring countries even if they were not part of their noble task. They continuously borrowed some invented methods which aided their trading activities to be constant hence this showcased their aptness to deal with the risks that emerged (Jacoby, Wade, & Sophie Meunier 2010,3). However, most of the Iberian empires were left behind in globalization although they had enough knowledge at their disposal. The empires portrayed a good tendency to perform excellently in agricultural activities rather than precious metals. Gradually, they were interested in knowing how most countries that were part and pestle of the European Union managed to improve their economy level (Del Valle, Anna &Rachel 2020, 4).
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Böröcz, József. “European Union 4.” Revisiting the European Union as Empire (2015): 59.
Del Valle, Ivonne, Anna More,& Rachel Sarah O’Toole, eds. Iberian Empires and the Roots of Globalization. Vanderbilt University Press 10, no.4 2020: 90-158
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Jacoby, Wade, & Sophie Meunier. “Europe and the management of globalization.” Journal of European public policy 17, no. 3 (2010): 299-317.
Magone, José. Iberian trade unionism: Democratization under the impact of the European Union, no. 9, (2018): 230-371
Palomo, Federico. “Written empires: Franciscans, texts, and the making of Early Modern Iberian Empires.” Culture & History Digital Journal 5, no. 2 (2016): 011.
Pimentel, Juan. “The Iberian Vision: Science and Empire in the Framework of a Universal Monarchy, 1500-1800.” Osiris 15 (2000): 17-30.
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Impact Of Trade On Society Free Writing Sample
Trade organization was a significant foundation for the impact of cultural exchange between 1495 throughout 1775. This was a period where colonization had rooted most of the European regimes as they scrambled to get a share in other parts of the world. The comic encounters between Americans and European people varied as time progressed, impacting the two entities socially, politically, and economically. There were a lot of items to be traded, including slaves, which brought about the interaction of different cultures and the interbreeding of other ethnicities. As much as there were economic profits from the trade triangles, social norms and institutions were developed due to these trade interactions.
First and foremost, in 1492, Colombus arrived on the Caribbean island with Black men as sailors, and others arrived with the Spanish fleet as soldiers. Sooner and later, the Europeans believed the Africans had a high workforce and could sustain severe conditions, turning them into slaves. That was the birth of slavery, and it was practiced for the next 250 years and acted as the pinnacle of Europe’s economy. The Slave trade being the primary source of trade, led to the emergence of the Black American race that has spread worldwide. Enslaved people in Africa were transported and sold to various bays through the Trans-Atlantic trade. As a result of interbreeding with the Whites, it brought about the Black American ethnicity (Nunn). The cultural exchange and the rise of different ideologies on music, marriages, and other rites were seen as a repercussion of the Trans-Atlantic trade.
Secondly, the slave trade led to an influx of population into the European countries that saw the economy of America and European countries rise beyond measure. Slaves were the main product of trade, and the number of slaves determined people’s wealth. In 1793, the exchange and production of tobacco and cotton increased profits since the slaves worked tirelessly in the fields to martial the flow of products in the market. The Trans-Atlantic trade resulted in the development of machinery that was quite outstanding in that period of time (Nunn). The emergence of the cotton gin helped in cotton production on farms and boosted the economy of many countries since there was enough labor from the available slaves. Moreover, production increased, and the lives of the Whites improved while the poor Blacks remained in shackles of poverty and means of trade and brutality.
Last but not least, despite the positive effects of trade interactions, it led to political instability, ethnic division, and underdevelopment in some states. Human trade led to civil war and the deaths of many people. Many Africans were abducted and taken against their will, where some died due to brutal conditions on the voyage. In contrast, others committed suicide to escape the aftermath of slavery. By the mid-1800, half of the black population was wiped out due to the slave trade since they faced harsh and cruel conditions from their “owners” (Muhammad). In Africa, economic underdevelopment was evident while civil war struck different parts of the Western African countries. The transatlantic trade marked the beginning of racial discrimination that is still evident even after abolishing the slave trade in 1946. Socially, African people faced hardship while the Europeans enjoyed profits from the trade.
In conclusion, trade had both positive and negative impacts on the lives of different individuals at that time. The aftermath of this trade organization is still felt up to now since there is the Black American ethnicity and rise in racial segregation. However, the economic status of America and Europe grew tremendously over the years due to the Trans Atlantic trade and other trade operations between 1492 and the late 1700s. The evolution of farming also improved, increasing food and other products to sell in the market. But this is all due to the slave trade, which was the central trade exchange at that time period. Therefore, trade exchange impacted people socially and economically, which mirrors the current society.
Muhammad, Patricia M. “The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: European Slaving Corporations, The Papacy and the Issue of Reparations.” Willamette Journal of International Law and Dispute Resolution, vol. 26, no. 1/2, 2019, pp. 173–248.
Nunn, Nathan. “The Long-Term Effects of Africa’s Slave Trades.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. 123, no. 1, 2008, pp. 139–76.