Organized Crime prevalence in Mexico has caused a significant impact the political and social life. According to Beittel, organized crime has taken center stage in political activities and cycles and threatens the democracy of the nation Beittel, 2015, pg. 1). Conversely, criminal groups’ actions impact the populace’s social life. Drug lords sponsor violence to disrupt government operations and hoodwink them into allowing their dominance and operations. Thus, the cartels have infiltrated the country’s democracy by unleashing bribery and corruption strategies to buy themselves into the system. Therefore, civilians are subjected to suffering because of the actions of the government, law enforcers, and organized crime groups. The study will focus on the prevalence of organized groups in Mexico, their operations, and the impacts of their actions on political and social life.
Mexico has been hitting the headlines for decades on matters of organized crime. The menace has become among the leading concerns of the security apparatus in the country because of its political and social impacts. Mexico’s organized crime dynamics have changed over time because of the shift in its roles within Meixico’s political and social pyramid. According to Alonso-Trabanco, the organized crime challenge has changed from traditional armed gangs to organized crime groups that disrupt functional government systems (Alonso-Trabanco, 2022 para 1). Previously, in the 19th and 20th centuries, armed gangs’ prevalence was witnessed during the Mexican Revolution. The gangs operated in rural areas with minimum interruption to the government functioning. During the revolutionary war, the gangs could take advantage to steal, loot private proper and ty, and smuggle and distribute drugs in the rural parts of Mexico.
However, the gangs have since evolved into severe organized crime groups that cause problems in two forms. Firstly, organized groups have formed cartel syndicates and paramilitary squads with a specific agenda of taking control of the political and social activities of the country. Primarily, they seek to destabilize the Mexican State to take control of the significant operations. Thus, the law enforcers are on the run to investigate and curb the unending syndicate with no precise cut-out or jurisdiction. Secondly, organized crimes cause havoc amongst themselves by engaging in supremacy wars on illicit trades and market share control. The territorial war between non-state crime groups causes social and political turmoil making it difficult to govern the country or conduct daily social lives (Alonso-Trabanco, 2022 para 2). Notably, the origin and impact of organized crime groups in Mexico are misunderstood. Often, the OCG activities have hidden agendas and cannot be understood through observation, but by investigating the pattern of occurrence and its impact on the general public. Some scholars have singled out OCG as the basis of corruption, impunity, and poverty in Mexico. On the other hand, humanitarian groups have attributed the OCG prevalence to unstable social life and interruption amidst increased organized crime activities.
Organized Crime in Mexico has the goodwill of some of the well-established cartels, which seek to ensure the continuity of the vice to advance their interests. According to Trejo Guillermo, and Sandra Ley, the war and the prevalence of organized crime activities occurs during power transitions (Guillermo & Ley, pg. 1). It is at this time that criminal violence, wars, theft, and social disturbance advance and can be felt across Mexico. For example, during the Institutional Revolutionary Party, there was peaceful coexistence and little tension or report on drug cartel cases or organized crimes in Mexico. However, upon the promulgation of multiparty politics, there has been an increase in crime cases reported in Mexico and other States US. The multiparty involves rigorous competition between leaders of various political parties. During such election or campaign time, the cases of violence, drug smuggling, and insecurity increase. Thus, it is observable that something is going on behind the scene between the drug lords and government officials in the management of organized crime groups to achieve some political goals. Also, the activities significantly impact the social activities and life of the populations living within the state. This is because the cartels and the leaders conspire to deprive the public stable social life at the expense of accumulating wealth for themselves.
Drug lords and cartels have intruded into Mexico’s political and social framework by advancing organized crime activities. Organized crime activities have controlled the lives of thousands of local government officials and political candidates through corruption-producing strategies. Thus, they accumulate wealth and power while causing suffering to innocent, loyal civilians within the societies involved in the crossfire. The paper will demonstrate how the organized crime cartel syndicate has prevailed in Mexico and the impacts on its political and social life.
Political Associations and Implication
Several kinds of literature have attributed the increased organized crime rate to the political developments in the country. Trejo Guillermo and Sandra Ley question why organized crime activities increase during electioneering periods (Guillermo & Ley, pg. 2). Part of the findings by the author shows that the activities sprouted up after the state became multiparty. Thus, it means that the parties are obligated to participate in elections after the terms of office of the incumbent come to an end. Often, drug lords establish networks with the ruling or leaders who are in power to ensure that the government does not interfere with their drug business and cartels. Therefore, drug lords ensure they control the leaders who assume power or authority in Mexico. Trejo Guillermo and Sandra Ley acknowledge that the struggle to have power control is the primary source for the escalations of organized crime activities.
Relatively organized crimes have prevailed because of government or state tolerance. Alonso-Trabanco attributes that organized crime operations were tolerated with a guarantee that they would not act in a way that would destabilize the state’s supremacy (Alonso-Trabanco, 2022 para 16). For example, organized crime groups participating in marijuana farming were given equal opportunities in the market as other business entrepreneurs. However, they were expected to give bribes or small fees to the leaders in authority to evade tax payments and other federal obligations. In return, the state prioritized their business and solved emerging conflicts between them and government officials. However, in the change of governance from the Institutional Revolutionary Party to the era of multiparty, where the National Action Party took place, the operations systems changed, with the government becoming weaker and unable to control the growth of organized crime groups. Thus, the groups pressed the government to heed their growing demands, including allowing incentives. Therefore, they could advance their activities and use violence to rebel against the state whenever they were shortchanged, or the rules that do-not favour them were introduced.
Violent Criminality and Drug Criminality
Violent Criminality and Drug Criminality are products of organized crime groups. Often, the participants or members of organized criminal groups engage in violent acts influenced by the substances they consume, including drugs and alcohol. According to Petter Johnstad, prohibition makes the illicit drug trade very profitable. Therefore, attractive to criminal organizations who will compete with each other for access to the illicit drug market (Johnstad, 2023, pg. 1). It is the expectation of every government system that the prohibition of the use of drugs is an opportunity to reduce its prevalence on the market. However, research shows that when the drug supply is limited, the prices rise. Thus, the drug business becomes lucrative for drug lords and peddlers. Drug lords and cartels in the drug trafficking industry used organized crimes to control the market share. Therefore, there is an increase in crime rates in the drug-prone zones and causing instability in the social system of the social state. According to Beittel, organized crimes increased violence and illicit trade operations in Mexico in June. Often, the OCG uses violent acts to communicate a message to the authorities, especially when sending out a warning (Beittel, 2015 pg. 7). The author suggests that violent acts are med to hoodwink the authorities to cooperate with them, especially when handling business deals. Further, the violence can escalate to the members of the society, including the creditors, suppliers, and buyers of their products. Research shows violent drug trafficking cases are more random than other societal violence cases.
Social Interruption and Disturbance
The presence of organized crimes or the undertaking of their activities creates social interruption and disturbance. Every society’s dream is to live in peace and harmony with minimal or zero instances of crimes or violent behaviours. However, it is not the case with the presence of OCG because they thrive in violence and cause havoc. The drug cartels often fund the OCG to advance their agenda and business protection. In the process, the OCG networks expand within the society with increased crime rates and violent activities. According to Johnstad, “expanding organized crime networks breeds community violence in indirect ways since people who live by violence in their working lives are often violent also in their private lives” (Johnstad, 2023 pg. 1). The increase in criminality and violent actions in the neighbourhoods threatens the security and safety of the locals hence causing panic and discomfort to carry on with the day-to-day activities.
Further, the increase in criminality in society and the reaction from the authorities causes society to go rogue. Since the order of the day is the occurrence of criminal or violent activities, the community may choose to acquire weapons, including guns, to protect themselves against organized crime attacks. In the long run, society shifts from existing in harmony to being a criminal and violent community. According to Hofmann, growing violence associated with drug trafficking gangs and cartels causes public insecurity” (Hofmann, 2009 pg. 2). The author acknowledges that the existence of gangs in society is a result of the increase in the unemployment rates, unequal resource distributions, financial crisis, and other social problems that makes the organized groups revolt and join the illegal vice. However, it is the state’s responsibility to ensure that the underlying issues are addressed to ensure that the social environment of the citizens is safe.
Therefore, it is evident that organized crime exists in Mexico and can be categorized as a social and a political issue. Its origin, cause, and impact towards democracy, social aspects, societal security, and emergency of drug and violent acts indicate that the challenge has detrimental impacts. Thus, it is significant to research the social and political thematic areas where the vice impacts. The following sections will analyze the cases or instances where organized crime impacts Mexico’s social and political life.
Empirics of the Study
Organized Crime Prevalence in Mexico
Mexico’s common type of organized crime is the transnational criminal organization (TCO). TCO is prevalent in Mexico, and most members conduct drug businesses along Mexico and the United States border. The more than 2000-mile border between the two countries has become a hub of illegal dealings and criminal activities. According to Beittel, the region has been rated to have an increased rate of drug and opioid overdoses (Beittel, 2015 pg. 1). The presence of the drug lords at the border contributes to the push and pool between the border authorities, primarily when supplying illegal items. The violence within the border impacts the United States’ commercial and individual interests. On the other hand, Mexican governing authorities are affected by the insecurities and instability caused by the presence of transnational criminal organizations. Also, the use of drugs along the border influenced a large number of youths into drug and substance abuse. Thus, they have abandoned their social responsibilities in their families as they participate in criminal and violent activities. The menace has been discussed in congress to provide a lasting solution to the challenge along the border affecting the United States political and social stability.
Relatively, murder and violent behaviours have increased in Mexico, impacting social security and safety. According to the Mexican homicide department, more than 100000 cases of murder have been reported in the country over the last five years (Beittel, 2015 pg. 2). The rise in homicide cases has been linked to organized crime forms of murder and violence patterns. Notably, it has been rated on several occasions as the leading country in violent behaviours to the extent that it has attracted the attention of congress. Congress has been interested in addressing the menace because of the threats received by their member. Some of the Congress leaders have reported threats directed at their families, candidature, and the increased cases of homicide victims. Also, the cartels control the electoral system at different election circles, threatening the people’s sovereignty to choose leaders independently. Thus, the threats paused by organized criminal groups warrant the attention of the political and social classes.
Organized crime groups prevalence has threatened the freedom of speech and media operations. Criminal, drug abuse and violent activities are illegal and immoral. Drug lords operate as syndicates or underworld dealings protected from the limelight. On the other hand, the media is keen on highlighting the happenings in society. Thus, the two collide in the divergent societal roles; hence the powerful have their way. Research shows that medical personality and journalist assassination has increased over time. Mexico has been ranked as the most hostile country towards journalists, with the death of at least one journalist per month. Watchdog groups reported that more than nine journalists were assassinated in 2021. A similar case happened in 2022, where at least 11 known journalists were murdered in less than five months (Beittel, 2015 pg. 2). Thus, the increased hatred has undermined freedom of socialization in Mexico from organized crime groups towards media personalities and journalists.
Mexico’s Criminal Landscape: Political and social impacts
The presence of armed groups in Mexico indicates that organized crime groups are dangerous to the state socially and politically. Mexico’s criminal landscape comprises corruption, violence, and impunity. Statistics starting from the year 2002 show a rising trajectory of violent cases. According to Beittel June, the number of recorded homicide crimes rose from the year 2007 to 2011 but remained consistent during the year 2012 to 2018 under the era of President Enrique Nieto (Beittel, 2015 pg. 13). However, during the last year of his administration, the cases declined. Despite the decline, the number of organized crimes that involve homicide is approximated to be more than 22%, and the number continues to grow with time. The Mexico state government reposts show that 27 per cent of 100 000 cases of homicide were reported in the year 2018, and the number increased by 2% from the recent 27% that had earlier been reported. The author acknowledges that the number has been rising and threatens the country’s security because it might overwhelm the authorities. The data developed by the Crisis Group from the mainstream media shows an increase in organized crimes prevalence. The report revealed that more than 500 armed groups dominated Mexico between 2009 and 2020. However, the number started to double in the subsequent years from 2010 to 2020, indicating that the rate of crime in the state has increased significantly (Crisis Group, 2022).
According to reports by the Drug Enforcement Agency, only five identified 500 had been seized to operate as a group, while seven were the most notorious. The study identified that more than 200 armed groups were involved in drug trafficking. However, they are not well connected because they operate locally but may have links with international crime groups who inspire and facilitate them. The primary group identified is the Sinaloa group, which has been dominant and has many sub-groups. Others involved groups that come together to form one strong team that can forge ahead as one. The data shared is evidence that organized crime groups exist in Mexico and threaten the state’s political and social life ate (Crisis Group, 2022). The analysis is summarized in the figure below.
Corruption and Bribery: social and political life impacts
Organized crime groups’ corruption and bribery impact the political and social fabric of Mexico State. According to the case study conducted by Beitte, prison wardens, Mexican Police, and public officials fall prey to corruption and bribery from the cartels. Notably, the businesses advanced by the cartels are illegal and against federal law and regulation. However, the scarcity of drugs and other addictive substances increases demand and prices. Thus, the cartels make a profit and great earnings in the business. A significant portion of the money made is utilized in bribing and buying their way into the business world. The case study by Beitte shows that most cases that deserve severe ruling for punishment, especially the homicide ones, have never been concluded or have been thrown away from the court (Beittel, 2015 pg. 13). The study shows that bribery and corruption issues are deeply rooted within the law enforcement agency. In some instances, law enforcement agencies are hired by cartels to execute crimes because they have the necessary equipment for the process. The cartels take advantage of the low law enforcement pay, which makes the officials, police, and wardens susceptible to accepting bribes or becoming corrupt. Other officers may facilitate the activities of the drug lords, acting as security to the criminals to execute their activities. Once the activities are over, they alert their colleagues for formalization.
For example, Guzman Leora, known as El Chapo, was captured thrice and escaped twice. Upon his second escape in 2015, the prison officials and wardens were arrested and charged with facilitating the escape of the cartel. During the hearing and charges, it was established that the prison officer had received bribes to help in El Chapo’s escape. Also, Enrique Nieto, who was the President at the time, was accused by a witness that was awarded more than $100 million from the cartel. Despite the denial by the President, it was evident that the law enforcement team was rogue and that they had facilitated a crime in the name of money. Another officer implicated in the same case is Genaro Luna, who served at Mexico’s Federal Investigation Agency. The officer was arrested in Texas and accused of soliciting millions of dollars furnished for bribe purposes. Several arrests of similar nature have been made on senior officials, including Defense secretary Salcador Cienfuegos. He was charged with cases with bribery and money laundering while serving as the state security agent (Beittel, 2015 pg. 14). Thus, it is evident that corruption and bribery exist within the state officials when handling the cartels. Such actions are dangerous to the government’s functionality and threaten the nation’s political stability because the government can be bribed and overthrown. Also, it causes social injustices to the citizens who expect the government to protect them from organized crime activities. Instead, they have joined hands to deprive the public of their social rights and justice.
Organized Crime and Political Impacts
Organized crime impacts the political life of the Mexistatetate in several ways. According to Trejo Guillermo and Sandra Ley, organized crime cannot exist and successfully operate illicit markets without some level of informal state protection” (Guillermo & Ley, 2020 pg. 9). The authors argue that politics and organized crimes co-exist and depend on each other for survival depending on the leader running state. Notably, human smugglers and drug traffickers do not exist in a vacuum but comply with government requirements to enable them to transport and travel around the country. The crime leaders’ collaboration helps them escape arrest when they are caught during transportation or while crossing the borders. Others are allowed to operate their businesses while in the prisons. The authors are focused on proving that the two entities work together to ensure seamless operations. However, not all the departments in statemate collaborate with the criminal enterprise. Some departments are transformed and are against criminal activities; hence they do not compromise with organized crime groups (Pereda, 2022, pg. 626). Thus, the “clean” and “dirty” governments engage in a cat-and-mouse game in curbing and facilitating organized crime operations. Therefore, the following thematic areas will identify the impacts of organized crime on political life.
Elections and Campaigns
Organized crime groups play a fundamental role in transitioning from one government to another. In Mexico, the transition from authoritarian rule to multiparty involved the powers of underworld criminals or organized crime groups. Some of the activities that take place during elections are the rotation of the party office, expansion of the electoral competition, and change of power attracts the involvement of organized crimes to install their desired officeholders who can advance their interests. At this point, the drug lords and human traffickers facilitate funding candidates and political parties into power. Notably, the change of guard in power threatens the operations of the drug cartels and their grey zones. Grey zone is the allowance given by the government to the underworld crime to conduct their operations with an agreement that they will not interfere with government systems (Guillermo & Ley, 2020 pg. 13). Therefore, the organized crime groups’ leaders must actively participate in ensuring that the elections and campaigns favors their own.
Government Collaboration with Organized Crime Groups
Research shows that authoritarian governments rely on with intelligence of the underworld to ensure that statemate is safe from intrusion. Often, the government has access to intelligence services that include civilian forces, service agencies, and criminal investigation departments. However, the entities are not enough without the presence of the shadow powers that are loyal to the government (Guillermo & Ley, 2020, pg. 11). The involvement of the shadow world is meant to counter the government agencies that may go rogue by using the state machinery against the government. Thus, the autocrats ensure that they are well connected to the outside world, including the organized crime groups who can help facilitate the dirty work and ensure that the autocrats remain in power and their government is stable. The autocrats are keen on preventing the emergency of palace coups. Often, the organized crimes permitted to operate are loyal to the ruling government. Trejo Guillermo and Sandra Ley reveal that the drug lords and the human smugglers have not assassins who undertake missions (Guillermo & Ley, 2020 pg. 12). Rather, they have personal security acquired by state security agents provide the forces that defend their turf, goods, and businesses. However, the criminal underworld trains their securities when the government they are collaborating with starts to crumble. The same autocrats ensure that the underworld criminals are facilitated to train a formidable force that can counter state forces in case of revolt or loss of an election. Therefore, the two entities remain in a web of interconnected entities. However, organized crime entities secretly conduct dirty work on the government’s behalf.
Organized crime groups without a relationship with the government are dangerous and threaten state’ste’s political stability. Cartels and drug lords have been linked to assassination cases and the establishment of pro-criminal regimes. In Mexico, the cartels took advantage of the intergovernmental partisan and electoral competition to identify those against their assassination agenda. Other prominent leaders experienced threats and murder attempts, mainly when they declined their bribes or favours towards their operations. Also, they can sponsor their candidates during the election, who will, in turn, change the laws to favour cartels. Further, the organized crime groups would be used by cartels to unleash war during party elections, party candidates, or government officials and disrupt the election cycles. Research shows that the cartels mobilized war and conflict that targeted newly elected mayors at the local level. The cause of mayhem was directed to the new leadership to manipulate and make them cowardice about the presence of cartels; hence the need to have respect towards them (Hofmann, 2009 pg. 5). Thus, cartels could take control or coerce the leaders towards installing their friends to the vital department including those of trade and taxation. They would then use the avenues to conduct their business and operations.
Drug lords and organized crime operations will plunge Mexico into political turmoil and threaten its international peace framework. The country borders crucial areas and regions that are significant in transships and travels across the region that include the Caribbean, Pacific, and Central America. It shows that its borders are crucial to other countries as well. The presence of cartels in the borders and the increased rate of violence threaten the region’s peace. The most affected region in Mexico is the Northern region, which has experienced several murders, cartel wars, and corruption among the police. Also, the cartels have changed their operations tactics from seamless operation to confrontation, indicating they no longer fear the government. Also, it can mean that the cartels collaborate with government officials; hence, there is no need to hide their operations. Further, the organized groups work with other anti-state paramilitary groups, including the Guerrilla groups, to sabotage the government agenda (Hofmann, 2009 pg. 5). The paramilitary network is vast and extends internationally. It becomes hard to trace or investigate them. Often, they carry out attacks and claim responsibility publicly to send a message to the government that they do exist. Therefore, the presence of organized crime organizations is a threat to the political stability and international relations of the country or state.
Organized Crime and Social impacts
Organized crime occurs within a social setting, and there is the possibility that the social aspects of the society will be impacted. Durkheim’s theory (1964) provides that mono-parental households and communities that stay in impoverished regions tend to lose the young generation to criminal gangs, drug abuse, and violent behaviours (Guillermo & Ley, 2020 pg. 3). Social mobility shifts with the change in environment and adapts to the new environment. Often, migrants from rural to urban areas must adapt to the new environment and challenges. Thus a weak social setting gives room to the lack of positive social mobility, social capital erosion, and promotion of capital violence. Thus, the availability of organized crime groups in society creates loopholes for erasing the social fabric and promoting activities or behaviors that cause violence, theft, immorality, and other social evils.
Organized crimes along the border impact the immigrants’ social life. Mexican border with the United States is chaotic, with government officials and law enforcers colluding with criminals and drug cartels to deprive the public. Research shows that the anti-corruption legal framework was initiated to solve issues at the border but has not gained the prerequisite goodwill from the political wing to execute the vice. Politicians are entangled and work with cartels and drug loads for a fee (Pereda, 2022, pg. 622). Thus, they frustrate the government’s efforts to handle the spread of cartels, bribery, and corruption along the border. The challenge has affected the migration department, prompting the establishment of the Title 42 health policy that impacted the asylum seekers. Notably, the United States sent back the people seeking asylum to present their cases in bordering cities they were running away from. The majority of them were forced to spend time in refugee shelters that include the Chihuahua, Baja California, and Tamaulipas (Beittel, 2015 pg. 16). Similarly, the border residents experienced significant threats and lack of peace caused by the increased violent acts of homicide rates, robbery, kidnappings, and extortion making their social lives untenable.
Impunity and Corruption
Impunity and corruption undermine social justice and service and goods delivery to the general public. According to Hofmann, the leaders and coordinators of organized crime groups use corruption and intimidation to bully the political or government officials who vow to ensure social justice and development are achieved. Notably, society seeks to be served through an unbiased judicial process and equal distribution of resources to the people. Also, a sound system should allow the public to exercise their social rights and practices, including participating in elections, gatherings, and picketing, among other social movements available for advocating for personal rights. Corruption tends to influence police departments, judiciary, and electoral institutions. The growth of criminality influences the essential social amenities and organizations, including the military, media, and judiciary, to influence the decision-making process. Therefore, the social services meant to be given to the public are diverted for other agendas that advance criminality.
Further, violent cases caused by organized crime groups’ activities impact the social and political life of the citizens in Mexico. Violence cases have been predominantly reported at the US-Mexico border, central Mexico, significant cities, and the Pacific states. Criminal investigation agencies report that the crime rate has increased because organized crime groups have split their activities across the regions to diversify their operations (Beittel, 2015 pg. 3). The extension of the violent activities to agricultural areas has impacted social-economic activities. On the other hand, the increase in the rate of violent activities is a threat to both political and national security. It becomes tough to control or curb the spread of the cartel network when it spreads across states. Also, they become a threat because they can strike at any time, anywhere. The federal government security agencies cannot provide security at every corner of the state at a given time. Additionally, the presence of violence and war would mean that criminals must possess weapons to facilitate their activities. Police reports show that a weapon seizure operation led to the recovery of high-powered ammunition at Sonora gear houses. Other weapons recovered include bulletproof vests, machine guns, and other sophisticated weapons. Therefore, the violent behaviors and weapon possession indicate the many political and social challenges faced by people and Mexicstatetate.
In conclusion, organized crime is a syndicate or criminal enterprise that has a significant impact on a country or state political and social life. Mexico is among the countries that have recorded much prevalence in organized crime operations. The country is experiencing a deeply rooted form of cartels and gang leaders infiltrating government offices and systems. The dominance of the criminals’ leaders in the government systems makes it easy for them to control government agendas. The organized crime wall is often involved in election cycles to ensure that candidates with their interests are elected. Thus, they fund campaigns and sponsor war, attacks, and violence during elections to ensure that the public is intimidated into voting on a specific pattern. Further, the cartels have invested in corruption and bribery functions to buy or push their interest without objection from law enforcement agencies. Thus, they operate in any jurisdiction, including crossing borders, moving their products within the country, and bypassing the justice system when caught in the wrong.
The actions of organized crime groups impact the social life of Mexicans. The violent acts going on in the country are a threat to the peaceful coexistence of the member of the public. Often, organized crime groups are used to scare or threaten the government to act in a specific trajectory. In the process, public social life is impacted. Corruption and impunity within the system deprive the public of their social rights to access social amenities. The criminal-influenced government does not guarantee justice, provision of services, security, safety, and movement. Also, the increased supply of drugs and substance abuse affects society. Drugs are prohibited in society, creating a high demand in the black market. The high demand causes a rise in the prices and makes it a lucrative business to venture into. Thus, organized crime attracts youths to drug and substance abuse and diverts them from engaging in productive social activities. Also, the youth indulge in criminal activities making the neighbourhood unsafe. Therefore, organized crimes have impacts on the social aspects of Mexicans.
The big question in solving the challenge of organized crime groups is whether the international community is willing to join Mexico in combating the pandemic. The existence of criminal groups within the country is a threat to the democracy of a nation and can jeopardize its political stability and plunge the country’s state into chaos. The organized crime menace is not a problem for one country. Still, it cuts across regions and continents (Hofmann, 2009 pg. 2). Thus, unions, including the United Nations, European Union, African Unions, and other joined countries, should consider the need to form a joint operation or commission that will provide a united front towards addressing the challenge.
The political and public institutions must be reformed to align with democratic governance rather than siding with the criminals. Solutions for curbing the threats and advancement of organized crime that cause government or political leadership instability. It is prudent to involve the international community in addressing Mexico’s challenges as an independent body because most government officials have been compromised; hence they cannot handle reforms without siding with the cartels. Further, the government should ensure that the glory of joining organized crimes is reduced by enacting laws that make the entity illegal and imposing huge penalties (Hofmann, 2009 pg. 6). It should focus on empowering youth and the groups that are susceptible to joining the cartels’ movement in advancing their ill-intentions. Law enforcement officers should be considered by ensuring they are given enough remunerations to give them no reason to join illegal groups.
Additionally, research should be conducted to ensure that evidence-based methods are used to address the causes of organized groups’ advancement. The research will facilitate a complete understanding of the causes of the menace and the possible strategies that can conclusively address the challenges. The international community can adopt some of the strategies because they have established relative policies and laws applicable worldwide. Also, anti-crime policies should be liberal to avoid rebellion from the cartels and the underworld drug lords (Hofmann, 2009 pg. 7). The policies should be “clever” to handle the challenges and candid about ensuring that the menace has been conclusively finished.
Alonso-Trabanco, Jose Miguel. “Backgrounder: Evolution of Organized Crime in Mexico.” Geopolitical Monitor, 21 Apr. 2022, www.geopoliticalmonitor.com/backgrounder-evolution-of-organized-crime-in-mexico/.
Beittel, June S. “Mexico: Organized crime and drug trafficking organizations.” Congressional Research Service 3 (2015).
Crisis Group. “Crime in Pieces: The Effects of Mexico’s ‘War on Drugs’, Explained.” Crisis Group, 5 May 2022, www.crisisgroup.org/content/crime-pieces-effects-mexicos-war-drugs-explained.
Hofmann, K. (2009). The Impact of Organized Crime on Democratic Governance–Focus on Latin America and the Caribbean. FES Briefing Paper, 13, 1-9.
Johnstad, Petter Grahl. “The international drug control regime may violate the human right to life and security.” International Journal of Drug Policy 113 (2023): 103960.
Pereda, Valentin. “Why Global North criminology fails to explain organized crime in Mexico.” Theoretical Criminology 26.4 (2022): 620-640.
Trejo, Guillermo, and Sandra Ley. Votes, drugs, and violence: The political logic of criminal wars in Mexico. Cambridge University Press, 2020.
In-House Vs. Outsource Decision Tree Essay Example
Decision trees depict the path taken during a decision-making process based on probabilities of uncertain events and information that allow project managers to derive the most optimal solution. Still, decision trees help decision-makers choose optimal cost-saving project solutions despite many alternatives (Simosa, 2021). A decision tree will guide the project team on whether or not to develop the accounting spreadsheet access application in-house or outsource it to an external contractor. Given the inaccuracy in the requirements-gathering process, there is a high probability that the final product could fail user acceptance testing. While doing the project in-house would be costly, the probability of user acceptance is high, thereby eliminating expensive reworks. The assignment identifies the decision (built in-house or outsourced). The option with the lowest investment requirement underpins the criterion for the final decision. The decision tree was designed using the Silver Decisions website by entering the expected path probability values and project costs (Silver Decisions, 2023).
First, probability values are assigned to the risks, i.e., The in-house and outsourced options will have user acceptance testing values of 0.9 and 0.3, respectively. These values are derived from probability percentages. It means the possibility of project success is higher at 90% for in-house development compared to 30% when outsourced. The second step is to calculate the impact of the risks, which is the value of each decision path for each option. The path values are calculated cumulatively from the left-hand of the decision tree to the right-hand based on the assumption that each case did occur (Simosa, 2021).
Table 1: Inhouse vs. Outsourcing Decision Tree Analysis
|User Acceptance Probability (%)||90%||30%|
|Cost of Rework||$50,000||$25,000|
The expected monetary values are then calculated for each alternative decision. The values of each decision node or probability node are derived starting with the path values on the right-hand to the left. Calculating each node’s value is also called folding back the decision tree. Finally, EMV is derived by multiplying the probability and impact of each decision option (Simosa, 2021). The Expected Monetary Value (EMV)= probability x impact.
Calculation: Expected Monetary Value (EMV)
OPTION 1: INHOUSE
Project Cost (Value) = $95,0000
User acceptance probability=90% (0.9)
The estimated cost of rework=$50,000
The EMV calculation will consider the project cost, user acceptance probability, and the cost of rework if the project fails to meet requirements. With a 90% user acceptance probability, in-house development has a negligible risk of failure. A higher probability of success means a lower likelihood of incurring rework costs.
OPTION 2: OUTSOURCE
Project Cost =$ 80,000
User acceptance probability = 30% (0.3)
Estimated Cost of rework = $25,000
The EMV calculations will consider the project cost ($80,000), user acceptance probability (30%), and the cost of reworks. A lower acceptance probability indicates a higher risk of project failure. Notwithstanding the lower cost of rework, outsourcing has a 70% possibility of project failure at the acceptance testing phase.
User acceptance risk analysis
There is a high risk that the project will not pass user acceptance testing if the decision is to outsource. The Inhouse decision, though expensive, offers a higher probability for user acceptance, thereby eliminating the need for rework. The decision to develop in-house or outsource will be based on the lowest investment requirement (Simosa, 2021).
Step 1: List Alternative Decisions
Inhouse vs. Outsource Decision Tree
The decision tree was designed based on the project cost, user acceptance probability, and the estimated cost of reworking.
Step 2: Risk Probability Calculation
There is a 90% probability for user acceptance when the project is done in-house compared to 30% when outsourced. Outsourcing presents a 90% possibility of project failure instead of 10% when developed in-house. However, the cost of rework is highest ($50,000) when the decision is to go in-house, whereas its lowest ($25,000) when the decision is outsourcing. The path values are calculated as shown below.
Calculation of path values
OPTION 1: INHOUSE
Path value for user acceptance = project cost=$95,000
Path value for rework = project cost+cost of rework=($95,000+$50,000)= $145,000
OPTION 2: OUTSOURCE
Path value for user acceptance = project cost=$80,000
Path value for rework=project cost+cost of rework= ($80,000+$25,000) = $105,000
The outsource option has a path value for user acceptance of $80,000, whereas the total rework cost is $105,000. The in-house option has a path value for user acceptance at $95,000, whereas the path value for rework is $145,000.
Step 3: Expected Monetary Value Calculation
The Expected Monetary Value (EMV) = (Probability x Impact).
EMV was calculated for each path, as shown below
Option 1: Inhouse
EMV = 10%x $145,000+ 90%x$95,000 = $100,000
Option 2: Outsource
EMV = 70% x $105,000 + 30% x $80,000 = $97,500
The Expected Monetary Values (EMV) are $100,000 and $97,500 for in-house and outsourcing, respectively.
The expected monetary value (EMV) for choosing in-house development is $100,000, representing the most cost-effective option. Although outsourcing is a cheaper alternative ($97,500), in-house development is the preferred decision since the probability of user acceptance when using this option is three times that of outsourcing. Besides development costs, the third-party contractor will most likely inflate the cost with rework expenses, resulting in cost overruns (Simosa, 2021).
Based on EMV calculations, we recommend in-house development since it has the highest Expected Monetary Value (EMV) and the highest probability for success (high user acceptance probability).
Silver Decisions. (2023). Decision Tree Analysis: The Expected Monetary Value (EMV)- develop In-house vs. Outsource. https://silverdecisions.pl/SilverDecisions.html?lang=en. Accessed on 24.02.2023.
Simosa, F. S. (2021). Decision tree analysis technique and example. Project Cubicle. Retrieved from https://www.projectcubicle.com/importance-of-decision-tree-analysis-example/, accessed on 24.02.2023.
APPENDIX: Decision Tree Analysis Showing ‘The Expected Monetary Value (EMV)’
Interpreting Population Data Sample College Essay
Population Growth Rate in British Columbia
Any region’s population will fluctuate for a diverse range of reasons, including social, economic, political, and environmental aspects. The prospective population of a research region can be forecasted by studying the demographic tendencies. The population census is conducted after a predetermined period, so the yearly growth rate is utilized to examine demographic behaviours. The population growth rate is derived from the current and previous years’ data. This paper interprets demographic data and charts of the three school districts (SDs): Abbotsford, Delta, and North Vancouver. The population trends and patterns have been used to predict demographic behaviours in the future.
The population trend and projections from 1986-2041
In the 1980s, North Vancouver SD reported the most significant demographic census, while Abbotsford SD had the lowest population. According to the demographic data, Abbotsford SD’s population growth began strongly and briefly fell to 1.1% in 2011. The significant influx of immigrants into the area is blamed for the SD’s population growth (Mayaud et al., 2019). In 2021, the rate will increase to 2.1%. The population growth rate is steadily decreasing, reaching 1% towards the conclusion of the forecast period, according to the trend over the previous year. The population of Abbotsford SD has steadily increased and currently outnumbers that of North Vancouver SD. The populations of Delta and North Vancouver SDs have barely changed. Between 2001 and 2011, population growth in the two areas was constant.
According to the demographic information gathered in 2006, the populations of Delta and North Vancouver SD decreased. A poor growth rate in Delta SD eventually decreased negatively in 2006. In the following two census periods, which end in 2016, the population growth rate then increases to 1.1%. In 2021, the rate decreased once again to 0.9%. Up until the conclusion of the projection period, according to an analysis of the trend in population growth in Delta SD, the growth rate will swing. Lack of residential houses during this time period in Delta and North Vancouver shunned people from residing there resulting in negative population growth (Mayaud et al., 2019). In a nutshell, the economic downfall could not allow people to stay any longer.
In the next two census eras, which ended in 2016, the population growth rate then rose to 1.1%. In 2021, the rate decreased once again to 0.9%. Up until the conclusion of the projection period in 2041, according to an analysis of the trend in population growth in Delta SD, the growth rate will fluctuate. The population growth will be stimulated by availability of affordable housing schemes since 2020 (Jacques, 2022).The population of the three school districts is expected to slowly grow through the year 2041. It is anticipated that Abbotsford will experience a moderate population increase. Another possibility is sustained population expansion in the Delta.
Analysis of Population Pyramids
Population pyramid of Kwantlen School District
According to the population pyramids, there are an equal number of male and female residents in the Kwantlen college area. Just 6% of the population in Kwantlen is over 80 years old, with most residents aged between 30 and 69. The overall population’s median age is 40.3 years old. Due to the abundance of educational facilities in the area, the population is primarily young. The largest population in the area may be made up of students. For the population in middle age, the area offers a variety of career prospects (Bezy, 2020). Due to its evenly dispersed age range, the population is diversified. Due to its evenly dispersed age range, the population is diversified. A sizable section of the population between the ages of 30 and 60 is drawn to the activities that the Kwantlen region’s numerous social amenities and recreation facilities offer.
Population distribution in Selkirk college region
The pyramid shows a uniform distribution of the middle-aged population. According to the demographic, the highest population of both males and females is found in the 60-69 age range. A large section of the population is getting close to retirement age, which could contribute to a lack of labor resources. The region also has a marginal maternity rate, which lowers the birth rate (Bezy, 2020). The average age of the population is 40.9 years old. Many career prospects in the Selkirk area are to blame for the high mid-age population there. 24% of the population is made up of individuals between the ages of 25 and 44. Most people in the population are above 45. 16.7% of the population is between the ages of 45 and 65, while 13% of those over the age of 85
Bezy, J. M. (2020). Population pyramid | sociology | Britannica. In Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/population-pyramid
Mayaud, J. R., Tran, M., Pereira, R. H. M., & Nuttall, R. (2019). Future access to essential services in a growing smart city: The case of Surrey, British Columbia. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 73, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2018.07.005
Jacques, I. (2022, February 14). Profile for Ian Jacques. Delta Optimist. https://www.delta-optimist.com/writers/ianjacques