Implications Of Personalized Medicine Essay Example

According to Heger (2010, p.5), personalized medicine refers to a relatively new scientific method that favors to give the treatment the hat is depended on an individual’s genetic profile. In this method of treating individuals suffering from the same illness are given different medications depending on their genetic makeup. In this approach, individuals are categorized in regard to their different sensitivities to different drugs and diseases. This enables to design drugs that are specific to individuals’ genotype. This method of medication has been an issue of ethical concern. Personalized medication is a great step in the medical field in their effort to realize specialized medication of patients depending on their genetic makeup. Although, it raises a number of ethical issues, it is the right way forward in medicine.

Bioinformatics relies on use of computers to analyze biological data. It depends on the use of sequencing of the genes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms, commonly known as SNPs are the common genetic variation types in humans. Often mutations in single base pairs occur. This happens in specific DNA sequences, this sets the basis for the performance of genetic sequencing, and hence the determination of the sensitivities in different individuals’.Usually, this part of the gene is amplified, followed by allele discrimination. This involves hybridization of the specific allele, specific cleavage of the allele, ligation, and Primer extension, and single base extension, nucleotide sequencing of a single nucleotide, also known as pyrosequencing, and finally assaying the results (Smolinski, 2008, p.34).

The position of mutation can be easily detected using computer programmed software. Different individuals will show different reactions and sensitivities to the same drug because of their different genetic makeup. The study of the individual’s genome sequence has therefore been of great assistance, as it enabled drugs designed to address the various genetic variations of individuals. Chances of patients’ overreactions with some drugs, due to hypersensitivities are thus taken care of. Molecular targeted therapeutics’ has been enabled. In the industrial world, it has been played a significant role as well.

This has led to the development of commercial therapeutic antibodies such as Austin and Rituxan. There has been the development of new vaccines, antibodies, biomarkers that are essential in drug delivery and growth in the biotechnology industry. Oncology related antibodies have also been commercialized. In medicine, they have led to an important discovery of the genome-based drug treatment. Their use has in particular been of great value towards oncology cases, due to the constant mutation that the cells undergo. With the molecularly targeted therapeutics, the drug delivery has been greatly improved. There is great increase in efficiency and designing of drugs safety profile (Kelly, 2008, para.5).

In regard to science, this approach has been important. The discovery of new antibodies such as erbitux, and new cytokines has led to the scientists being alert and researching for the next generation of antibodies. Many scientists are now in research for more advanced equipments for cells screening, stem cells research, and tissue and cell therapy. This has also been necessitated by development of biotechnological equipment in response with the research needs. The discovery has therefore been instrumental in ushering the science world into a new arena. The society has also benefited in that there is more hope of better health services, and ultimately increases in life expectance.

Personalized treatment cannot be separated from bioinformatics as they both rely on data obtained from the genome and its analysis using highly sophisticated technology. In addition they, on depend on cellular and clinical data. Both revolve around genes and biotechnology. In essence, personalized treatment has stemmed from bioinformatics. According to Marcus (2008, P.55), there are ethical concerns associated with this. One of such issue includes decrease in protection of the patient’s privacy. In cases where the costs are met by the employer or insurance company, the patients’ privacy is violated. The data also can be easily accessible by unauthorized individuals, which raises the concern of data privacy as it makes the patient’s privacy not protected. Therefore the individual genome analysis would expose the patient private life more than if the general medication was administered. Moreover, through this method, patients are at a risk of loss of autonomy of their health. Furthermore, this approach is quite expensive and thus not affordable to many.

Personalized medicine changes the traditional way of medication, where a drug is generally given to treat a common condition in all the patients. In this type of medication, medication is personalized to curb the side effect associated with some drugs due to the difference in the genocide of individuals. Despite the ethical concerns associated with personalized medication it is a more effective medication and a great step in medical field towards delivery of better and more specific treatment. However, because of the costs involved, it discriminates against the poor and rich. The future in this field is quite promising. There is great hope in handling oncology cases better, viral diseases and development in immunotherapy (Jain, 2010, para.5).

Conclusion

Personalized treatment has emerged as a result of bioinformatics. It has met questions of ethical concern, but the results and discoveries associated with it are far beneficial and outweigh the questions raised about it. Thus, it is a great discovery in the medical field, despite its high cost that makes the traditional method an option for the majority.

References

Heger, M. (2010) Sequencing strategy detects rearrangement. In sequence, New York: vol 1, 2-5. Web.

Jain, M. Personalized Medicine: Scientific and Commercial aspects. Business intelligence reports. 2010. Web.

Kelly, R. (2008) Science, policy and ethics in personalized medicine. Let’s get personal. Michigan, vol 1, 6-9. Web.

Marcus, F. (2008) Bioinformatics and systems Biology. New York: Springer publishers.

Smolinski, T. (2008) Computational intelligence in biomedicine and bioinformatics. New York: Springer publishers.

The Impact Of The Wars On Western Civilization

Introduction

History is full of wars and regardless of the fact that this phenomenon is considered to be negative, many of them are the basis of significant historical events. The consequences of some wars still affect the population of the modern world. They manage to turn history in a different direction, thus, the given paper will discuss three important wars and their effect on the development of Western Civilization.

Franco-Avar War

In the system of interstate relations of VI-VIII centuries, The Avars played the role of a kind of catalyst for changing the state of the socio-political and cultural-religious situation in Europe. The Avar military art (tactics of warfare, new types of weapons), which were introduced by the Avars from the Asian region and then borrowed by the Slavs and Franks, is of great importance.

In 788, the Bavarian Duchy was incorporated into the Kingdom of the Franks. As a result, the Turkic tribe Avars appeared on the borders of the kingdom of Charlemagne, representing a serious threat to the kingdom. The war with the Avars was one of the longest during the reign of Charlemagne. The first campaign took place in the summer of 791, but, despite the success, it did not bring the final victory (Dopsch 18). The decisive defeat of the Avars was inflicted in 796 when the main fortress of the khaganate was captured. Karl got treasures plundered by the Avars during their raids. The Avars did not immediately admit defeat, several more campaigns were made against them, but by 803 the uprisings stopped, and the remaining Avars retreated across the Tisu River. To preach Christianity to the conquered people, Karl organized the Archbishopric of Salzburg in 798.

Throughout the Avar-Byzantine contacts, there is a constant alternation of the active phase of military campaigns with an extremely unstable peace and material conditions of peace agreements unfavorable for Byzantium. These agreements did not bring the expected result to either side and led to their weakening. In general, the European international position of the V-VIII centuries is determined by fundamental changes in the complex of socio-economic, military-political, diplomatic, and cultural-ideological aspects of social development. This period is characterized by the formation of tribes and nationalities, which against the background of foreign policy and internal struggle, were able to transform into tribal unions and state associations. One of the essential areas of international relations is the strengthening of ties not only between the barbarian world and the Roman Empire but also the development of relations within tribal associations (Dopsch 24). The period affects the moment of transition of tribes to settled life, their acquisition of a “homeland”, changes in the sphere of productive forces against the background of constant, local and large military clashes.

At this time, the process of formation of the Kingdom of the Franks and its transformation into a world power was underway. The unification of the Slavic tribes took place, which, as a result, contributed to the formation and development of the Slavic statehood. The Byzantine Empire yields to the leading positions of the new state formations. The outlines of modern states are gradually taking shape on the political map of Europe. Thus, the Avar Khaganate turned out to be an original, albeit short-lived element in the historical arena of the turn of late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, which did not find a successor who could have managed to build a new viable state on the ready-made foundation of the destroyed one.

The Peloponnesian War

It is possible to find many informative records about the Trojan War and the wars between the Greeks and the Persians; however, the Peloponnesian War is undeservingly paid much less attention to, though it contributed to Greece’s downfall. Two main Greek cities, Sparta and Athens, fought with each other while the classical culture of Creece was thriving. The conflict between two flourishing cities seems unavoidable. After the victory over Persians, both centers became influential, started a struggle for domination in Greece, and this rivalry led to the Peloponnesian War.

By the end of the war, both sides were exhausted; Attica, the source of bread supply for Athenians, was attacked by the Spartans three times. A cholera epidemic in Athens led to the death of many influential citizens, who were responsible for its military strategy. The city suffered from attacks, Athens lost many allies, and their risky expedition to Sicily was also unsuccessful. Sparta was short on resources as well, thus it had to call on the Persians, their enemies, and ask to help defeat their compatriots. Persians provided Sparta with resources needed to build a fleet and the Spartans managed to defeat the Athenians at sea in the crucial Battle of Aegopostomas in 405 BC. After the battle, the Athenians had to surrender; the Spartans won but the price for this victory was too high (Thucydides and Charles).

After the Peloponnesian War, Greece, led by Sparta, lost its influence and collapsed into an economic and political crisis. The Spartans did not know the fundamentals of economics and how to build diplomatic relations and quickly lost allies. The war had terrible consequences: after it, Greece has never been so prosperous through the history.

The Centenary War

The name “Centenary War” appeared in the historiography in the first half of the 19th century, before the war was viewed as a long-term military-political conflict of a pan-European scale, the central axis of which was the contradictions between the royal houses of England and France. The generally accepted time frame of the Anglo-French Centenary war is from 133 to 1453. During such a long period, hostilities were not conducted continuously; bloody battles were replaced by the periods of the long armistice (Fyffe 34). However, this conflict was only the final act of a longer historical drama of the rivalry between the two royal houses (Lembright 41). According to historians, its origins must be sought in the events of the 11th and 12th centuries. Considering the causes of The Centenary War, two main groups can be distinguished: territorial causes and dynastic causes.

By the middle of the XIV century, a situation arose in which a large number of French territories had close economic and political ties with England but were formally the possessions of France. The preservation of English domination in the south-west of the country not only made the position of the French Capetian precarious but also prevented the real political centralization of the country. For the English king, these territories could serve as a springboard in attempts to restore the power on the continent. Having strengthened his position on the throne, Edward III returned to an active foreign policy and declared war with France.

The Centenary War became the largest war of the High Middle Ages, in which the main forces of Western Europe were involved. The first major battle took place at Sluis when almost the entire French fleet was destroyed. By 1360, England had captured about a third of France’s territory, but already in the 1370s, its achievements were reduced to zero. At the beginning of the 15th century, the British subjugated the north of France, and in 1453 they capitulated. The French victory in the war contributed to the further centralization of the country, and the British abandoned claims to the French crown and land.

The Centenary War is a major historical event, as a result of which the national identity of England and France was developed. Before this era, including the XIII century, the peak of the Middle Ages, the concept of a nation did not exist for the population of both countries. In the course of the War, the self-consciousness of two nations, French and English, was born; a very important change took place: a shift from a vassal-fief system to an interstate one. Numerous treaties of the War gradually created the concept of boundaries between the kingdoms that was a huge step towards New History.

Conclusion

The conclusion can be made that the considered wars played a very important role in the development of Western Civilization. Franco-Avar War influenced the process of formation of the Kingdom of the Franks and its transformation into a world power, the Peloponnesian War became the reason of the downfall of Greece, and during the Centenary War the self-consciousness of the two nations, French and English, was born.

Works Cited

Dopsch, Alfons. Economic and Social Foundations of European Civilization. Scholar Select, 2015.

Fyffe, Charles Alan. History of Modern Europe. Hansebooks, 2016.

Lembright, Robert. Western Civilization. Graw-Hill, 2017

Perry, Marvin, and George W. Bock. Western Civilization., Cengage Learning, 2016.

Thucydides, and Charles Forster Smith. Thucydides: History of the Peloponnesian War. Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1996.

“Paralytic” By Sylvia Plath: The Lesson Of Compassion

Humanities is an interesting batch of disciplines, as it studies what seems obvious – people themselves and what they create. However, it appears that both subjects are complex, and there is no definite way to interpret them. The sheer variety of art expressions shows not only how talented the creators are but also reflects humanity’s desire for self-expression and perception. As a human being, I am not exempt from the bond with art. In this essay, I would like to discuss the most impactful work of art I encountered during the class, focus on its implications for my career, and reflect on the humanities in general.

The work of art I have selected is a poem by Sylvia Plath. It is titled “Paralytic,” and it was written in 1963, the same year when she committed suicide. The poem seems to reflect her real-life struggles, as she had mental health problems and received shock therapy (Feirstein, 2016). The feeling of being paralyzed could be an aftermath of such treatment. The period when the poem was written, the 1960s, appears to have been fruitful for the counterculture movement, and mental illnesses were glamorized (Mettler, 2015). Perhaps, Plath was both a victim and an icon of those tumultuous times, along with other young famous people who died prematurely.

I suppose the poem spoke to me as a future nurse first. There is a high probability of me encountering a paralyzed patient, and while I could be equipped professionally, there is also mental readiness. “Paralytic” presents the thoughts of a person who may be unable to speak, and it is a valuable perspective. The poem teaches compassion, which is vital for a nurse and any person regardless of their profession. It also shows a palette of various feelings one experiences while being paralyzed. I can detect confusion, anger, and other emotions that will only become more intense if the necessary steps are not followed. Therefore, the poem is meaningful for me as a future professional, as someone who could be in the same situation, and as a person who appreciates poetry, because “Paralytic” is written beautifully and evokes strong feelings.

Art disciplines accompany people throughout their lives, and there is a choice between giving them a cursory glance and engaging with them earnestly. I chose the latter, and, admittedly, it did change me. Out of all disciplines, I would outline literature and music, although other art forms are also influential to me. As an avid reader, I use books as reference points, especially when human relationships are concerned. Literature anticipated various types of people I would meet and taught me how to interact with them. As for music, I cannot stress its significance in my life enough. Apart from their purely aesthetic value, songs by foreign artists allowed me to come in contact with other cultures and appreciate their language. I also made many acquaintances through music, and I cherish those relationships. Overall, I own a big part of who I am as a person to art, and I appreciate all the experience it shaped.

At first, I was skeptical about whether I needed the class humanities. However, my perspective is different now, and I believe it is quite beneficial. The class allowed me to obtain a full picture of art disciplines and their connection. I gained an appreciation for drama and some forms of visual arts that I used to find boring. I doubt I can apply the new knowledge directly to my career, but I can use art products as references and means to distract myself after a difficult day. Altogether, this class was helpful and provided a new outlook for me.

In conclusion, I started from Sylvia Plath’s poem and, perhaps, finished with it, as it is one of those things that will remain with me for the rest of my personal and professional life. In the end, I will consume more poetry and prose, and they will enrich my experience. It is a very human thing, and it is wonderful that humanities teach people to value art.

References

Feirstein, F. (2016). A psychoanalytic study of Sylvia Plath. The Psychoanalytic Review, 103(1), 103–126.

Mettler, M. W. (2015). “If I Could Drive You Out of Your Mind”: Anti-rationalism and the celebration of madness in 1960s counterculture. Journal of Literary & Cultural Disability Studies, 9(2), 171-187.

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