Inadequate Staffing In Nursing Essay Example For College

Introduction

Nurses must be unselfish and dedicated to delivering the best CareCare to their patients. Unfortunately, the nursing shortage has caused nurses to deliver less Care, which has worsened patient outcomes. Due to this shortage, registered nurses are under tremendous pressure to do tasks requiring further training and ability. This essay will critically analyze two qualitative research studies that examined how the nursing staffing crisis affected patient outcomes and proposed ways to enhance patient Care. USA and Canada conducted these investigations. This essay will also explore other patient care improvements.

Study 1 Summary

In the first study, Joshi and Bekele (2020) examined the consequences of low staffing on patient outcomes. The authors collected qualitative data using semi-structured interviews. The interviews were with doctors and nurses from 19 Indian institutions. The study found that low staffing levels negatively affected patient outcomes. The study confirmed this. When staffing levels dropped, mortality, readmissions, and hospital stays increased. This was true regardless of patient treatment. This supports the idea that low staffing leads to negative patient outcomes. It is proven. As a result, the authors concluded that more workers are needed to ensure patient safety and the quality of CareCare.

The study emphasizes the need for hospitals to have enough staff and stresses the necessity of quality care. The study supports these claims. A lack of staff can diminish patient satisfaction and increase medical errors’ risk. It can also create a stressful work environment for medical workers, leading to burnout (Joshi & Bekele, 2020). Because of this, hospitals must undertake programs to expand staffing. Doing so may lower medical errors and enhance patient outcomes.

Increased staffing can improve patient-physician relations, according to the authors. Nurses and other medical professionals can spend more time with patients and provide more specialized treatment when there are enough of them because they spend more time with each person. It may improve health results and patient satisfaction (Joshi & Bekele, 2020). It may also help create a more positive, collaborative hospital environment, boosting morale and productivity. Executing this procedure may directly cause this result.

Study 2 Summary

The second study is a “systematic review” of earlier scholarly works, according to Kostopoulou and Kyrana (2020). Here, research from past investigations is reviewed. Its working title is “The Impact of Nursing Workload on Patient Safety and Quality of Care: A Systematic Review,” Its major objective is to investigate the impact of nursing workload on patient safety and care quality. The authors found that nursing workload impacted patient mortality, readmission, and duration of stay. According to the authors, the severity of these ramifications grew as nursing efforts rose. Overzealous nursing efforts were to blame for this. In order to guarantee patient safety and high-quality treatment, it follows that nurse efforts should be evaluated and regulated. The authors suggested an additional study to comprehend better how nursing workload impacts patient outcomes. They decided further research was necessary and came to this conclusion.

Examining the conditions and reasons for this study’s findings is crucial for understanding its results. This will make the results easier to understand. The workloads of registered nurses can vary significantly depending on the healthcare facility and patient population. The authors discovered that the effect of nursing effort on patient outcomes varied according to the setting of CareCare. The researchers discovered this as well. The researchers made another discovery in this case (Kostopoulou & Kyrana, 2020). Additionally, they discovered that some groups are more susceptible to the detrimental impacts of nursing tasks. A study discovered this.

The results of this research are essential given the situation in worldwide public health. Workloads for nurses have risen to a record level. This is a result of the pressure placed on medical staff to handle more patients. According to this study, this may impact patient safety and medical Care. Healthcare professionals must be aware of the results of this study and closely monitor their nursing responsibilities to give patients the best treatment possible (Kostopoulou & Kyrana, 2020).

This comprehensive study demonstrates how nurses’ workload affects patient safety and the standard of Care. This information has an impact on patient safety and the caliber of CareCare. Understanding the consequences of nursing workload and how it may be changed to enhance patient outcomes requires further research, which is what this study does. Despite the need for more research, this study is essential to comprehending how nurse workload impacts patient outcomes (Kostopoulou & Kyrana, 2020). The results of this study help us understand how nurse workload influences patient outcomes. However, they also remind us that patient safety and quality are paramount and that the nursing workload should be frequently assessed and modified. This study also underlines the necessity of continuously assessing and modifying the nursing workload.

Critical Appraisal

Qualitative research is ideal for studying how the nursing staffing gap affects patient outcomes, so both studies use it. Qualitative research gives a deeper understanding of how the nursing staffing shortage affects patient outcomes. The first study uses semi-structured interviews, whereas the second uses a systematic literature review.

The first article provides critical new information on how insufficient staffing affects patient outcomes. The same researchers did both studies. The study indicated that death rates, readmission rates, and hospital stays increased considerably when staffing levels were inadequate. This study shows how low staffing levels might hurt patient outcomes and the consequences of not meeting staffing requirements. Critical CareCare published this study. Modern nursing practice recognizes the importance of sufficient staffing to ensure patient safety and high-quality Care, supported by the authors’ findings. The study and authors agree.

The second study reveals how nursing workload affects patient outcomes. When a nursing effort was excessive, patient death, readmission, and stay length rose. This study highlights the importance of balancing nurses’ workload and patient Care and the potential repercussions of failing. It is well established that nurse workload should be assessed and reduced to optimize patient safety and CareCare (Kostopoulou & Kyrana, 2020). The authors’ findings match nursing practice because this action is general knowledge.

Both studies suggest ways to enhance patient outcomes and care quality by addressing the nursing staffing deficit. These include increasing staff and improving nurse workload oversight. Both studies emphasize the need for nurses to continue their education and training to offer high-quality CareCare. This ensures that nurses can give top-notch treatment (Cho et al., 2020). The authors conclude that more study is needed to fully understand how the nursing staffing issue affects patient CareCare and evaluate the possible remedies.

Conclusion

This essay’s two research articles shed light on how nursing staffing influences patient outcomes and how to enhance Care. The US conducted both types of research. Both of these research uses a qualitative strategy, allowing a deeper understanding of how the nursing staffing gap influences patient outcomes. The first study provides useful information about how low staffing levels affect patient outcomes, while the second provides important information on nursing workload and patient outcomes. Both studies emphasize proper staffing. Both studies shed light on how the nursing staffing shortage affects patient outcomes and how to enhance Care. US nurses are few. Both UK studies.

References

Cho, S. H., Lee, J. Y., You, S. J., Song, K. J., & Hong, K. J. (2020). Nurse staffing, nurses prioritization, missed CareCare, quality of nursing care, and nurse outcomes. International Journal of Nursing Practice26(1), e12803.

Joshi, B. L., & Bekele, C. (2020). Inadequate staffing: Impact on quality of CareCare and patient safety. International Journal of Nursing Knowledge, 31(2), 75–83. https://doi.org/10.1111/2047-3095.12313

Kostopoulou, O., & Kyrana, E. (2020). The impact of nursing workload on patient safety and quality of CareCare: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 103, 103714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103714

Mandated Reporting Of Child Abuse Free Essay

The abuse of children presents several difficulties for society as a whole, particularly in the fields of public health, criminal law, civil rights, social welfare, and social equality. Several debates and discussions have been done regarding the recently implemented policies to recognize and react to child abuse and neglect. Abuse of children may take place in several significant ways, the most common of which are sexual assault, physical violence, psychological abuse, and neglect. Since there are so many different ways in which children might be harmed, it is necessary to have legal and policy solutions to identify and address these issues. Across society as a whole, and particularly within institutions that work directly with children, like schools, the question of the most effective method for recognizing instances of child abuse and reacting to them has been raised. When there is a disparity in authority, which is typically the case, abusive behaviour is likely to occur. The perpetrators may suffer in various ways, but they are generally marginalized and disadvantaged (Brady et al., 2020). The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child from 1989 mandates that state parties adopt legal, administrative, and social measures to safeguard children from abuse and maltreatment while they care for their parents or other caregivers.

The foundation of the mandatory reporting of child maltreatment is specific laws enacted in several jurisdictions to uncover severe child maltreatment incidents that would otherwise remain concealed(Tener et al., 2019). This is done with the goals of lowering the number of children who are victims of crime, enhancing the delivery of health rehabilitation services, and enhancing the security of children. These laws, which have taken on the form of an identification strategy, are intended to be a component of the health promotion response to the problem of child abuse. This paper will investigate the mandatory reporting laws concerning child abuse, the various types of abuse and the consequences of each, the nature and purpose of mandatory reporting laws, the effect of these regulations and laws, and any awareness campaigns regarding these statutes and regulations. The paper will also contain the upcoming research and regulation changes that are required to fully address the problem.

As indicated before, child abuse may take on several forms, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. Of these four types, sexual abuse is singled out as a category unto itself due to its associated severity, necessitating a particular reaction. Regarding the various types of mistreatment, the reporting responsibilities are focused on incidents of maltreatment which have been demonstrated to have serious adverse effects. The youngest child is especially susceptible and often the victim of child abuse, except sexual abuse. Since younger children are more susceptible to becoming victims, three-quarters of the survivors are often less than 12 (Boxall & Sabol, 2021). In addition, there has been an overall rise in oppositional behaviour linked to patterns of increasing rates of certain types of maltreatment occurring throughout the transitional periods into childhood. Neglecting a person’s education, medical treatment, emotional needs, and diet are possible. It has been said that the effects of decay are more severe than any other kind of mistreatment, with physical abuse coming in second place. An excellent illustration of this is the practice of not providing adequate care for an infant, which has been shown to have far-reaching consequences, including stunted brain growth and development and impairments in the child’s overall capacity to function throughout their lifetime. Emotional abuse may also take a variety of forms, and the degree to which it is taken might vary from one state to the other.

There is a wide variety of child abuse, each of which may have unique effects and repercussions on the victimized child. Abuse and neglect may have significant emotional, physical, societal, and cognitive effects on victims. These effects can manifest in a variety of ways. The financial expenses placed on the child and society are critical repercussions of abuse (Peterman et al., 2020). There is also the possibility that the kid will not flourish, that their brain development will be hindered or damaged, and that the child may pass away in the worst-case situation. The long-term ramifications of child abuse may entail severe implications for a person’s economic situation and educational accomplishments. The child’s potential to grow fully as a person and their dignity is hindered due to the abuse they endured as children.

Relevant federal and state regulations, laws, and the court ruling

Laws requiring reporting suspected cases of severe child abuse were enacted to respond to the problem of child abuse. As a result of this being a widespread problem within the family context, there is now a greater need for regulations and legislation to address the issue. The term “mandatory reporting law” refers to legislative legislation that requires specified people in a specific occupational category to report any instances of child abuse or neglect (Wißmann et al., 2019). This sort of regulation is known as “mandatory reporting law.” Depending on the jurisdiction, this obligation is often imposed on every person. In those countries where the responsibility is placed on a particular occupational category, the persons required to comply with it often have only sporadic encounters with a child during their profession. They may include instructors, nurses, and physicians. The laws also allow those not required to do so to submit reports. These people could be family members, people who live nearby, or friends and acquaintances.

Detecting severe instances of child abuse and mistreatment is the primary goal of this legislation. The hidden aspects of the situation drive this purpose. This Act safeguards the reporters by ensuring that their identities are kept secret and exempting them from legal responsibility in any process, regardless of whether it is civil, administration, or felony in nature. Since other medical problems might create symptoms similar to substance misuse, these statutes do not require the reporting to be 100% accurate(Richert et al., 2020). Since the reporters need to know and comprehend the extent of their responsibility, recognize the indications of child maltreatment and abuse, the procedures they need to take, and the locations where they should report, it is also necessary for the legislation to be supported with proper training.

During the years 1963 and 1967, the United States of America passed its first required legislation. The acknowledgement of the battered kid syndrome, in addition to persistent lobbying efforts, was a major driving force behind the passage of this legislation. At first, the scope of this legislation was restricted to the need for medical practitioners to report any suspected instances of physical abuse perpetrated on children by parents or caregivers. The scope of this Act was broadened in three primary ways by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), passed in 1998 (Burton & Montauban, 2021). After that, money was allotted to the states to guarantee that this Act was carried out as intended. The modification of existing state statutes was the first step in the expansion of this piece of legislation. Any concerns of neglecting or abusing children had to be reported by members of other professional groups who were subject to this requirement. The second approach was to broaden the scope of the forms of abuse that may be reported. This now included covered sexual and emotional abuse, as well as neglect, in addition to physical abuse. In the end, the damage that must have occurred for a report to be filed must not have been qualified in any way, using phrases such as “severe injury.” Child neglect and abuse are defined by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) as any significant failure to fulfil the parent or caregiver’s role that results in the child’s death, serious bodily or emotional injury, or sexual exploitation.

The laws that must be followed define the categories of individuals required to file reports. These categories include individuals who work in the childcare industry, social workers, educators and other educational personnel, medical professionals and other workers in the healthcare industry, counselling, medical doctors, and law enforcement personnel. In addition, the rules specify the level of information and suspicion that a reporter must have before they are required to report a crime. It is necessary to have a reasonable suspicion that abuse or neglect has occurred since the reporters are not permitted to examine suspicions of abuse. In addition, the legislation specifies the types of misconduct that trigger the need to file a complaint(West & Bowman, 2019).

Moreover, privileged communication provisions are included in the required reporting rules. There is a general consensus that professionals owe it to their customers or patients to treat their conversations in private and not disclose any information to other parties. It is the intention of the reporting rules in the majority of states to allow the states to protect child abuse victims. As a result, these laws limit this extraordinary power for mandated reporters.

The rules that make it necessary to report abuse or neglect of children to authorities differ from state to state. For instance, the laws of Alabama provide that anyone may file a complaint with an excellent basis to think that a kid is being abused or neglected in some way. Regarding the institutional obligation to report, the rules provide that any public or private employer who punishes a worker for reporting a child abuse suspect is convicted of a class C misdemeanour. This applies to both public and private employers. The criteria for filing a report include that it be done so when it is known or reasonably believed that the child has been the victim of child abuse or neglect (Liu & Vaughn, 2019). This is not the case in some jurisdictions, such as Alaska, where it is mandatory to file a complaint if an adult has a reasonable basis for thinking that a child is being abused or neglected. At the same time, they are engaged in the execution of their professional responsibilities. Privileged conversations are unavailable in Alaska or Alabama, unlike in Alabama, where clergy-pertinent contacts and defence lawyer protections were allowed.

Impact of Mandatory reporting laws on the Provision of Services

It has been observed that the implementation of mandatory reporting regulations has a variety of effects on areas such as the delivery of services, the establishment of budgets, the management of employees and volunteers, and the capacity to participate in advocacy initiatives. One of the effects that are well acknowledged and discussed is the safeguarding of children. In the realm of child safety, a function is played by mandated reporting roles. It has helped defend children’s rights to life and health since they do not have the resources to prevent abuse or mistreatment. This has resulted in the protection of children’s rights. According to Katz et al. (2021), the function and effect of mandatory reporting laws have served as a pivotal force towards developing additional laws and regulations to guarantee safeguarding children from maltreatment. These laws and regulations aim to ensure that children are not harmed. According to the modern components of mandatory reporting, the well-framed legal provisions effectively enable educators, good reporting practice, and appropriate intervention bodies have made it possible for mandatory reporting to exert influence against child abuse and its subsequent effects on developmental and health outcomes.

The health and economic costs associated with child abuse have been significantly decreased due to mandatory reporting regulations. Abuse of children, whether it be sexual or physical, has many negative repercussions, not just for the victim but also for society and the state. Injury to the child’s physical health and psychological well-being, such as sadness, anxiety, thoughts of suicide, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), might result in individual expenditures being paid. Abuse of children may result in a variety of adverse outcomes, including poor academic performance, problematic drug use, and pregnancy at a young age (Currie & Tough, 2021). Most children in this age group tend to flee their homes because of sexual abuse. It is important to take into consideration the fact that these effects often persist throughout maturity. Obligatory reporting laws have prevented all of these repercussions, which may continue into maturity and cause further damage to the victim, society, and the state. This has been made possible by the fact that these laws are in place.

There is consensus that mandatory reporting regulations have a positive influence on public safety as well. This is particularly clear when considering the sexual abuse of children. With obligatory reporting, a foundation is established for multiple methodologies of crime prevention approaches. This is because victims of child sexual abuse go through this experience more than once, and perpetrators of child sexual abuse often abuse more than one victim. This indicates that early intervention, which may be performed by obligatory reporting legislation, can potentially prevent further sexual abuse and suffering of children in the future.

Various reasons founded on various grounds provide that mandatory reporting law is an effective social policy solution to childhood abuse and certain types of child maltreatment. This has resulted in the encouragement and support of the employment of these laws as well as the increase of their scope. The number of complaints made about children’s abuse or neglect has also grown due to mandatory reporting regulations (Mathews et al., 2020). On the other hand, a few repercussions of the required reporting rules have been labelled unfavourable. As a result of these effects, several individuals working in the healthcare industry have called for repealing these rules. This has been accomplished in the sense that services have been made available. It has been suggested that mandatory reporting rules have a detrimental influence on the delivery of services since they increase the amount of work that must be done. When professionals who are required to report child abuse come into contact with children in the course of their work, they have the responsibility of watching out for the children and being alert for any indications that the children may be victims of abuse. Some opposed to mandatory reporting laws believe, among other things, that these regulations tend to be invasive and divert resources intended to help disadvantaged children and families. These critics also point out that the nature and breadth of child abuse are misunderstood, which led to the creation of this piece of law in the first place. They went on to say that the regulation solely protects children, which is seen as an individual reaction to an issue that affects society as a whole.

The outcomes of a report are also impacted by the type of regulations that require obligatory reporting—compared to complaints made by non-professionals, such as family members, reports made by mandated professionals had a higher probability of leading to verified instances of abuse. In addition, the implementation of universal obligatory reporting, stipulating that all adult citizens are obligated to report any instance of child abuse, has not constantly improved the discovery of children subjected to abusive treatment. Also, the scope of the Act has been broadened to include a broader range of abusive behaviours. This growth has not always been beneficial for children who have been put in dangerous situations. This may be realized when the weight of the system tends to limit the capacity and function of Child Protection Services in terms of recognizing and recognizing children in more urgent need and responding to them.

The influence of obligatory reporting regulations could also be seen in the budget formulation process. This may be seen in the expenses that were expended to guarantee the proper execution of the law that was passed to safeguard the rights of children. The states that comply with the obligatory reporting rules must make provisions in their financial plans to cover the cost of carrying out the legislation requirements. This has a tendency to take away from the prior progress that the states had made in their budgets. In order to justify their criticism of the adverse effects of mandatory reporting laws on state budgets, opponents of these laws have pointed to the recent changes that have been made in the budgeting processes of the states. The budget development procedure has also been adversely affected since the newly enacted requirement requires increased funds and resources. Because of this, some states are compelled to decrease spending in other areas to guarantee that the law is supported in an equivalent manner. The administration of personnel and volunteers is another area affected by the required reporting rules, which also influence other elements. These rules regulate the professionals who are required to report instances of child abuse or neglect. When it involves disclosing instances of child abuse, employers have the power to affect the behaviour of their workers. The obligatory reporting rules affect the management of staff and volunteers since employers are required to ensure that their staff members behave following the terms of these laws. When workers report a suspect of child mistreatment and the parents to ask the employer about it, this may also lead to conflict in the workplace. This tension may lead to poor administration of the organization’sorganization’s personnel and the volunteers who contribute their time to it.

Mandatory reporting requirements may also affect the creation of budget proposals. One indicator of this trend is the expenditures associated with enforcing laws designed to safeguard children’s rights. States that enact mandatory reporting legislation will need to allocate resources to the new requirements (Maves et al., 2020). This often detracts from the progress made by governments in balancing their budgets. Opponents of mandatory reporting laws have pointed out that states have had to make additional adjustments to construct budgets as evidence that the rules are harmful. As the additional requirement mandated by the law necessitates more money and resources, the budgeting process has also been badly affected. If all states are to support the law adequately, some will have to decrease spending in other areas. These new rules affect the management of both paid employees and unpaid volunteers. The rules governing mandatory reporters of child abuse are set down here. When disclosing child abuse, workers are influenced by their employer’s policies and practices. Employers are impacted by mandatory reporting legislation because they must monitor personnel and volunteers to verify compliance with the law. When workers report that they have reason to believe that their employer is abusing their children, and the parents investigate, tensions may grow. This discord might lead to better management of the organization’sorganization’s employees and volunteers.

Mandatory reporting requirements have only sometimes ensured the identification of cases. This is used as an example of the laws’ success and used to argue against them. It has been observed that state legislation and policy changes regarding mandatory reporting only sometimes result in an increase or decrease in the number of reports filed or the rate at which they are confirmed. This is a significant consequence of legislation requiring disclosure. The capacity to participate in advocacy work is negatively impacted when these laws, enacted to defend children’s rights to life and good health, are not upheld (Rossetti et al., 2021). Anybody with reasonable suspicion of child abuse may report it, not only those required to do so by law. This implies that if these people do not perceive the efficacy of mandatory reporting legislation, they may be less likely to disclose any child abuse or maltreatment concerns. The need for reporting child abuse is the result of successful advocacy. This initiative significantly raises awareness of the need to report child abuse. The efficacy of this legislation will encourage additional advocacy work by the impacted persons, and the required reporting laws will influence these efforts. Nonetheless, the success and usefulness of the required reporting regulations may inspire lobbying initiatives. If advocates for reporting child maltreatment see that the laws and regulations are making a difference, they may be more inspired to continue their work.

Future research and policies required to address the issue

The need to report incidents of child abuse has several challenges, one of which is that the rules and regulations in place do not adequately safeguard children’s rights. Several approaches may be taken to solve these problems, as well as adding new policies to the ones already in place to make them more efficient. Researchers have discovered several obstacles that prevent the proper reporting of instances of child abuse or neglect, despite several rules that detail when and how to make such a complaint(Forsner et al., 2020). A lack of familiarity with the regulations and the particular incidents that must be reported is often cited as a factor that discourages reporting. A further problem with laws that require certain individuals to report instances of child abuse is that those individuals worry that the reports they are required to file could be inaccurate because they are typically based on the child’s self-report in the absence of any physical evidence showing that the child was harmed (Tener et al., 2019). In addition, experts have a natural tendency to be concerned about the potential legal and ethical repercussions that may arise if the report is shown to be false. There are other problems, such as vengeance from the child’s relatives, which may make things worse for the youngster and put their life at even more risk (Schissel, 2021) . Because of the problems described, there is a pressing need for more investigation to be carried out to look for answers to these problems. It also highlights the need for legislation that will assist in better addressing the concerns described earlier in the paragraph. A greater emphasis will be placed on receiving training, which is one of the primary policies. Reporters who are required by law to provide information play a crucial part in preventing damage to children. However, when confronted with various challenges and obstructions in their attempt to perform their duty, concerns about the efficacy of their training begin to emerge (Alawawdeh & Alshtaiwi, 2020). There is a need for more studies to identify how professionals may be appropriately taught to undertake the complicated process of mandatory reporting appropriately. According to research done in various fields, the vast majority of professionals have insufficient training to recognizerecognize instances of child abuse and report them appropriately. It is possible for service providers to be held accountable on both a personal and professional level if they do not get enough appropriate training.

Another topic that has to be investigated shortly is the part that cultural norms play in reporting child abuse and the steps that must be taken to develop cultural competency. Most of the research on child abuse has not focused on racial or ethnic differences. Since a very long time ago, the vast majority of the study on cultural proficiency in child safety have been nonexistent. Because of the vast cultural differences within our communities, culture and the expertise it has in matters about the safety of children need much greater attention, which may be achieved via the implementation of reporting requirements. According to Brottman et al. (2019), sensitivity to social standards might make it chateachingiduals in cultural competency. The ther challenge is a need for further study to develop a way to teach mandated reporters and guarantees that they have cultural competency. It has also been shown that one of the most significant issues with obligatory reporting is the problem of erroneous reporting by the obligated specialists. This necessitates the investigation and the imitation of new rules to assist those obligated to report instances of child abuse or neglect factually (Nouman et al., 2020). In addition, the training for mandated reporters has to be made more rigorous and intensive to guarantee that all issue areas are addressed and that the reporters have a complete understanding of what is expected of them per the required reporting rules. This will guarantee that the stipulated regulations and laws are strictly followed and considerably eliminate the correctness of the professionals’ reporting.

References

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Boxall, H., & Sabol, B. (2021). Adolescent Family Violence: Findings from a Group-Based Analysis. Journal of Family Violence. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-021-00247-8

Brady, B., Chaskin, R. J., & McGregor, C. (2020). Promoting civic and political engagement among marginalized urban youth in three cities: Strategies and challenges. Children and Youth Services Review, p. 116, 105184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.105184

Brottman, M. R., Char, D. M., Hattori, R. A., Heeb, R., & Taff, S. D. (2019). Toward cultural competency in health care. Academic Medicine, 95(5), 1. https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000002995

Burton, A. O., & Montauban, A. (2021, June 1). Toward Community Control of Child Welfare Funding: Repeal the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Delink Child Protection From Family Well-Being. Papers.ssrn.com. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3905041

Currie, C. L., & Tough, S. C. (2021). Adverse childhood experiences are associated with illicit drug use among pregnant women with middle to high socioeconomic status: All Our Families Cohort findings. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03591-1

Forsner, M., Elvhage, G., Ewalds-Kvist, B. M., & Lützén, K. (2020). Moral Challenges When Suspecting Abuse and Neglect in School Children: A Mixed Method Study. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 38(6). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10560-020-00680-6

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Liu, B. C. C., & Vaughn, M. S. (2019). Legal and policy issues from the United States and internationally about mandatory child abuse reporting. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 64, 219–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2019.03.007

Mathews, B., Bromfield, L., & Walsh, K. (2020). Comparing Reports of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse Using Child Welfare Agency Data in Two Jurisdictions with Different Mandatory Reporting Laws. Social Sciences, 9(5), 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci9050075

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Nouman, H., Alfandari, R., Enosh, G., Dolev, L., & Daskal-Weichhendler, H. (2020). Mandatory reporting between legal requirements and personal interpretations: Community healthcare professionals’ reporting of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 101, 104261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104261

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Rossetti, Z., Burke, M. M., Hughes, O., Schraml-Block, K., Rivera, J. I., Rios, K., Aleman Tovar, J., & Lee, J. D. (2021). Parent Perceptions of the Advocacy Expectation in Special Education. Exceptional Children, 87(4), 001440292199409. https://doi.org/10.1177/0014402921994095

Schissel, B. (2021). STILL Blaming Children: Youth Conduct and the Politics of Child Hating (2nd Edition). In Google Books. Fernwood Publishing. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=WwF0EAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=.+There+are+also+other+problems

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Wißmann, H., Peters, M., & Müller, S. (2019). Physical or psychological child abuse and neglect: Experiences, reporting behaviour and positions toward mandatory reporting of paediatricians in Berlin, Germany. Child Abuse & Neglect, 98, 104165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104165

Portfolio To Evaluate Sustainability And Operational Excellence Of Honda Sample Paper

Introduction

In the current market, operational efficiency and Sustainability are vital aspects of managing any business. Both have now moved from an ethical focus and have turned out to be strategic imperative since they are essential for the success of every company. It is clear sustainabilityil to hold Sustainability and operational efficiency in high regard are likely to lack inance in their brand as compared to organizations that prioritize the two. When a company is said to have sustainable practices, it means that it focuses more on meeting the current needs without compromising the ability of the future generation to also meet their needs. Thus, the concept of Sustainability in business involves engaging in activities that minimize the environmental impact of operations, promoting social responsibility, and conserving resources. One of the main reason most businesses have been prioritizing Sustainability is because improves brand name, cuts down on costs, and most importantly, cut down the general company costs. Operational efficiency is majorly utilized by the businesses to remain competitive in the market. Currently the level of competition in the market is very high. In this regard, the companies ought to minimize on waste, optimize processes, and maximize productivity. Operational efficiency thus, involves finding out areas where processes need to be streamlined, cut down costs and improve more on quality. This paper will seek to use the existing evidence and literature, different Sustainability and operational efficiency frameworks to write a portfolio of Honda company with the main focus on Sustainability and operational efficiency.

Company Overview

Honda Is a multinational company which was founded in 1948 by Soichiro Honda. The multinational headquarter is in Tokyo, Japan with its major specialization in the production of motocycles, automobiles, and power equipment’s. The corporation produces hybrid vehicles, trucks, SUVs, and also passenger cars. In addition to these, Honda produces power equipment such as generators, snow blowers, and lawn mowers. While Honda is the leading MNE in the production of motocycle , most of its annual sales results from automobiles as compared to motorcycles. Notably, in 2022 only Honda sold 21.1 million cars with 4.1 million being the autos. It is worth noting that despite its major success in production and big market share it enjoys across the globe, Honda holds Sustainability in high regard. Since the company was started, it has over the time worked to provide numerous of value from a high perspective with an aim to develop a better society that is founded on environmental sustainability ideas, values, and technologies. Over the years the company has implemented a number of initiatives in an effort to cut down the environmental impact .

Sustainability Perspective

For the longest, Honda has worked hard to promote Sustainability through its operations. As a responsible member of the society at large whose work is to ensure that the environment is preserved, Honda has always made efforts to contribute to the preservation of the world economic environment and human health in every step of its manufacturing activities. The company has a very strong sustainability perspective and aims to achieve this through its operations and its end products which have market across the globe. In this portfolio, many key points will be discussed below to clearly show Honda’s sustainability perspective.

Honda’s New Environment and Safety Target by 2050

As one of its effort to achieve environmental Sustainability in its production while still creating sustainability awareness, Honda aims to zero traffic collision fatalities by the year 2050. A new automated valet parking system and an omnidirectional ADAS camera are two of the new innovations that were displayed at the 2019 Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in Las Vegas by Honda Corporation. The omnidirectional ADAS camera turned out to be the major breakthrough in the company’s efforts to try achieving zero traffic collision fatalities. The capability of this camera is I n the detection of cyclists and pedestrians from a wide range of angles, which makes it easier for the drier to avoid collisions. With this camera, there is advanced recognition of images that is likely to detect traffic lights, road signs, and other vehicles on the road.

Another innovation that Honda worked on to achieve zero traffic collision fatalities is the new automated valet parking system. Through this system, the drivers can park their vehicles in designated areas where the car will use a combination of sensors, cameras, and advanced navigation technology to park automatically. Normally, parking is a hard task to some of the drivers . Due to this most of the collisions happen during parking and thus, development of valet parking system reduce such risks.

The promise and commitment by Honda to attain the zero traffic collision fatalities by 2050 is just part of the broad companies efforts to promote Sustainability. Through innovation and coming up of new technologies that cut down the environmental impact of its vehicles

New Mobility Services

Honda has come up with new mobility services as a way of reducing traffic congestion, greenhouse emissions, and pollution. One of these ways Honda has developed is car sharing and ride sharing. Honda is promoting this idea by encouraging persons to make use of alternative means of transport which are environmental friendly. Honda has gone ahead to develop a variety of hybrid and electric cars such Honda Accord that are designed In a way that they are fuel efficient and friendly to the environment. Further, they help cut down the cost of transportation. Car sharing and ride sharing also reduce congestion since parking spaces demand goes down which then frees up some of the spaces in the urban areas. Therefore, this idea by Honda is very viable and a great step in the direction towards environmental Sustainability

Carbon Neutrality

Honda Corporation has for the longest committed to be carbon neutral by the year 2050. In order to ensure that these goals are attained, the company developed many initiatives to enhance Sustainability. For instance, Honda has electrified some of its vehicles and has promised to release more electric vehicles such as Honda Prologue which is expected to be launched in the year 2024. Notably Honda prologue will be the first complete electric SUV meant for the United States market. According to Honda 2021 sustainability report, the company became the first Japanese vehicle to win the German car of the year award (Honda, 2021). The Honda electric car was declared as the first German car of the year after a series of panel tests and reviews that were decided by Jury of leading German car Journalist. Some of the elements that were tested include the level of innovation used in its manufacture, driving characteristics and usability. It was then selected at the top of the new energy and performance category (Honda, 2021). This is just an example of the milestones Honda corporation is making in its efforts to achieve Sustainability through attainment of carbon neutrality. The corporation has also committed in battery technology and infrastructure which is meant to support the growth of electric vehicles market. Its partnership with general motors will produce battery technology and also build a new battery recycling facility in the United States. These proactive approaches will eventually reduce carbon food print and enhance Sustainability across the globe.

In its effort to achieve carbon neutrality, Honda has focused on utilizing renewable in its operation a promote Sustainability across the globe. Its use of renewable energy in its operations is basically part of Honda’s corporate responsibility (CSR). Its effort to utilize renewable energy such as solar and wind power aims to achieve carbon foot print reduction and contribute in the fight against climate change. For instance, Honda has gone ahead to do installation for solar panels in its facilities of operations which will be an alternative way of generating energy. The American manufacturing plant in Ohio has been installed with a solar array of 4000 solar panels which majorly generate 13 million Kilowatt0 –hours of electricity on an annual basis. Similarly in its Indiana manufacturing plant, Honda has installed a solar power system that has around 19800 solar panels. These solar panels generally produce at least 10% of the Indiana plant’s annual electricity. Notably, the company has also entered into major longterm contracts that will help in buying wind and solar power. A good example is Honda’s power purchase contract with the wind farm in Oklahoma. Through this contract at least 120000 megawatts hours of wind power ought to be purchased on an annual basis. This is around 60% electric needs of the manufacturing plant located in Indiana. All these efforts to engage renewable energy in its operations shows that Honda unapologetically prioritizes Sustainability as part of its major goals.

Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is another effort by Honda to attain carbon neutrality and promote Sustainability. Notably, the manufacturing company has set a target to cut down its greenhouse gas emissions from its operations and end products by at least 50% by the year 2050 as compared o the 2000 greenhouse gas emissions levels. In order to achieve this goal, Honda has come up with various strategic policies and developments. For instance the company has over the recent years been developing fuel efficient vehicles. In fact, its brand is mostly known for its manufacture of fuel efficient vehicles. However, to meet the reduced gas emissions target, Honda ought to invest more on research development and innovation. The company target to have fuel efficient vehicles where more efficient engines are developed. Further, Honda look into increasing the hybrid technology where it can expand its production of hybrid vehicles that have a combination of gasoline engine with electric motor which will increase fuel efficiency (“American Honda Motor,” 2021). Additionally The company aims to improve aerodynamics which can improve fuel efficiency.

Another effort by Honda to achieve carbon neutrality working on waste reduction. In regard to this, Honda has implemented a zero-waste-to-landfill initiative which has a goal of reducing waste sent to landfills at least to Zero. In order to achieve fulfill the goals of this initiative; Honda has implemented a very extensive waste reduction program in all its subsidiaries across the globe. The program involves landfill diversion which aims to divert all the waste that is dumped in the landfills. The company looks for alternative ways to utilize waste materials and also considers recycling of this waste Honda has also implemented waste-to-energy conversion where the waste in the landfills is converted into energy sources through incineration. This contributes to waste reduction since less or no waste is left. The company also practices recycling and reuse of its products . This has always been achieved through the implementation of a closed-loop recycling system where Honda recycles the metal scarps and other materials that result from its manufacturing process. By implementing this initiative, Honda has been able to achieve zero waste to landfill in many of its subsidiaries across the world including Europe, Asia, and North America by the year 2020. In fact Honda’s manufacturing plant based in North America attained 100% diversion rate which shows that there was no waste sent to landfills in the year 2020.

Moreover, Honda has continuously viewed fuel cell technology as a great pillar that holds its effort to achieve carbon neutrality by the year 2050. For the longest, Honda has been a leading innovator in the development of fuel cell technology which majorly uses hydrogen to generate electricity used to power vehicles (“American Honda Motor,” 2021). For the 20 years, the company has been working on fuel cell technology which gave birth to Honda’s first ever fuel cell vehicle- Honda FCX IN 2002. After this innovation, the company has continuously focused on improving the fuel cell technology which led to the manufacture of Honda clarity fuel cell that runs on hydrogen and emits only water vapor with zero emissions. Inside the car there are safety features and spacious interior that is environmentally favourable for the driver. In addition to this achievement, Honda has worked hard through its innovative team across the globe to develop hydrogen refueling infrastructure. Normally cars either electric, hydrogen run, and those that use fuel needs refilling at some point . Therefore Honda entered into partnerships with energy companies, automakers, and also government agencies that have helped establish a network of hydrogen fuelling stations. This has not been achieved in all parts of the world eventually it will happen

To achieve carbon neutrality, Honda has been engaging in the production of sustainable products which will definitely have a general impact on environmental Sustainability across the globe. The company has been engaging in the production of sustainable products and also used sustainable raw materials in their manufacturing process. For instance, Honda has a plant-based bio fabric which is majorly developed to be used for vehicle interiors. The car interior material is usually made from a combination of sugarcane and other materials derived from plants. It is majorly designed to replace the traditional petroleum-based materials and be more sustainable in terms of being environment friendly. Moreover, Honda is still trying the use of their sustainable materials which includes but not limited to natural fibres, recycled plastic and then improvise them in their final products. Remarkably, Honda has set an aim to increase the amount of recycled materials in its products to be at 40% by the year 2030. Notably, use of sustainable materials in the company products reduce the environmental impact and also promote sustainable practice in the automotive industry at large. It is worth noting that it is an important step for Honda to achieve carbon neutrality by the year 2050 and create a more sustainable future for the future generation.

The efforts by Honda to reduce carbon emissions has been partially successful, and the company aims to achieve more by the year 2050. According to Honda’s 2021 environmental report, the company achieved the goal of reducing carbon emissions in Motorcycles and recorded a 32.6% decrease while foe automobiles was at 29.8% and power products at 27.5% (Honda, 2021). Although these goals were not fully met by 2020, the company has the goal to keep the temperature increase below 1.5 celcius

 Sustainable Sourcing

Just like other companies, Honda has recognized sustainable sources as pillar to its sustainability goals. This involves procuring of goods and services in a way that meets the present needs without compromising the ability of the future generation to achieve their needs. Honda has developed its green purchasing guidelines which outline its expectations for suppliers in their sustainability practices. In this regard, the company frequently conduct audit of all the suppliers they engage to make sure that they are compliant with these deadlines under the green purchasing guidelines. The company is also part of the Responsible Minerals Initiative, which ensures that the minerals that are applied in the manufacture of electronics are sourced responsibly without any abuse from humans.

Social Sustainability in Honda

Honda considers diversity, equity and inclusion (DEE). as the key social sustainability edge. Honda clearly understands that for it to achieve social Sustainability, DEI is ut most. Therefore, it has developed various initiatives whose aim is to promote DEI, including employee resource groups, and unconscious bias training. Additionally, Honda has created community outreach programs which are committed to disaster relief, and environmental stewardship. For instance, Honda has a Green path program whose purpose is to educate the community on the importance of environmental conservation and Sustainability

Operational Efficiency Perspective of Honda

Honda just like other market dominant multinationals hold operational excellence in high regard since it plays a big role in attaining competitive advantage over its major competitors and most importantly contribute to the company’s growth. To achieve this, Honda has come up with strategies that aim to achieve operational excellence in its operations as discussed below.

Products Design and Focus on Quality

Product design is very important to the company and its consumers. When a product design is most suitable, the company gets more demand for it which makes the company make more sales and definitely grow its brand. Honda uses key strategies that majorly focus on lean manufacturing. Lean principles which were first developed by Toyota are utilized by Honda to ensure that there is continuous improvement and a focus on customer value . These principles help Honda to streamline its operations and reduce general operational costs in the company.

Honda has employed strategic quality control mechanisms and standards that are used during the manufacturing process to ensure that the right product design and quality is attained as per the expectations.

Total Quality Management (TQM)

Total quality management strategy by Honda is a management philosophy that engages all the staff in the organization to continuously improve products and processes. Remarkably, Honda has adopted this philosophy in its whole manufacturing process and went ahead to offer them extensive training that helps them to quickly identify problems in the manufacturing process and solve them. Application of this principle has played a big role in the satisfaction of Honda customers. This has been possible since the company incorporates customer feedback into its product design the whole manufacturing process. The application of TQM has also made Honda develop supplier partnerships which are based on its principles. Through such partnerships, suppliers tend to understand the quality expectations of Honda and, thus, supply quality and high standard raw materials that will achieve the expected design and will have fewer problems in the production process.

Statistical Process Control

Honda also uses Statistical Process Control (SPC) which involves the act of observing and monitoring a manufacturing process through analyses of data. This is very necessary since it helps the company to identify and get rid of any sources of variation that may arise. Through this the manufacturing process runs smoothly and quality products results.

In an effort to promote continuous improvement culture among its employees, Honda employs Kaizen. Kaizen principles encourage small increasing improvements into a process or product after every period of time. Notably, Honda has implemented Kaizen principles with an aim of continually improving the manufacturing process and the end products. Additionally, Honda has implemented different standards in order to attain operational excellence in the company. For instance, it has implemented ISO 9001 standard which gives requirements that should be met for a manufacturing process to be assumed as quality. Additionally, Honda also ISO 14001 certified since the company ensures it meets the guidelines for managing environment.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Honda’s corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) efforts have been central In attaining operational excellence. Majorly its CSR initiative focuses most on Sustainability, and quality of life of the communities which occurs as a result of operational excellence in an organization. The company has learnt the secret to CSR; build brand reputation, promote positive impact in the communities, and enhance customer loyalty. For instance, Honda has always been focusing on improving the quality and safety of its products. Thus, it has established the Honda Quality Circle Program (HQCP) which ensures that all its products meet the safety and quality standards. This makes the company to cut on costs from products recall and complains.

Since it is also focused on the quality of community lives in its area of operation, Honda always engages the communities through its outreach program known as Honda foundation. Honda foundation majorly supports the community through offering of scholarships in an effort to support education. Further, it helps in in facilitating other educational activities such as financing and supporting scientific research which promotes innovation and technological advancements. As a result, these research and technological advancements help the company improve the manufacturing process which eventually helps the company achieve operational efficiency.

Employee Engagement and Training

Honda has the best HRM policies that are aimed to engage their employees and effectively incorporate them in the operation activities in order to achieve operational excellence in its manufacturing process. Honda holds training of employees in high regard since its very crucial in achieving Operational Excellence (OE). The company has for the longest invested in skill development programs that ensure its employees attain the right skills to effectively carry on their duties . The skill development program involves coaching and mentoring, on-job training, and formal training. This helps the employees to effectively engage In their work.

Honda also practices employee empowerment by giving their workers more autonomy in their jobs The Company for instance allows its staff to participate in decision making by making decisions that in the end improve efficiency in the company operations. Additionally, Honda promotes cross-functional collaborations among its employees by giving them opportunities to shift to other departments and explore. This is very helpful to the employees and company at large since they give them a broader perspective on all round Honda operations while encouraging sharing of ideas and practices. This gives Honda’s employees a sense of responsibility and purpose to work harder and endure improved efficiency.

Honda also uses performance management system to keep the employees aligned to their purpose and job description. The system clearly sets out the goals and expectations for Honda’s staff. This has played a key role in ensuring that all employees have a clear focus and fulfill their responsibilities that are aligned to the main goals and mission of Honda. This ensures smooth and seamless running of operations in the company. Moreover, in its effort to achieve operational excellence, Honda applies flexible work arrangements for its employees. For instance, it provides flexible working hours or remote options which as a result give employees control over their work and social life. This shows that most if not all Honda employees have a work-life balance which lead to job motivation and satisfaction. Moreover, the company also has a very attractive reward and recognition policy that aims at achieving operational excellence. Notably, always recognize and reward employees who show excellence in their work. Use of recognition programs has always helped foster the culture of excellence among Honda employees across the globe. Definitely, when employees are happy and satisfied operational excellence in a company like Honda becomes an obvious occurrence.

Technology Adoption

Honda is one of the renowned, multinationals whose brand has been widely known to utilize advanced technology in its production of goods and services. One area where Honda has extensively utilized use of technology is its manufacturing processes. The automobile corporation has implemented advanced robotic and automation technologies which has always played a big role in streamlining production processes and eventually reducing the cost of production. For instance, the robotic systems employed by Honda can perform tasks such as welding, assembly and even painting. This relieves human off these duties, which makes the production more efficient, accurate, cheaper and faster.

Honda has for the longest leveraged technological advancements to achieve operational excellence, specifically in its supply chain. Honda has majorly adopted advanced logistics and transportation management systems which help the company to optimize its supply chain operations. Utilizing this technological advancement in their supply chain operations has always helped Honda to reduce the lead time , improve the overall operation efficiency, and reduce the inventory costs.

In its product development process, Honda has adopted technology. Honda developed computer-aided design (CAD) and simulation tools to help restructure the product development processes and also contribute in the quality of its products. CAD is basically a software which is used by engineers and designers to develop3D and 2D models while simulation gives a chance for virtual testing of these models. Through the integration of the two technologies, Honda has been able to identify any issues in the production process and address them by improving the quality of these products.

Conclusion

This Honda portfolio clearly shows that the company is very intentional on Sustainability and operational efficiency. It is important to note that Sustainability and operational excellence cannot be ignored in the operations of any company. Currently, the climatically trends such as global warming and climate change have not only posed a threat to human life but also to the companies. Specifically, multinationals like Honda face a more extensive problem because of the geographical diversity of its operations. Therefore , from the goals, programs, and policies discussed in the paper , it is fair to acknowledge the extensive efforts made by Honda to promote Sustainability and operational excellence. All of these have been implemented in the stages of production. Honda should ensure that it keeps at per with the technology do frequent reviews, audits, and updates of these strategies to ascertain their efficiency and ensure that the companies operations are technologically and sustainably at per with current trends in the market.

References

American Honda Motor. ( 2021, April 23). Honda Targets 100% EV Sales in North America by 2040, Makes New Commitments to Advances in Environmental and Safety Technology. PR Newswire. https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/honda-targets-100-ev-sales-in-north-america-by-2040-makes-new-commitments-to-advances-in-environmental-and-safety-technology-301275727.html