India’s Challenge In Navigating The Inflation-Recession Trade-Off In 2023

Introduction

India faces a significant economic difficulty as 2023 progresses: a persistent increase in inflation. The country is at a crossroads where decision-makers need to carefully weigh the need to reduce inflationary pressures against the possibility of starting a recession. With an emphasis on India in 2023, this article examines the subtleties of the relationship between inflation and policy(Faisal et al., 2022.)

The Inflationary Forces:

The escalation of inflation, resulting from amplified post-pandemic demand and supply chain disruptions worldwide, is a formidable obstacle for Indian policymakers(Dev et al., 2023). Because of the complexity of the problem, policymakers must have a detailed grasp of the variables at work in order to develop policies that would effectively reduce the negative consequences of inflation without unintentionally starting a recession. In this complex dance, policy measures must be executed with extreme precision to guarantee India’s economic stability in the face of the dominant inflationary forces.

The Sacrifice:

There are inherent hazards in maintaining a delicate balance between reining in high inflation and averting a recession. The main threat is the possibility that a recessionary cycle will begin. Traditional monetary policy instruments, including interest rate changes, are frequently used by policymakers to reduce inflationary pressures in the economy. However, The difficulty lies in carrying out these actions without unfavorable effects.

The complexities of this conundrum become apparent when one considers what may happen if monetary policy were to tighten suddenly. Although these actions might successfully reduce inflation, there are significant unforeseen repercussions. Unexpected tightening might discourage substantial investments, reduce consumer spending, and pave the way for a slump in the economy. It becomes critical for policymakers to implement policies with the proper balance, weighing the risks of unintentionally triggering a recessionary spiral against the imperative of reducing inflation.

Charts and Data:

India’s inflation trend in India during the chosen period of 2023

This chart is from Sage Journals using data compiled by different authors.

India's inflation trend in India during the chosen period of 2023

A chart illustrating the potential impact of policy measures on vital economic indicators like GDP growth

This information is sourced from the Brookings website.

A chart illustrating the potential impact of policy measures on vital economic indicators like GDP growth

Getting Through the Dilemma:

2023, the Indian economy faces a crucial trade-off as decision-makers struggle to curb an excessively high inflation rate without sending the country into a deep recession(Gans et al., 2023). Choosing the right combination of policies would be the main issue facing Indian policymakers in 2023. A sophisticated strategy is needed to balance controlling inflation and averting a recession. Unusual policy instruments, like targeted fiscal measures and advance guidance, could become more prominent.

Businesses and consumers can benefit from clarity brought about by forward guidance and Reserve Bank India’s declaration of future policy intentions. This could have an impact on decisions about investments and spending. Targeted fiscal policies, like tax breaks or infrastructure spending, can boost economic growth while reducing inflationary pressures.

Global Cooperation:

India’s inflation problems reflect the complexity of the global economy and the need for international cooperation(Gorina et al., 2022). Realizing that there is no one-size-fits-all answer to India’s inflation problems, cooperation is required. This means that central banks and governments worldwide must work together to meet the everyday challenges presented by the current state of the global economy.

The success of India’s policy solutions in this age of economic interdependence depends on the knowledge gained from the experiences of other countries facing comparable difficulties. Besides utilizing the extensive expertise and tactics employed by other nations facing similar inflationary pressures, India might enhance its own policy tool set. India’s promotion of international cooperation makes the country more resilient to inflation and adds to the larger conversation about addressing economic difficulties in a globalized world.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, the complex tango between inflation and policy is best shown by India’s situation in 2023. Finding the correct balance requires careful consideration of the world economy’s dynamics and a prudent combination of traditional and unconventional policies. Adaptability and cooperation will be crucial in helping Indian officials navigate this complex task and steer the country’s economy through the inflationary storm without collapsing into a recession.

Work Cited

Salamai, A. A., Faisal, S. M., & Khan, A. K. (2022). The relationship between inflation and GDP concerning an oil-based economy. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Growth Evaluation.

Dev, S. M., & Sengupta, R. (2023). The Indian economy in the post-pandemic world: Opportunities and Challenges. India’s Contemporary Macroeconomic Themes: Looking Beyond 2020, pp. 9–51.

Gans, J., King, S., Byford, M., & Mankiw, G. (2023). Principles of Microeconomics 9e. Cengage AU.

Bezpalov, V. V., Lochan, S. A., Fedyunin, D. V., Polozhentseva, I. V., & Gorina, T. V. (2022). Relationship between complex integration indices and inflation indicators and their impact on developing regional cooperation between countries to reduce inflationary risks: Case of the SCO member countries. Risks11(1), 5.

Indigenous Methodologies: Navigating Historical Resilience, Transformative Case Studies, And Future Paradigms In Global Research

Overview

Indigenous knowledge systems, which represent historical wisdom and worldviews, give rise to numerous research approaches referred to as “indigenous methodologies.” According to Latulippe & Klenk (2020), indigenous spiritual, social, and cultural systems are intricately entwined with these techniques. The holistic approach of indigenous methods emphasizes balance and connection and goes beyond traditional research paradigms. To set the foundation for a thorough investigation, this section will examine the complex definition and essential traits that characterize indigenous techniques.

Relevance

Indigenous techniques are important because they may provide research projects with a contextually relevant and culturally sensitive viewpoint. According to Ohman (2023), these approaches aid in a more genuine and inclusive understanding of complicated problems by recognizing and embracing traditional knowledge. Additionally, they provide indigenous people agency and a feeling of ownership over the research process, which empowers them. This section aims to shed light on the crucial function that indigenous techniques provide in filling in the gaps in traditional research procedures and creating a fairer research environment.

Purpose

Examining and celebrating the many facets of indigenous techniques is the main goal of this research. The study also intends to shed light on the distinctive contributions that indigenous techniques offer to the larger research discourse through a thorough analysis of their historical background, guiding principles, and practical implementations while expanding knowledge about the transformational potential of adopting indigenous approaches through examining case studies and discussing possibilities as well as difficulties. Nevertheless, it hopes to add to a larger discussion about research approaches that respect diversity, encourage cooperation, and advance communities’ well-being.

Historical Context

Native American techniques have a rich historical heritage molded by the culture’s tenacious persistence and dynamic relationship with outside forces.

Brief History of Indigenous Methodologies

Indigenous groups worldwide have long incorporated these methods into their traditional practices, which may be traced back to ancient times. These methods act as messengers for disseminating cultural values and social standards, reflecting the wisdom and collected knowledge of generations (McGuire-Adams, 2020). Examining how indigenous societies have used their distinctive inquiry, knowledge-sharing, and problem-solving methods is essential to comprehending the historical origins. This historical voyage reveals the flexibility and tenacity of indigenous methods in the face of social changes and colonial encroachment.

Evolution and Development over Time

The ability of indigenous communities to adapt is shown by the development of indigenous techniques. Indigenous methods saw a dynamic process of improvement and adaptation as outside influences and historical events played out. Hybrid approaches have emerged due to the interaction of external forces and traditional behaviors, reflecting the constant struggle between adaptation and preservation (Huaman & Martin, 2020). The significant turning points, life-changing events, and influential people who have shaped the development of indigenous approaches emphasize the ongoing conversation between modernity and conventional wisdom.

Cultural Influences on Methodological Approaches

The foundation of methodological techniques used in indigenous research is culture. Indigenous methods are ingrained in cultural frameworks and represent each group’s distinct perspectives and modes of interaction. Indigenous techniques are deeply influenced by culture in all areas, from the community components of knowledge generation to the spiritual qualities of research (Virtanen et al., 2021). According to studies, certain cultural elements have had a lasting influence on the methodological methods of various indigenous communities, highlighting how culture influences how research is conducted and how truth and knowledge are understood (Huaman & Martin, 2020).

Key Principles of Indigenous Methodologies

Indigenous methods are supported by foundational principles that form the research process and encapsulate indigenous knowledge systems’ wisdom and fundamental values.

Respect for Indigenous Knowledge Systems

A deep regard for indigenous knowledge systems is the foundation of indigenous approaches. This idea recognizes the rich reservoir of knowledge that indigenous societies have developed over many centuries. Indigenous practices prioritize traditional knowledge since they acknowledge it as a genuine and important source of information about the world (Ryder et al., 2020). The researchers interact with bearers of indigenous knowledge to ensure their perspectives are recognized and included in the inquiry procedure. Respect for indigenous knowledge systems is emphasized to bridge the past and present and promote cultural preservation and continuation.

Community Involvement and Collaboration

Indigenous approaches strongly emphasize community participation and teamwork as a sign of a shared commitment to communal agency and shared decision-making. This idea acknowledges that community people should be actively involved in research projects within indigenous communities, from conception to dissemination (Ohman, 2023). When researchers operate within this paradigm, they stop being spectators and start facilitating information sharing. By ensuring that research is in line with community interests and needs, the collaborative method promotes a feeling of empowerment and ownership. The practical applications of community engagement range from using participatory research methodologies to developing long-term connections beyond the study’s confines.

Holistic and Contextual Understanding

Holistic and contextual awareness is one main characteristic that sets indigenous methods apart from more reductionist ones. According to Ohman (2023), this idea acknowledges that occurrences are inextricably linked to their larger cultural, environmental, and historical contexts. Indigenous methods emphasize the need for thorough knowledge that cuts beyond academic boundaries by attempting to represent the interconnectivity of diverse factors within a particular environment (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). Researchers using indigenous methodology negotiate the complexity of interrelated systems to ensure that their analyses consider the holistic character of indigenous worldviews.

Sustainability and Long-term Perspective

Indigenous techniques are guided by sustainability and long-term perspectives to conduct research that goes beyond short-term objectives and considers long-term effects. This idea emphasizes how important it is for researchers to consider how their findings will affect future generations and whether they are sustainable. Indigenous research approaches include sustainable research practices beyond ecological concerns to address community social, cultural, and economic well-being (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). The indigenous approaches include sustainability as a fundamental principle, promoting research that enhances the resilience and vibrancy of indigenous communities in the long run. Taking a long-term view recognizes that indigenous knowledge is passed down through generations and stresses the need to do research that will leave a good and enduring legacy.

Indigenous Research Paradigms

Indigenous research paradigms provide a unique perspective that values community, connection, and context above individualistic, linear procedures, making them stand in striking contrast to typical Western research methodologies.

Comparison with Western Research Paradigms

Native American research methods question the idea of impartiality and detached observation in contrast to Western research paradigms. Native American study acknowledges the multiplicity of facts and values ingrained within many cultural settings, while Western approaches often aim for universal truths (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). The comparison explores ontological and epistemological distinctions, illuminating the disparities in the conception and construction of knowledge. Indigenous research actively interacts with subjectivity, emphasizing the researcher’s position within society and the reciprocal interaction between the inquirer and the researched, in contrast to the Western focus on detachment.

Challenges and Critiques

There are difficulties in incorporating indigenous research paradigms into the mainstream discourse. Critics contend that indigenous research’s communal, holistic, and labor-intensive character makes it difficult for current institutional structures and financial sources to support it. Concerns about ethics also surface, especially when indigenous knowledge is taken or turned into a commodity (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). Moreover, resistance and doubt may result from a collision with prevailing paradigms. The complex issues indigenous researchers deal with include the need for more cultural awareness, ethical issues, and the continuous fight for recognition in academic circles.

Advantages and Unique Contributions

Indigenous research paradigms provide many benefits and distinctive contributions, notwithstanding the difficulties. The focus on community involvement and teamwork creates a more diverse and empowered research environment. Indigenous methods consider the complex web of interactions that shapes knowledge and provide a comprehensive view of events (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). This includes the study’s ability to maintain cultural heritage, provide contextually appropriate solutions, and challenge Western-centric ideas about knowledge generation. By acknowledging the advantages of indigenous research paradigms, we may promote a more egalitarian and pluralistic research environment that welcomes a range of perspectives on the world.

Case Studies

The most vivid examples of the implementation of indigenous techniques are found in captivating case studies that capture the revolutionary effects of these strategies on research procedures and community well-being.

Examples of Successful Applications of Indigenous Methodologies

Looking at case studies that have worked, examples of how native approaches have been used skillfully to solve urgent social problems emerge. These studies highlight the value of collaborative decision-making and demonstrate the strength of teamwork and community involvement (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). Research projects focused on environmental conservation, for example, show how indigenous tribes have created sustainable methods that protect ecosystems and preserve cultural integrity by using their strong relationships with the land. According to Ohman (2023), these instances demonstrate the effectiveness of indigenous methods and the flexibility and tenacity of indigenous groups when confronted with difficult situations.

Impact on Community Empowerment and Well-being

Indigenous methods have been shown to positively affect social empowerment and wellness outside the academic setting. Case studies highlight situations in which research initiatives directed by indigenous perspectives have produced noticeable advancements in education, health, and cultural renewal. These approaches emphasize community engagement, which gives people the power to actively engage in the inquiry process and develop a feeling of agency and ownership. Nevertheless, indigenous methods have helped conserve cultural identity, improve health outcomes, and expand educational possibilities.

 Lessons Learned from Case Studies

Analyzing the achievements and difficulties in these case studies teaches scholars and practitioners alike valuable insights. The approaches used, the ethical issues raised, and the results clearly show the significance of indigenous methodologies. These case studies provide valuable insights into the significance of establishing trust, recognizing cultural subtleties, and customizing research methodologies to conform to indigenous worldviews (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). Through synthesizing these lessons, scholars may extract valuable insights that will guide their future work, promoting a more sophisticated and successful way of integrating indigenous methods into various research settings. In the end, the analysis of case studies emphasizes the practical value of indigenous approaches, emphasizing their capacity to effect good change and make significant contributions to scholarly research and community welfare.

Challenges and Opportunities

The landscape of indigenous approaches is fraught with possibilities and problems, highlighting the intricate relationship between ethical concerns, cultural sensitivity, and the possibility of transformational cross-cultural cooperation.

Cultural Sensitivity and Ethical Considerations

The foundation of indigenous research is cultural sensitivity, yet it often clashes with the intrinsically complicated ethical environment. When using indigenous techniques, researchers have the difficult task of ensuring that the beliefs, customs, and values of the populations they are studying are respected and reflected in their work (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). The complex interplay between the need to preserve cultural heritage and indigenous rights and the quest for knowledge creates research barriers. According to Latulippe & Klenk (2020), fostering an ethical scientific atmosphere that adheres to fairness, dignity, and cultural reciprocity requires recognizing and overcoming these obstacles.

Overcoming Stereotypes and Misconceptions

Indigenous methods are often the subject of criticism and misunderstanding, which feeds prejudices and false beliefs that prevent them from being accepted and incorporated into mainstream discourse. Researchers may create a more welcoming and courteous environment that supports the growth of indigenous techniques by tearing down these obstacles. Education and raising awareness are essential to break down these obstacles, highlighting the necessity for continual discussion that fosters a sophisticated comprehension of the intricacies involved in indigenous research.

Opportunities for Cross-Cultural Collaboration

The combination of traditional research methods with indigenous approaches offers a variety of chances for cross-cultural cooperation, notwithstanding some difficulties. Beyond research methods, there are many opportunities for cross-cultural collaboration in policy formation, teaching, and community service (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). By developing authentic partnerships that value reciprocity and mutual respect, scholars may use the distinct advantages of non-indigenous and indigenous knowledge systems, resulting in a more comprehensive and inclusive strategy for tackling global issues. This collaboration capacity is essential for bringing creative answers to the table and closing gaps between various knowledge traditions, eventually improving the research environment’s fairness and harmony.

Future Directions

Future prospects for these approaches include their possible incorporation into general research, their critical role in tackling global issues, and the recognition of critical areas requiring more investigation and analysis.

Potential for Integration in Mainstream Research

The possible integration of indigenous approaches into conventional research paradigms presents a tempting route for their future. There is a chance to close the knowledge gap between non-indigenous and indigenous approaches as their effectiveness becomes more widely recognized. To recognize the benefits of indigenous approaches and their potential to enhance the larger research discourse, this section will examine options for creating a more diverse research environment (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). To facilitate varied research techniques, institutional frameworks must be redesigned in addition to acknowledging the legitimacy of indigenous knowledge systems. This is known as the integration process. By integrating indigenous approaches into conventional procedures, scholars may develop a more thorough and culturally aware comprehension of intricate matters.

Role in Addressing Global Challenges

Indigenous approaches can be crucial in solving urgent global issues, such as social justice and environmental sustainability. There are certain instances when the use of native techniques has resulted in inventive resolutions with wider consequences. Researchers may provide special insights into international conversations on global warming, biodiversity protection, and fair development by including indigenous viewpoints (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). since of their intrinsic interconnection, indigenous approaches are an important asset to interactive, cross-cultural problem-solving efforts since they correspond with the holistic approach required to address complex global challenges.

Areas for Further Exploration and Study

With the ongoing development of indigenous techniques, there are still unexplored areas and unresolved issues. According to Latulippe & Klenk (2020), possible themes include how indigenous knowledge interacts with new technology, how globalization affects conventional research methods, and how ethical standards consistent with indigenous beliefs are still being developed (Latulippe & Klenk, 2020). By emphasizing these areas, the study hopes to stimulate more research projects that support the continuous development and improvement of indigenous approaches, guaranteeing their applicability and effectiveness in a constantly shifting global context.

In conclusion, investigating indigenous approaches reveals a complex web intricately intertwined into indigenous people’s ethical, cultural, and historical fabric. The historical setting shows their progress throughout time, negotiating the intricacies of outside factors while maintaining cultural authenticity. Case studies clearly illustrate the transformational potential of indigenous techniques by illustrating their practical effects on societal issues and community well-being. The highlighted possibilities and constraints highlight the careful balancing necessary for their effective integration, focusing on cross-cultural cooperation potential, ethical issues, and cultural sensitivity. Looking forward, these approaches have a great chance to fit into traditional research frameworks and become essential in solving global issues. Indigenous methods provide more in this paradigm shift than different research techniques; they are dedicated to inclusion, heritage preservation, and a comprehensive comprehension of intricate problems. Beyond disciplinary borders, indigenous techniques are important because they support multiple ways of knowing and create a more egalitarian and linked research environment. By adopting these approaches, we set a path toward a more thorough, culturally aware, and cooperative understanding and resolution of our global community’s complex issues.

References

McGuire-Adams, T. D. (2020). Paradigm shifting: Centering Indigenous research methodologies, an Anishinaabe perspective. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 12(1), 34-47.

Huaman, E. S., & Martin, N. D. (Eds.). (2020). Indigenous knowledge systems and research methodologies: Local solutions and global opportunities. Canadian Scholars.

Virtanen, P. K., Olsen, T., & Keskitalo, P. (2021). Contemporary Indigenous research within Sámi and global Indigenous studies contexts. In Indigenous research methodologies in Sámi and international contexts (pp. 7-32). Brill.

Ryder, C., Mackean, T., Coombs, J., Williams, H., Hunter, K., Holland, A. J., & Ivers, R. Q. (2020). Indigenous research methodology–weaving a research interface. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 23(3), 255-267.

Ohman, M. B. (2023). Indigenous Research Methodologies in Sami and Global Contexts. Journal of the Native American and Indigenous Studies Association (NAIS), 10(2), 157-159.

Latulippe, N., & Klenk, N. (2020). Making Room and moving over: knowledge co-production, Indigenous knowledge sovereignty and the politics of global environmental change decision-making. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 42, 7-14.

Kantian Ethics: Distinguishing Between Acting In Accord With Duty And Acting From Duty

Immanuel Kant is an essential philosopher in ethics who based his deontological ethical theory on duty as the main criterion of rightful conduct. What is vital for Kantian ethics is a particular difference between two concepts: acting according to duty and acting from duty. This distinction, however, has significant consequences for the value of actions in the framework of Kant’s ethical view. This exploration will dissect the subtleties of Kant’s philosophy, elucidating the distinctions between these two modes of conduct and delving into the intricate relationship between these distinctions and moral worth.

Acting in Accord with Duty:

To grasp the nuances of Kant’s ethical framework, it is crucial to understand what it means to act in accord with duty. When an individual acts according to duty, they behave in a manner that aligns with moral principles or duties. Nevertheless, one may consider the external factors that make up such motives as personal inclination, societal expectations, and fear of consequences. People do not follow ethical standards for ethical reasons but because they are pushed by some powers that compel them (Hope 63-80). For instance, people do not steal because they understand that stealing is immoral but fear prosecution. However, in this case, the action meets the duty of respect for others’ property. Still, the motive here is irrelevant: the intention of avoiding punishment rather than any genuine commitment to ethical beliefs and obligations.

Acting from Duty:

However, within Kantian ethics, acting from duty implies doing something only because one understands it is a moral obligation. Acting from duty means one’s actions emanate from one’s desire to comply with moral law, not personal interests or consequences. Kant contends that morally good deeds are derived from duty and constitute the pinnacle of righteous acts. If we take the same instance on the abstinence of stealing, the one who acts from the sense of duty abstains from stealing not out of the fear of the law but the intuitive awareness of right and wrong. In this case, the moral obligation to respect others’ property is the sole motivator for the action, illustrating a higher level of moral worth according to Kantian ethics.

The Significance of Intention in Determining Moral Worth:

For Kant, however, moral worth derives ultimately from the intention that makes an act possible. In acting in conformity to duty, a person is complying with moral standards, but the reason for such conduct can be due to their feelings, societal expectations, or fear of repercussions. The action could be externally ethical in terms of conformity but internally unethical since the motivation is not intrinsically good. On the contrary, acting from duty entails working solely because it is recognized as a moral obligation (Walschots 59-75). The essence of this distinction lies in the purity of intention – when an individual acts from duty, their motivation is not swayed by personal desires, external pressures, or potential rewards. Instead, the action emanates from a genuine commitment to the moral law. This intrinsic motivation becomes the linchpin for determining the moral worth of the action, as Kant contends that actions from duty possess the highest moral standing.

The Primacy of the Good Will and Universalizability:

Understanding the link between Kant’s distinction and moral worth hinges on the concept of “goodwill.” According to Kant, goodwill, which consists of following orders for their own sake, represents the only intrinsic good. However, actions arising from goodwill or actions from duty have a moral value beyond any external consideration. In this case, moral worth is not dependent on the outcome of the activity or gratification but instead comes from the intention to fulfill a duty.

Additionally, universalizability is instrumental in explaining how the distinction relates to moral worth. According to Kantian ethics, the categorical imperative stipulates that people should follow maxims that could be unconditionally applied to all human beings at any time without creating conflicting results. Actions originating from duty conform to this universality principle because the maxims they relate to are derived from the moral law. The recognition that one’s actions could serve as a universal law without contradiction contributes to the moral worth of those actions, further emphasizing the importance of the intention behind the conduct.

Autonomy, Rational Agency, and Moral Worth:

The autonomy of rational agents is an essential aspect of Kantian ethics, whereby individuals determine moral principles. It is the sensible use of will or acting according to duty, whereby man acts rationally based on or following the moral law. The critical issue is the agent’s autonomy as the morality of action. Duties are legislative because when individuals act from duty, they create rules based on the idea that such activities are duty-bound. The autonomous nature of actions from duty contributes to their elevated moral worth. Kant defines an independent agent as one who makes self-legislation and rational agency exceeding compliance with external laws (Isserow 529-556). The idea of autonomy strongly correlates with Kant’s conception of moral growth, which involves a path from doing one’s duty to being bound by duty, finally arriving at a state characterized by entirely moral actions.

Conclusion

Kantian ethics offers a deep insight into the concept of “moral worth” by differentiating between acting in accord with duty and acting from duty. This distinction is based on the purity of intentions, and the purity of purpose determines the moral worthiness of actions. However, when people act in accord with duty, it means acting in line with ethical rules that are not intrinsically motivated by moral worth, it reduces the moral worth of their actions. Conversely, according to Kant, actions from duty that emanate from goodwill and are inspired by an autonomous recognition of moral imperative present the highest moral merit. The insistence on universalizability highlights the significance of intrinsically motivating behavior. This is because maxims based on duty are generally universalizable without conflict. Moral worth, however, is not confined to conformity to the externally imposed principles of morality, and it is intimately connected with the reason of every person who knows about their and other people’s duties.

Works Cited

Hope, Simon. “Perfect and Imperfect Duty: Unpacking Kant’s Complex Distinction.” Kantian Review 28.1 (2023): 63-80. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1369415422000528

Walschots, Michael. “Kant and the Duty to Act from Duty.” History of Philosophy Quarterly 39.1 (2022): 59-75. https://doi.org/10.5406/21521026.39.1.04

Isserow, Jessica. “Moral worth: having it both ways.” Journal of Philosophy 117.10 (2020): 529-556. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5900-8363