Indigenous Methodologies: Elevating Indigenous Knowledge And Voices In Research Essay Example

Traditional indigenous research approaches prioritize indigenous knowledge systems and use existing data. Indigenous peoples’ particular histories, cosmologies, and bodies of knowledge are accused of being ignored by Eurocentric research paradigms. Indigenous methods attempt to emphasize Indigenous knowledge and ways of knowing to guarantee that all cultures are respected and conserved, as well as to provide Indigenous peoples a voice in research. Indigenous research methodologies are critical in light of Indigenous peoples’ distinct patterns of language use, education, and knowledge acquisition. These methodologies try to decolonize research by focusing on Indigenous peoples’ perspectives, worldviews, and knowledge systems while rejecting the Eurocentric assumptions underpinning it. Native American groups may research using indigenous techniques without losing their independence or cultural integrity. The writers of this paper call for academics researching indigenous civilizations and communities to employ indigenous research methodologies. Through a close reading of “Close to Home: An Indigenist Project of story gathering” by Kathleen E. Absolon and “Indigenous Worldviews, Knowledge, and Research: The Development of an Indigenous Research Paradigm” by Michael Anthony Hart, this essay will examine the concepts and principles that underpin Indigenous methodologies and their significance in the research. This article will examine how Indigenous research approaches foster cultural knowledge and safety while allowing Indigenous people to direct their own research.

Literature Review

Indigenous techniques are research procedures influenced by Indigenous peoples’ distinct worldviews, beliefs, and bodies of knowledge. These methodologies emphasize Indigenous peoples’ and communities’ knowledge, experiences, and views, intending to elevate their voices in the research process (Absolon, 2020). Indigenous research approaches differ from their Western counterparts in several ways. In contrast to Western research methodology’s objectivity, individualism, and universalism, indigenous research procedures emphasize relationality, interdependence, and cultural distinctiveness (Hart, 2010). Indigenous techniques aim to decolonize research procedures while prioritizing indigenous knowledge keepers’ rights and sovereignty (Absolon, 2020).

Indigenous techniques rely heavily on community engagement and interpersonal responsibility. Establishing and sustaining meaningful connections with study participants and communities is an essential facet of relational responsibility (Absolon, 2020), which is intended to ensure that research is performed in a culturally and ethically responsible way. Integrating communities actively into the research process ensures that studies are adapted to community needs and objectives (Hart, 2010).

Throughout the four volumes, many instances of Indigenous ways of operation exist. “Close to Home: An Indigenist Project of Story Gathering” (2020) by Absolon is an excellent example of an Indigenous method highlighting the importance of individual responsibility and group engagement. This initiative involves interviewing indigenous women to learn about their views on violence and resistance. It was done openly and respectfully, with specific consideration given to Indigenous peoples’ perspectives. Hart (2010)’s “Indigenous Worldviews, Knowledge, and Research: The Development of an Indigenous Research Paradigm” is an example of an Indigenous methodology that strives to decolonize research processes and stress Indigenous knowledge sovereignty.

Absolon (2020)’s journal article “Community-centered Approaches to Indigenous Research” is an example of an Indigenous methodology that stresses community engagement and involvement. The journals involved a collaborative effort with an Indigenous community to construct a research project customized to their objectives and needs while prioritizing Indigenous viewpoints and knowledge. Finally, Hart (2010)’s “Indigenous Research Methodologies: A Decolonizing Perspective” is an excellent example of an Indigenous methodology emphasizing decolonization in the research process. This chapter highlights the significance of including Indigenous voices and views in research and the need to question the Eurocentric assumptions underpinning much Western research.


Kimberlé Crenshaw coined the term “intersectionality” in 1989 to highlight the many interwoven kinds of oppression that disadvantaged people, especially women of color, suffer. This notion is especially pertinent to Indigenous techniques since Indigenous peoples often face several types of oppression due to their intersecting identities as Indigenous peoples, women, LGBTQ2S+, handicapped, or other marginalized identities (Absolon, 2020). Intersectionality may assist to shed light on various elements of Indigenous people’s lives and identities within the framework of Indigenous methodology.

Indigenous techniques can address the intersectionality of Indigenous identities and experiences because they focus more on Indigenous peoples’ viewpoints and experiences. According to Hart (2010), indigenous techniques prioritize the viewpoints and knowledge of locals above those of Western outsiders. An Indigenous lens may better depict the subtlety and complexity of Indigenous experiences and identities and their interactions.

See Absolon’s (2020) indigenous story-gathering project for an example of how Indigenous practices might be used to address intersectionality. Absolon employed a narrative technique in this research to gather the stories of victimized Indigenous women. This method enabled a more complex understanding of how violence against Indigenous women links with their experiences as women, Indigenous peoples, and victims of violence. Shawanda’s (2020) study on Indigenous women’s HIV/AIDS experiences illustrates the need to recognize the interconnection of Indigenous identities and experiences. According to Shawanda (2020), Indigenous women living with HIV/AIDS experience a triple whammy of prejudice since they are both Indigenous and female.

Intersectionality in Indigenous methods may contribute to creating more effective and culturally appropriate treatments and policies by giving a more nuanced knowledge of Indigenous experiences and identities. For example, recognizing the intersections of Indigenous identities and experiences may assist healthcare practitioners in providing more culturally safe and appropriate treatment (Shawanda, 2020). Similarly, knowing how Indigenous identities and experiences are entwined within the educational framework may assist instructors in developing more culturally sensitive courses (Hill, 2020).

Hart’s (2010) establishment of an Indigenous research paradigm is another example of intersectionality in Indigenous methodologies. Hart contends that relational responsibility and community engagement must serve as the foundation of an Indigenous research paradigm. According to Hart (2010), it is the responsibility of researchers to ensure that their work is directed by the needs and ambitions of the community being studied. Researchers demonstrate their commitment to the community by including citizens in all stages of the research process, from project development to results presentation (Hart, 2010). This method stresses the need of listening to and learning from locals, as well as the interdependence of Indigenous peoples’ identities and experiences.

Summary of journals

The four periodicals concentrate on various aspects of Indigenous methodologies, such as story gathering, research paradigms, and community interaction. This section highlights the important arguments and conclusions derived from each publication before continuing on to a comparison and contrast of the methodologies utilized, as well as an appraisal of their respective virtues and flaws.

“Close to Home: An Indigenist Project of Story Gathering” by Kathleen E. Absolon was first published and describes a community-based research project that employed storytelling to recover and transmit Indigenous knowledge (Absolon, 2020). The “Indigenist” approach stresses the value of connections, treating Indigenous people with dignity, and respecting Indigenous customs. It has been shown that storytelling is a powerful medium for encouraging personal development, social integration, and information sharing.

Michael Anthony Hart argues for the necessity of Indigenous research paradigms based on Indigenous worldviews and knowledge systems in his work “Indigenous Worldviews, Knowledge, and Research: The Development of an Indigenous Research Paradigm” for the second journal. The concepts of justice, responsibility, equality, and mutual benefit inspired the design of this system (Hart, 2010). The results confirmed the notion that an Indigenous research paradigm might effectively challenge the dominant Western paradigm and advance the decolonization of knowledge.

“Indigenous Storytelling as Research” (Jo-Ann Archibald) is the third work that delves into the practice of utilizing Indigenous storytelling as a research technique. The technique is founded on the values of accountability, appreciation, teamwork, and fairness. According to Hill (2020), Indigenous storytelling is an effective research tool that may assist bridge the gap between Indigenous and Western methods of knowing.

Margaret Kovach’s (the fourth journal) “Ethics of Indigenous Research: Cultural Knowledge Systems in the Academy” explores the moral issues that occur while doing research on Indigenous people. According to Kovach (2021), the method used highlighted the importance of cultural customs and collective engagement and was founded on the principles of civility, solidarity, and responsibility. The results emphasized the need for critical self-reflection and being conscious of power dynamics for academics working with Indigenous people.

Exploration of Indigenous Research Proposals

It is essential to follow specific guidelines and criteria while creating an Indigenous research proposal. Three of these, according to Absolon (2011), are a respect for community engagement, a regard for cultural traditions, and a respect for Indigenous viewpoints and expertise. Hart (2010) shares the thoughts of other authors that emphasize the importance of relational responsibility, or the development of trusting connections with Indigenous people prior to, during, and after research.

The description of the Close to Home project by Absolon (2020) is an example of a well-executed Indigenous research proposal. This project’s purpose is to learn about the perseverance and struggles encountered by Indigenous women in a specific location by collecting their tales. To establish a secure venue for relaying personal tales, the researchers used a local technique that prioritized community engagement and traditional knowledge. This method relied heavily on circles and rituals.

Another case in point is Hart (2010)’s detailed description of the Mino Ayawin project. The goal of this initiative was to develop an Indigenous research paradigm that would highlight Indigenous worldviews, knowledge, and methodologies. Researchers developed a set of principles to guide their work in collaboration with Indigenous community members and elders. These standards stressed relationship responsibility, civic involvement, and adherence to established norms.

Indigenous research activities should involve ethical issues as well. According to Shawanda (2020), indigenous research must emphasize the safeguarding of indigenous knowledge and be performed in a respectful and culturally acceptable way. Taking these steps may include gaining informed permission from participants, setting clear criteria for data ownership and sharing, and emphasizing the needs and viewpoints of the community above those of the researcher.


This paper has discussed the underlying concepts and guidelines of Indigenous research methodology, focusing on the necessity of community engagement, relational responsibility, and intersectionality. The outcomes of this study indicate that an indigenous viewpoint on research has the potential to be more comprehensive. The knowledge, experiences, and views of Indigenous peoples should drive research in order to maximize its application and importance for Indigenous communities. When adopting Indigenous research techniques, Western research methodologies may neglect the intersectionality of Indigenous identities and experiences. Indigenous perspectives may help to inform research in areas such as health, education, environmental sustainability, and cultural preservation, among others. Indigenous methodologies provide a robust framework for doing research that is anchored in Indigenous views and knowledge and emphasizes community engagement, relational responsibility, and intersectionality. Integrating Indigenous approaches may assist academics in creating knowledge that is moral, fair, and hospitable to everyone.


Hill, L. (2020). Indigenous Worldviews, Knowledge, and Research: The Development of an Indigenous Research Paradigm. Journal of Indigenous Social Development, Volume 9(Issue 1), 1–18.

Shawanda, A. (2020). Baawaajige. Turtle Island Journal of Indigenous Health, 1(1), 37–47.

Absolon, K. (2020). Close to home: An Indigenist project of story gathering . Journal of Indigenous Social Development, 9(1), 19–40.

Hart, M. A. (2010). Indigenous Worldviews, Knowledge, and Research: The Development of an Indigenous Research Paradigm. Journal of Indigenous Social Development, 1(1), 1–16.

Kovach, M. (2021). Indigenous methodologies: Characteristics, conversations, and contexts. University of Toronto Press.

Smith, L. T. (2021). Decolonizing methodologies: Research and indigenous peoples. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Managing Strategic Change Essay Example


Strategic change management is a complex process that needs careful preparation and implementation. It includes determining the need for change, creating a strategy, informing stakeholders about the plan, and implementing the changes (Bryson and George, 2020). Effective change management requires strong leadership, transparent communication, and overcoming unexpected obstacles (Fischer et al., 2020). Including all stakeholders is crucial to securing buy-in and support for the changes. Organizations can achieve improved performance and competitiveness through successful strategic change management. This research will discuss various ways of managing strategic change and the factors that might hinder it.

An essential aspect of any organization’s success is managing strategic change. The company’s strategy is identified, and changes are implemented to enhance its performance. To implement the change, a comprehensive comprehension of the current market conditions, the strengths and weaknesses of the organization, and the available resources are required (Cichosz et al., 2020). All stakeholders must collaborate, communicate, and plan carefully to manage strategic change effectively. Ensuring a smooth implementation of the change and preparing the organization to adapt to any challenges is crucial. The organization can achieve increased profitability, improved competitiveness, and long-term success by managing strategic change.

Problem identification

During organizational change, organizational culture significantly influences employees’ attitudes and behaviour. Organizations can achieve successful outcomes in managing strategic change by fostering a positive culture that values transparency, communication, and collaboration, leading to employees’ active participation in the change process. On the contrary, a negative culture that promotes secrecy, resistance to change, and blame can result in employees’ disengagement and resistance to change. Formal and informal organizational cultures are crucial in this process (Busari et al., 2020).

The traditional organizational culture significantly influences employees’ attitudes and behaviour during organizational change. How employees interact with each other, and the company as a whole is determined by an organization’s culture. Employees seek guidance on how to react and respond during times of change in the organization’s culture (Metwally et al., 2019). During change, employees can benefit from a formal culture that values structure, rules, and procedures, providing them with a sense of stability and direction. Adopting new ways of working can result in a more positive attitude towards the change and a willingness to adapt. Employees may become confused and resistant when working in a culture that resists change or lacks clear direction. Organizations must acknowledge the influence of their culture on their employees and proactively mould it to facilitate successful organizational changes.

The informal organizational culture significantly shapes employees’ attitudes and behaviour during organizational change. Employees’ commitment and engagement levels can be affected by how they perceive and respond to change, which is influenced by various factors, as noted by Metwally et al. in 2019. Adopting change can be facilitated or hindered by communication, trust, and leadership styles within the informal culture. Organizations must comprehend and handle their informal culture to ensure the successful implementation of organizational change.

The concern about organizations’ ability to respond to environmental change is one of the most prominent themes that emerge from reports on managing strategic change. Organizations must be able to adapt quickly to remain competitive, as the business landscape is constantly evolving – this concern is based on this recognition (Naveed et al., 2022). Environmental change, which can be unpredictable and disruptive, creates a particularly acute need for agility and flexibility. Many organizations heavily invest in strategies and technologies to respond more effectively to these challenges.

During organizational change, organizational culture significantly influences employees’ attitudes. How employees perceive and respond to change is set by it. Encouraging employees to embrace change and adapt to new situations can be facilitated by a positive organizational culture that creates a supportive environment. On the other hand, resistance and reluctance to change can be caused by a hostile culture. Organizations must cultivate a positive culture that values innovation, flexibility, and continuous improvement to ensure successful organizational change.

During organizational change, employees’ behaviour is significantly influenced by organizational culture. How employees respond to change initiatives can be influenced by an organization’s culture, including its deeply embedded values, beliefs, and attitudes (Naveed et al., 2022). Employees are more likely to be receptive to change and willing to take on new challenges if an organization’s culture values innovation and risk-taking, for example. Employees in an organization that values stability and predictability may resist change and cling to the status quo. On the other hand, those who do not may be more open to change. Organizations must comprehend their culture and its influence on employees’ conduct during change.

Various factors can hinder strategic change. One factor is resistance from employees who are comfortable with the current way of doing things. Lack of resources or funding to implement the change is another factor. Clear communication and understanding of the change can help its success. Implementing strategic change can be challenging due to external factors like market conditions or regulatory changes.

Critical Discussion

Putting people first when implementing organizational changes is crucial for effective change management. The affected individuals are informed, engaged, and supported throughout the process to ensure their well-being. Ultimately, a more successful outcome can be achieved through a smoother transition and increased buy-in (Barth and Koch, 2019). If change management is ineffective, the change may result in people feeling left out, confused or resistant, leading to delays, decreased productivity and even failure. Optimizing effective change management is essential to ensure that people are at the centre of any change initiative.

Leaders must consider various factors when implementing organizational changes, as it is a complex process. Dealing with organizational momentum, which can hinder progress and make it difficult to achieve desired outcomes, poses one of the most significant challenges (Naslund and Kale, 2020). Leaders must address psychological factors in people, such as resistance to change and fear of the unknown, in addition to other considerations. The business culture primarily determines the success of the change. Leaders can ensure a successful transition by developing a comprehensive strategy that considers all of these factors and addresses the unique needs of their organization.

Effective communication is crucial for successful organizational change management. To ensure that all stakeholders know the changes and understand the reasons behind them, it is crucial to have clear and concise messaging (Errida and Lotfi, 2021). To ensure maximum reach and impact, it is crucial to tailor communication to the specific audience and deliver it through various channels. It is important to establish regular updates and feedback mechanisms to ensure everyone is kept informed throughout the change process. Successful organizational change management requires effective communication.

Driving strategic change within an organization requires effective communication. Clear and concise communication facilitates ensuring that all stakeholders are aware of the changes taking place and understand their role in the process. Encouraging buy-in from employees is crucial for successful implementation, and it also promotes a sense of collaboration. Conversely, communication can result in clarity, resistance, and, ultimately, failure to achieve strategic objectives. It is essential to prioritize and effectively execute communication throughout the change process. Any organization’s success relies heavily on effective change management (Hannum, 2022). It becomes easier for employees to understand the rationale behind any changes when firms prioritize meaningful, transparent, and consistent communication. A better acceptance and implementation of the change can be achieved by having this understanding, ultimately leading to a smoother transition and improved outcomes. Companies must prioritize communication as a crucial element of their change management strategy.

Strategic change can be significantly improved by clear communication. Confusion and misalignment can arise when goals and objectives need to be clearly understood due to unclear communication. The desired outcomes may not be achieved due to delays and missed opportunities, ultimately failing. Implementing change becomes even more complicated when stakeholders become resistant and sceptical due to unclear communication. In order to successfully navigate strategic change, organizations must prioritize clear and effective communication.

The transformation of an organization can be hindered by resistance to change. Detecting resistance early on simplifies the process of overcoming it. To successfully implement change, leaders must be mindful of signs of resistance, such as lack of action, procrastination, withholding information, and spreading rumours. Managing strategic change often involves facing the common challenge of change resistance (Fischer et al., 2020). Individuals or groups need to exhibit a willingness to accept and adapt to new ways of doing things. Scepticism, fear, and opposition are among the various forms in which this resistance can be manifested. A natural human response to change is change resistance, which can be influenced by various factors such as past experiences, personal beliefs, and organizational culture. It is essential to understand this. To effectively manage change, one must identify and address the root causes of resistance, communicate the benefits of change, involve stakeholders in the change process, and provide support and resources to facilitate the transition.

Managing strategic change requires addressing resistance to change. Involving employees in the change process and communicating its benefits to them is one way to accomplish this. Providing training and support to employees and addressing any concerns or fears about the change is crucial for helping them adapt and reducing resistance (Fischer., et al., 2020). Finally, encouraging a positive attitude towards the change can be achieved by providing incentives or rewards to those who embrace it.


Several strategies can help organizations navigate the complex process of managing strategic change. One approach is establishing a clear vision and effectively communicating it to all stakeholders. Another approach is engaging employees in the process of change and equipping them with the required training and assistance. Monitoring progress and making necessary adjustments to the strategy are equally important. Leaders should be willing to make changes as circumstances evolve and flexible and adaptable. A crucial aspect of business success is managing strategic change. Having a clear vision of the desired outcome and communicating it effectively to all stakeholders is essential for doing so effectively. Identifying potential obstacles and developing contingency plans are equally important. To ensure a smooth transition, involving employees in the change process and providing them with the necessary training and resources can be helpful. Organizations can remain competitive in their respective industries by effectively managing strategic change and adapting to new challenges. Organizations can achieve their goals by effectively managing strategic change through following these strategies.


Barth, C. and Koch, S., 2019. Critical success factors in ERP upgrade projects. Industrial Management & Data Systems.

Bryson, J. and George, B., 2020. Strategic management in public administration. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics.

Busari, A.H., Khan, S.N., Abdullah, S.M. and Mughal, Y.H., 2020. Transformational leadership style, followership, and factors of employees’ reactions towards organizational change. Journal of Asia Business Studies14(2), pp.181-209.

Errida, A. and Lotfi, B., 2021. The determinants of organizational change management success: Literature review and case study. International Journal of Engineering Business Management13, p.18479790211016273.

Fischer, M., Imgrund, F., Janiesch, C. and Winkelmann, A., 2020. Strategy archetypes for digital transformation: Defining meta objectives using business process management. Information & Management57(5), p.103262.

Hannum, L. (2022) 7 strategies for effectively managing organizational changeBeehive. Available at:

Metwally, D., Ruiz-Palomino, P., Metwally, M. and Gartzia, L., 2019. How ethical leadership shapes employees’ readiness to change: The mediating role of an organizational culture of effectiveness. Frontiers in Psychology10, p.2493.

Naslund, D. and Kale, R., 2020. Is agile the latest management fad? A review of success factors of agile transformations. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences12(4), pp.489-504.

Naveed, R.T., Alhaidan, H., Al Halbusi, H. and Al-Swidi, A.K., 2022. Do organizations really evolve? The critical link between organizational culture and organizational innovation toward organizational effectiveness: Pivotal role of organizational resistance. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge7(2), p.100178.

Mary Johnson Case Study –Gibb’s Reflective Cycle Sample Paper


I intend to employ the Clinical Yarning method, which entails active listening and a culturally appropriate communication style that respects and honors the patient’s cultural background and experiences, to build rapport and trust with Mrs. Johnson. Before the meeting, I’ll take some time to consider how my cultural prejudices and presumptions can influence how I communicate with Mrs. Johnson. I’ll also consider how her bad experiences with medical professionals affect her openness to talk.

I’ll introduce myself and describe my role as a student nurse to start the conversation. I’ll then ask Mrs. Johnson if she would tell me about her experience and symptoms. I will encourage her to communicate her worries and feelings using open-ended questions and active listening. I’ll also summarize and paraphrase to fully comprehend her viewpoint. I’ll monitor my comments and reactions as I participate in the conversation to ensure I’m not assuming anything or passing judgment based on my cultural background. I’ll also think about how her cultural practices and beliefs affect how she wants to be treated and how she feels about her health.


The fact that Mrs. Johnson wants her family to be present during our consultation makes me, a student nurse, both happy and anxious. On the one hand, establishing a connection and trust with Mrs. Johnson can be facilitated by having family members there. Family members can offer moral support and ensure crucial information is appropriately communicated. On the other hand, trying to build a therapeutic relationship with Mrs. Johnson when multiple family members are present can be difficult. Concentrating on Mrs. Johnson’s requirements and making sure she feels comfortable disclosing personal information could be challenging.

I’m anxious because I want Mrs. Johnson to be at ease and confident in her ability to make choices regarding her medical care. Along with respecting her privacy and liberty, I also want to ensure that I am delivering culturally safe care. I will make sure that they are welcomed into the consultation in a courteous and encouraging manner, as I am aware that their presence can significantly support Mrs. Johnson’s health and well-being.


It is critical to speak with Mrs. Johnson and learn about her cultural upbringing and beliefs to create a safe setting for her. As a result, there may be less of a power gap between patients and healthcare practitioners. To help Mrs. Johnson feel comfortable and trusted, the following therapeutic communication approaches can be employed in the Diagnostic Yarn stage of the Clinical Yarning approach:

Active listening entails paying close attention to the client’s words without interjecting or passing judgment. Respecting and showing empathy for the client’s thoughts and feelings is helpful. The nurse can help Mrs. Johnson express her experiences and worries about her condition and the healthcare system by actively listening to her.

Open-ended inquiries: Open-ended inquiries allow the client to express themselves entirely and offer helpful details that can help with diagnosis and treatment plans. The nurse can help provide culturally competent treatment by encouraging Mrs. Johnson to disclose more about her disease and health beliefs by posing open-ended inquiries.

Cultural respect entails appreciating the client’s particular demands and preferences and cultural variety. Recognizing Mrs. Johnson’s cultural and spiritual ties to her nation and society, as well as the significance of her family’s attendance at the consultation, is crucial.

Nonverbal communication: Nonverbal cues like maintaining eye contact, good body alignment, and facial expressions can indicate concern, empathy, and interest in the client. Through nonverbal cues, the nurse can show Mrs. Johnson that they are willing to listen and support her.

The nurse can accommodate Mrs. Johnson’s family members by letting them sit close by, ensuring her physical seclusion. The nurse can organize the physical space to foster coziness, discretion, and cultural safety. Additionally, the nurse can speak with Mrs. Johnson about her preferred settings for consultations and make the appropriate modifications per her cultural practices and beliefs.

In conclusion, Mrs. Johnson can feel more secure and trusted by utilizing the Diagnostic Yarn stage of the Clinical Yarning process and therapeutic communication strategies such as active listening, open-ended inquiries, cultural sensitivity, and nonverbal cues. The therapeutic relationship between the nurse and Mrs. Johnson can be improved further by making accommodations for her family members and guaranteeing their privacy and cultural safety.


Aboriginal Australians still encounter severe cultural challenges and bigotry daily. In addition to social exclusion, marginalization, and cultural erasure, these experiences also entail discrimination in access to housing, work, healthcare, and educational opportunities. The historical and ongoing effects of colonization, which led to the uprooting of communities from their lands, the erasure of traditional traditions, and the forced assimilation of Aboriginal people into white Australian society, are the root of these difficulties (Babacan et al., 2020).

Racism and cultural hurdles are two obstacles Mrs. Johnson may encounter as an Aboriginal person when trying to receive healthcare. It may be challenging for Aboriginal people to access healthcare when they require it if there is a lack of trust between patients and healthcare providers due to racism within the healthcare system. Language, cultural norms, and customs can all hinder Aboriginal people from getting the healthcare they need (Redvers et al., 2022).

Mrs. Johnson’s hesitancy to discuss her medical problem with the male doctor may result from previous unfavorable interactions with healthcare professionals. She might have previously encountered prejudice or a lack of cultural understanding by healthcare professionals because she is an Aboriginal woman. Aboriginal Australians have a history of having bad encounters with healthcare professionals, which has led to a lack of confidence and apprehension about seeking care (Kairuz et al., 2020). This can be ascribed to Indigenous Australians’ past oppression, which included discrimination, forced assimilation, and removal from their relatives. This can cause mistrust of non-Aboriginal healthcare professionals and hesitation to bring up personal health issues.

The presence of Mrs. Johnson’s family members during the appointment could pose a problem for her capacity to address her issues with me. Even though having family around can be supportive, Mrs. Johnson may find it challenging to open up to them about her personal health issues. Her second language is English. Therefore, communication barriers could be a problem.

To get around these issues, I can ensure Mrs. Johnson feels comfortable talking about her health concerns in a calm, private setting during the consultation. I can also engage an interpreter to help people communicate in different languages if necessary. If necessary, I can use textual materials or visual aids to convey information in an approachable manner. I need to ensure Mrs. Johnson comprehends and retains the fabric so I may utilize teach-back strategies to check for understanding and correct misunderstandings.


To establish trust, rapport, and respect with patients from different backgrounds, healthcare professionals must provide a culturally safe atmosphere and use therapeutic communication approaches. Providing high-quality care is encouraged by culturally safe environments, which also guarantee that patients’ cultural beliefs, values, and practices are acknowledged and respected. Additionally, it aids in addressing the disparities in healthcare that marginalized groups like Indigenous Australians experience. Healthcare professionals can better understand their patients’ experiences and views and deliver effective care by utilizing therapeutic communication skills, including active listening, non-judgmental attitudes, and empathy. Healthcare professionals can enhance client outcomes, increase satisfaction, and lessen healthcare inequities by establishing a culturally safe atmosphere and applying therapeutic communication approaches.

Action Plan.

I’ll keep honing my therapeutic communication techniques in preparation for clinical practice by working on active listening, being present at the moment, and posing open-ended inquiries that invite the patient to tell their narrative. I also intend to take part in training on communication skills, role-play scenarios with peers, and watch knowledgeable healthcare experts. Additionally, I’ll read and research materials that emphasize culturally appropriate communication methods and then put these ideas into practice when I interact with patients. I’ll also focus on honing my body language, eye contact skills, and other nonverbal communication techniques.

I will keep learning about the cultural practices and beliefs of the many cultures I may come into contact with to ensure the establishment of Culturally Safe practices on my part when providing healthcare in the future. In order to develop my cultural competency, I will look for chances to collaborate with and learn from Elders and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health professionals. I will also continuously reflect on and evaluate my practice. Additionally, I will promote and advocate for culturally safe practices in my profession and place of employment.


Babacan, A., Jacobs, R., Kamp, A., Paradies, Y., Piyarathne, A., Wang, C., … & Jacobs, R. (2020). Racism. In Multicultural Responsiveness in Counselling and Psychology: Working with Australian Populations (pp. 51-102). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Kairuz, C. A., Casanelia, L. M., Bennett-Brook, K., Coombes, J., & Yadav, U. N. (2020). Impact of racism and discrimination on the physical and mental health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples living in Australia: a protocol for a scoping review. Systematic Reviews9, 1-6.

Redvers, N., Celidwen, Y., Schultz, C., Horn, O., Githaiga, C., Vera, M., … & Rojas, J. N. (2022). The determinants of planetary health: an Indigenous consensus perspective. The Lancet Planetary Health6(2), e156-e163.