Individual And Systemic Racism Essay Example

First of all, no law applies only to one race and does not apply to another. If there is a violation of the law, there is a judicial system to deal with the problem. The difference between systemic and individual racism is that systemic racism spreads in society as inequality at the state level, and individual racism is the personal view of each person (King, 1994). Systemic racism is illegal under the Civil Rights Act. However, racism as a phenomenon puts forward the erroneous claim that one race is responsible for all the progress in history. This means that most cases of racism in modern society are individual.

Thus, the Jordan Davis Case could be racist, and his shooter Dunn has shown violent behavior in the past. Dunn stated that Davis threatened him with a pistol or a stick; evidence has proven that this is impossible. According to Dunn’s testimony, this confirms the assertion that the shooting was carried out for particular racial reasons. The respondent, who is a person of color, replied that there is individual racism in this case.

Since the teenagers did not pose any threat, it can be concluded that the reason for the shelling was a person’s prejudice to skin color. The respondent also notes that such behavior on the part of a person is unforgivable, and a life sentence without early release is fully justified. Another respondent, who is a white person, also noted that the murder of a teenager resulted from individual racism. He replied that no one person could harm another under any circumstances, including a personal dislike for skin color. Thus, both people see signs of individual racism in the case of Jordan Davis. This heightens concern about the state of modern society, which is still subject to racism and racial hate crimes.


King, M. L. (1994). Letter from the Birmingham jail. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco.

The Controversy Over Abortion Rights


The controversy over abortion rights has existed for a very long time. People are divided into two movements: the conservative, which opposes abortion, and the liberal, which believes that a pregnant woman, not society, should decide to give birth or not to give birth. The latter seems preferable; however, despite personal convictions, it is worth considering both ideologies. With reasoned differing positions, the pro-choice and pro-life movements have been fighting for many years, and it is imperative to find a solution to mitigate this struggle.

Causes Pro-Choice Movement Stands for Abortion

While the pro-choice movement provides ample evidence for abortion, its success would not have been as significant without one occasion. In the course of the case Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court sentenced that for the first three months a woman has the right to decide whether to maintain or terminate her pregnancy (Barbour, 2019). This case made abortion affordable and accessible for many women and made pregnant people self-sufficient (Shane, 2021). The abortion law reflects the observance of human rights and freedoms, allowing pregnant women to make their own decisions.

The main issue is an unwanted pregnancy, which can occur both in the case of negligence or a defect of the contraceptive and in a violent sexual act (for example, rape or incest). Above all, the right to abortion allows the pregnant woman to control her own body. Frequently a woman’s unavailability to support and raise a child accompanies an unplanned pregnancy. As a result, an unwanted child who is born may not receive sufficient providing and quality of life, be abandoned, as well as experience physical or mental abuse leading to psychological traumas. In the occurrence of assault, a person receives a severe post-traumatic disorder, and if pregnancy is the consequence, she seeks to have an abortion in most cases. Any violence is formidable stress, and having a child as a result of a violation will be more traumatic for a woman.

Pro-abortionists believe that the fetus does not experience pain and cannot be considered a formed creation until a specific term. Consequently, abortion cannot be considered murder but a fact of termination of pregnancy. Moreover, modern research methods make it possible to notice abnormalities in the embryo’s development in the early terms, and abortion allows avoiding the birth of an unhealthy child. In addition, legal pregnancy termination prevents unsafe abortions in artisanal conditions (fraught with complications up to death). Referring to Cauterucci (2020), most Americans support the right to abortion, and there is a tendency to form a common view on such a controversial topic. The pro-choice movement advocates for a pregnant woman’s right to make an independent decision to give birth or have an abortion according to her life circumstances.

Anti-Abortion Ideology

On the other hand, the pro-life movement opposes abortion rights, supporting their statements with reasons not to terminate a pregnancy, whatever the occasion. The anti-abortion program is supported mainly by a conservative and religious society, whose goal is that “abortion and birth control should be outlawed” (Barbour, 2019, p. 43). Their ideology is based on the firm belief that any life begins with conception, and termination of pregnancy is nothing more than murder.

Pro-life statements are based on criticism of abortion and all the shortcomings of this procedure from religious, medical, psychological, and social points of view. First of all, anti-abortionists rely on religious beliefs and moral values that prohibit depriving any creature of the right to life (Abernathy, 2021). By viewing the fetus as an empowered creature, they protect its freedoms and the chance of birth and life. In addition, pro-lifers argue that abortion causes psychological harm to a woman, and may cause depression or other mental disorders (, 2019). Abortion is often presented as a dangerous medical procedure with serious health complications (Shane, 2021). Anti-abortionists believe that termination of pregnancy due to abnormalities in the embryo’s development is a manifestation of discrimination. As an alternative to abortion, they propose giving birth and allowing the adoption of the unwanted baby to people who cannot have their children. The pro-life movement is opposed to abortion, guided by conservative and religious beliefs, trying to preserve every life that God has created.

Probable Solution

The right to abortion has been a hot and debated issue for many years, but no concrete solutions have been found. Abortion is a consequence of unwanted pregnancy, and unwanted pregnancy in most cases is a consequence of the absence or misuse of contraception. Based on this causal relationship, it can be concluded that affordable and effective contraception will indirectly reduce the number of women who want to terminate their pregnancies (Guyot & Sawhill, 2019). To minimize the number of unwanted pregnancies, it is worth arranging timely and correct sex education, as well as providing the population (especially those with low incomes) with the necessary contraceptives. The expected decrease in the number of abortions would be favorably received by the pro-life movement and would not contradict the pro-choice movement’s statements.


The confrontation between the two movements over the years has led to the fact that abortion has become a controversial topic; nonetheless, the discussions do not lead to agreements or joint solutions. It is difficult to predict whether the struggle between liberal and conservative representatives will end and the outcome. However, it is worth noting that both movements have formulated provisions that reflect the views of different societies and have dissimilar foundations. Pro-abortionists defend the right to self-control over woman’s bodies, while pro-lifers defend the right to life of the unborn child. The solution to this conflict is to minimize the cause itself – to reduce the rate of unwanted pregnancies and, as a result, abortions.


Abernathy, G. (2021). Opinion: Tighter abortion restrictions may really indicate the law is finally catching up to science. The Washington Post.

Barbour, C. (2019). AmGov: Long Story Short. CQ Press.

Cauterucci, C. (2020). Reminder: The Majority of Americans Support Abortion Access. Slate.

Guyot K., & Sawhill I. V. (2019). Reducing access to contraception won’t reduce the abortion rate. Brookings. (2019) Should Abortion Be Legal? Britannica ProCon.

Shane, C. (2021). Stop Being Stupid About Abortion. Gawker.

Stress Management And Lifestyle Modification

I am a student and work part-time to facilitate my lifestyle. I find some sense of responsibility and satisfaction in working to meet my needs. Balancing my academics and work can be draining. I have extra pressure to perform in my studies and especially when deadlines or exams are approaching. I often experience tiredness caused by a lack of sufficient sleep. It affects my moods, and I get more emotional and feel less capable whenever I experience tiredness. In addition, alcohol is perceived as a part of the college lifestyle. Engaging in a range of social events and activities that are free of alcohol singles me out from my friends. It also feels like I’m the only one not enjoying myself. I am sometimes forced to do things that contradict my values and beliefs, compromising my personality

My Stress Management Plan and Lifestyle Modification

I need to create a healthy balance through practicing effective management skills. I will begin by identifying the priorities and listing them down, breaking the work into smaller bits, and setting timelines. Time management reduces both long and short-term stress by giving one control over the direction they are taking. This causes reduced levels of anxiety and eventually increases productivity. My main priority right now is excelling in my academics; whatever strategy I choose must focus on achieving this. Therefore, the most appropriate time management strategy would be planning behavior (Adams & Blair, 2019). This means that I will engage in learning activities resiliently even when faced with challenges such as perceived lack of time.

Taking Care of My Body

Self-care is good for me both on the inside and out; it will help in maintaining my physical, emotional and mental reserves to prevent and manage stress. The first form of self-care is regular exercise. Human research indicates that exercises trigger a change in hormone responses, which then causes the body to improve how it handles stress. Further, physical activities affect neurotransmitters found in the brain, for example, dopamine and serotonin that influence a person’s moods and behaviors (Churchill et al., 2021). I will further need to get sufficient rest. A tired individual barely thinks, can’t learn as well, and is easily irritable and highly impatient. I will go to bed around the same time every night, exercise for about 4 to 6 hours, and take a bath for 1 hour before sleeping to ensure the body is cooled and relaxed.

Dealing with Emotions

Visiting a relaxing place and away from the stressors is one of the most effective ways of reducing stress. Take time out for me and be in one of my favorite spots, where I can visualize myself relaxing. I could also engage in hobbies such as traveling and reading novels or trying out new creative activities such as baking. Shoving the problems at the back of my mind without releasing the emotional tension could take a toll on me even after trying out the above activities. It is therefore important to learn to release and deal with one problem at a time. Dealing with many of them at a time or focusing on things I have no control over can be frustrating.

Olivia’s Stress Management Plan and Lifestyle Modification

Olivia is a 48-year-old female who says that her feeling of stress is so intense that when it occurs she can’t even turn around to look at the other side. She hosts a book club in her home weekly. Recently, she got into an accident in her estate that left her with injuries that force her to use a walker. She says the fall happened so fast that she does not remember how it happened. She admits she was so engrossed in her thoughts that she didn’t notice the ditch. She experiences high-stress levels from her husband’s worsening dementia, healthcare expenses, family drama, and death, especially after the Covid-19 pandemic. Olivia hardly finds time to hang out with her friends, there is even more pressure to keep hosting her book club. Her sleeping patterns have changed and it’s harder for her to find sleep.

Relaxation techniques

Studies show that relaxation techniques are an effective way the reduce and manage stress. Relaxation reduces the severity of the effects of stress on one’s body. It is not always about peace of mind or enjoying a hobby, rather, preparing the body to cope with daily stress and any other stress-related issues such as pain and heart disease. Examples she can consider are visualization, yoga, deep breathing, Tai chi, and music and art therapy. With appropriate practice, one improves on these techniques and becomes aware of muscle tensions or any other physical sensations of stress (Null, 2021). This is important because it helps the individual counter the stress before it spirals out of control. Apps such as Mindbody and Headspace Up will help her with these techniques.

Helping out and participating in social activities

Olivia is naturally a people person; she is very social and is always helping out in one way or another. Currently, she feels there is not much time to do all this, but truth is that she needs it the most now. Engaging in activities that improve the lives of others develop a sense of purpose, wisdom and pride in oneself. Engaging in more social activities increases social support, which in turn affects hormonal balance by increasing oxytocin. Oxytocin decreases anxiety levels and stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system that calms down responses (Pilcher & Bryant, 2016). One also receives supportive solutions for their problems and gets to think better away from their stressors. She needs to keep pushing her book club and visit or host her friends more.

Healthy eating

A healthy person handles stress better therefore, eating nutritiously makes a good defense against stress. A nutritious diet reduces oxidation, inflammation and slows weight gain. These processes help in creating a solid more enduring foundation for the body to better handle a lot of stressful situations (Schultchen et al., 2019). Incorporating good nutrition in my diet not only makes one healthier but also helps keep them alert throughout the day and my mood steady. Eating junk alters a person’s energy levels to a great extent, interfering with the body’s ability to fight stress. Other than including more fruits and vegetables in the diet, Olivia should avoid caffeine, eat to relieve stress, take alcohol moderately and ensure mealtimes are calm and relaxed. Olivia will find more information and clarification on healthy eating on websites.


The continued strain on the body from strain over time may lead to serious health problems such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and mental disorders like depression and anxiety. Therefore, countering the effects of stress before they spiral out of control is essential. All the techniques suggested above have a physical, mental, and emotional positive influence on a person. They are all interlinked in how they work. For example, one needs food to gain enough energy for physical activities. When the body gets more active and used to exercises, one’s calories demands may change, meaning more proteins to rebuild tissues such as muscles. Socializing facilitates dealing with emotions in different ways away from the stressors. Each of the techniques is recommended depending on one’s needs. For instance, instead of recommending exercises for Olivia, I recommended relaxation techniques that are more affordable and can be done from her home.


Adams, R., & Blair, E. (2019). Impact of time management behaviors on undergraduate engineering students’ performance. SAGE Open, 9(1), 215824401882450. Web.

Churchill, R., Riadi, I., Kervin, L., Teo, K., & Cosco, T. (2021). Deciphering the role of physical activity in stress management during a global pandemic in older adult populations: a systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews, 10(1). Web.

Null, G. (2021). Lifestyle modification improves physical and mental health in elderly participants: Observational study in a controlled environment. Alternative, Complementary & Integrative Medicine, 7(4), 1-4. Web.

Pilcher, J., & Bryant, S. (2016). Implications of social support as a self-control resource. Frontiers In Behavioral Neuroscience, 10. Web.

Schultchen, D., Reichenberger, J., Mittl, T., Weh, T., Smyth, J., Blechert, J., & Pollatos, O. (2019). Bidirectional relationship of stress and affect with physical activity and healthy eating. British Journal Of Health Psychology, 24(2), 315-333. Web.

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