Individual-Level And Group-Level Contributions To War Essay Sample For College

Any misunderstanding or the state in which different countries or individuals are a conflict is referred to as war. In social life, war cases are prone because there must be differences between people or misunderstandings. For example, once striving for power, some people may become greedy; hence others can raise violence at individual or group levels. Scarcity of resources is another issue that may result in war since everyone must struggle for satisfaction. There may be individual levels of war since people act differently; some are greedy, aggressive, and selfish (Study, (n.d). In the fight for fair treatment, individual levels of war start since the oppressed individuals tend to use violence while fighting for their rights. Every individual’s contribution to a conflict results in war since the views and the progress is shared within the formed group. In this paper, both individual classes and group levels of war have been addressed. Individual and group levels are discussed in the paper, but one is given a higher priority for contributing to war.

There have been wars globally at individual or group levels, but group levels have contributed to high numbers. For a group war to occur, there must be individuals forming the group, each with a motivation to fight a certain feeling that they are against. Individuals share collective beliefs on what they feel is wrong at personal levels, forming a particular group for defense, from where group levels of war arise. Each individual is crucial in the management of war since the group cannot fight a war without collecting everyone’s views on the progress. In developing a peaceful negotiation or initialize war, human minds cook the idea of agreement or disagreement. A mixed reaction from men or women is the leading cause of war since they share ideas, making them strong while beginning the conflict. For example, group wars arise between different religions, such as Muslims and Christians, in religious matters due to differences in belief and reactions.

Both individual and group levels of war complement each other, but in my opinion, group levels are the most contributors to war within individuals and countries. Although individuals act as a group in most cases to come up with group levels of war, I believe that group levels have higher contributions since they get more robust by having the perspectives of each individual on causing conflicts. For a group war to take place, at some point, there is the implication of individual emotions, immoralities, or impulses against a particular group of people. For example, if people are against a specific political organization at a personal level, they are likely to form a group to be against the political coalition. The formed group will use violence to demonstrate each person’s negative attitude at individual levels, leading to a group war. People in nearly all the organizations fight for a change in groups, concluding that group levels mainly contribute to war. In his book, Lorenz explains the term ‘militant enthusiasm’ to point to collective action as the main reason for making war to scope in a broader way. Militant enthusiasm is people’s tendency to lose their actual inhibitions against acts of violence after being united with people with the same motivation (Kim, 1976). The enthusiasm encourages the group to act more violently since fellow members are motivated to form the group. For instance, the war in Afghanistan was accelerated by the Taliban’s ambitions to conquer them through their motivation as a group.

Being united with others who share the same motivations certainly affects one’s reactions to the surrounding circumstances; hence, group levels mostly create wars due to their unity. If individuals mix their reactions, their acts can bear violence since each has adverse emotions. A collective force often makes the group act more than how they could act if the conflict could be upon each one at individual levels. A group has a similar identity and objectives to be adhered to, make conditions according to their wish, or have the responsibilities they are fighting for. Guerrilla protested the employed to rectify imagined and real wrongs they had on people by foreign invaders or the ruling government (Asprey, 2021). At individual levels, guerrilla warfare could not have the impacts it posed; hence, group levels are prone to causing wars over individual levels. The implication is that once people form a group to protest against any actions, personal responsibilities are not considered but the group’s wish. For example, guerrilla warfare is a group war that has acted against several acts to motivate the members on their views; hence the group contributes over how individual levels could contribute.

Once individuals act with their direct responsibilities against oppression, they may be too irresponsible; therefore, group levels remain responsible for their objectives and cause war without any bother on personal levels. Within a group, all the members are anxious and ready to fight the others beside them because goals are shared in the group. People in a group collectively become conscious and do not consider the adverse effects of the actions to be done; therefore, group levels cause catastrophic war compared to individual levels. Group war is riskier since, in most cases, group war results in devastating losses to the involved individuals and, at times, third parties. For example, in the Afghan war, the group war with the Taliban resulted in the trials of reaching a peaceful negotiation (Crisis, 2021). The war negatively impacted the fighting groups of death cases, property loss, and people displacement. Another group of violence is the crisis in the Sahel, ethnic violence, which has become deadliest in 2020 compared to the times it has been continuing, which sets an example of how group levels of war are fatal.

Moreover, group violence can result from disputes between citizens due to voting; as in the case of Somalia, a war that could not result at individual levels but as a group, the protestations began. Somalia’s president faced a conflict with his rivals, and the Al-Shabaab war has been continuing for around fifteen years. The war between Al-Shabaab and the military forces is a group war that has negatively impacted trade and urbanization and left people without peace (Crisis, 2021). Since Al-Shabaab controls a lot of portions of Somalia, they remain a potent group fighting the people, affirming that groups are prone to causing devastating war over individual levels.

In conclusion, individual and group-level factors contribute to war but mostly, war results from group levels. Due to sharing motivation within the group, their efforts are complimented, and they work towards the planned goal. Although group levels mainly depend on individual levels of war, groups are likely to cause war from the conflicts that individuals may be holding. In a group, people share a mission and vision; hence through a collection of their views, they act exceedingly to how at individual levels they could perform. For instance, there are no differences in groups to avoid fighting themselves, but there may be challenges that can win over the individual easily at personal levels.


Asprey, R. Brown (2021, March 24). guerrilla warfareEncyclopedia Britannica.

Crisis Group (2021, January 8). 10 conflicts to watch in 2021. Crisis Group.

Kim, S. (1976). The Lorentzian theory of aggression and peace research: A critique. Journal of peace research, 13(4), 253-276. Retrieved April 28, 2021, from

Study, (n.d)

Influence Of Ethnicity, Education, And Socioeconomic Class On Human Creativity Essay Example


Technological advancements are seen in the modern world resulting from creativity among individuals worldwide. Creativity is an essential human factor in development in every sector. Human development is measured in three aspects, namely, social, economic, and political aspects. However, achieving an ultimate result in the three elements requires creativity within individuals. Creativity has resulted in various technological advancements in crucial sectors such as health, industrial production, and agriculture. The internet and social media have resulted in a global village where people interact freely regardless of ethnicity, geographical location, or culture. The role of art and creativity has extended to the educational sector to improve the quality of classroom learning and research. The introduction of technology in learning is one of the advancements in the education sector to aid teaching and learning processes. Using computers, which are products of creativity, has facilitated quality education through various learning aids available through online sources. The study aims at finding out the effects of ethnicity, education, and level of income on creative-based activities. Creative based-based activities herein include both educational-based and art-based creativities among human beings. The study involves an analysis of online data set presented by Art Midwest and a Metropolitan group on specific states in the US.


Human creativity cut across all industries worldwide, which are increasingly becoming productive. Starting with the healthcare sector, the invention of health technologies such as electronic health records (EHR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and chemotherapy are among health improvements that have greatly increased life expectancy among individuals. Creativity has presented an array for integrating scientific approaches to medicine and alternative medicine such as yoga, acupuncture, meditation, cupping, and herbal treatments to achieve an ultimate healthcare outcome. Evidence-based practices show positive results in integrating pharmaceutical treatments with alternative medicines for patients suffering from chronic infections and diet-related diseases such as obesity. Therefore, art and creativity are becoming important in improving health quality.

Similarly, the transport and communication industries have also grown tremendously due to inventions from various creative minds. Unlike informal transport and communication, the 21st century is characterized by great innovations such as electric trains, airplanes, cellphones, the internet, and other advancements within the sectors. The concept of globalization is achieved through creativity seen in the communication sector (Christian & Scott, 2022). The internet and social media have resulted in a global village where people interact freely regardless of ethnicity, geographical location, or culture. The role of art and creativity has extended to the educational sector to improve the quality of classroom learning and research. The introduction of technology in learning is one of the advancements in the education sector to aid teaching and learning processes. Using computers, which are products of creativity, has facilitated quality education through various learning aids available through online sources.

Regardless of the uncountable benefits of creative-based actions to the world’s growth, grassroots support for upcoming creative minds is limited. Governments in different countries are not implementing appropriate measures to promote creativity among pupils and students. The argument is based on the educational curriculum adopted in some countries, which is only based on theories rather than practical. Most institutions around the world are grounded on theoretical learning. For example, several institutions are currently offering online courses, including those for technical and functional subjects. In such cases, learners may not develop the required practical skills for improving their creativity towards using their careers to make the world a better place. The educational stakeholders are also not availing of the resources necessary for promoting art and creativity among learners. The argument brings us to the factors influencing creativity, especially among children (Kassymova et al., 2019). Since the essential element in art and invention is the availability of resources, it is evident that children from low-income backgrounds and unexposed ethnicities may have reduced creativity.

Many researchers have presented different arguments on the influence of factors such as income and culture on creativity. According to Shaw and Sullivan (2011), racial characteristics are witnessed among Latino and Blacks who participate less in art and creativity compared to whites due to lack of exposure. The main question here is, why are blacks and Latinos feel uncomfortable participating in public events related to art? The answer to this question may be associated with ethical practices. Whites are known to promote and support children’s talents and abilities from a younger age, which is not true for most blacks and Latinos. As a result, the children may not value co-curriculum activities, which are believed to be major contributors to creativity in art. Adams (2017) also presents the impact of artificial intelligence on human creativity in the modern world. Children exposed to artificial intelligence, such as communication and gaming gadgets, stand better at developing creativity than the unexposed. Bakas et al. (2019) argue that creative tourism activities in small-scale cities and rural areas are integrated into different ways, positively influencing the level of creativity among the participants. The finding is supported by Christian and Scott (2022), who mentioned that whites are the leading in attending creative tourism, followed by Latinos, and lastly, the Blacks. The study was based on the attendance of Bankhead National Forest and Sipsey Wilderness Area.

My research questions for the projects are: is there any connection between ethnicity and economic class in education-based creativity? And what are the effects of technological exposure on creativity? My research hypothesis is: that there is a connection between race, income, and creativity, and education influences individuals’ perception of creative art participation. My null hypothesis is: that there is no connection between ethnicity, revenue, and creativity, and level of education does not influence individuals’ perception of creative art participation.


I used an online data set collected by a non-profit group called Art Midwest and a Metropolitan group situated on the outskirts of Minneapolis. According to Arts Midwest & Metropolitan Group (2017), the two groups are working to achieve social change among various ethnicities within the region. The data set is “Creating Connections: Building Public Will for Arts and Culture. According to the information recorded by Arts Midwest and Metropolitan Group (2017), the data was collected in September 2014 using web-based surveys and telephone interviews. There was no face-to-face meeting with participants since the study was online and by phone. Samples from different states in the US were collected during the study. A total of 2 586 samples were collected from the states. The specific locations for the samples included Michigan, Oregon, Minnesota, California, and San Jose. After analyzing the data presented by the study, I decided to use about five variables. The five variables I chose included ethnicity, level of income, creativity, level of education, and perception of individuals on creative art. My independent variables (IV) were ethnicity, education, and income status, while dependent variables (DV) love creativity and the perception of individuals on creativity. I chose to race, education, and income level as the IV since they are not affected by other variables. Besides, the IV involves the other two variables; hence, I categorized them as DV.

Ethnicity was my first independent variable considered nominal data since it is a noun with general categorization. Under the variable, I analyzed different ethnicities used in the study, and they included Native Indian American, Asian, Black, Latino, Native Hawaiian, White, Multiracial, other, and I don’t know. For convenience and ease, I removed the category “other” while handling the data by marking it as missing to allow for easy analysis of multiracial data. Ethnicity and IV entailed all these racial subcategories, implying that the researchers used a large sample size during their investigation. Also, they selected the most affected ethnicities in the regions as far as the topic is concerned.

Education was the second independent variable that I treated as ordinal data. The data categorization in this area included lower and higher grades, college graduates, high school graduates, and non-college post-high school. Even though the original data set presented sex categories in this section, I chose to work with these four for convenience and easy handling of data. Therefore, I decided to categorize the whole data set into the four above categories, which simplified my work.

The income level was my last independent variable, which entailed specific sub-categorization of household incomes that ranged from $ 20 000 to $ 200, 000. since this variable had specific sub-categorization, it was identified as nominal data. The categorization from the source of data was grouped into two, namely household incomes 2 and 3. Due to the need to choose to work with one category, I had to consider a group likely to yield more accurate data during analysis. Therefore, I decided to work with household three since it involved large numbers convenient to work with. The household three sets of data involved applying dichotomous categorization into $75 000 and $ 75 000 and above. This kind of dichotomous categorization would allow for an easy approach of layered analysis to determine the effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables.

My main concern with the data was to analyze the three independent variables and how they affected the topic. For that reason, I chose not to alter the two dependent variables in the study. Individuals’ perceptions of creative art and level of creativity vary based on many factors that I could not manage to handle in this single analysis. Therefore, I saw it right to concentrate on the independent variables to maintain the accuracy of the results.


Analysis of any numerical data requires relevant applications such as SPSS or Microsoft excel for less detailed studies. For my research, SPSS would suffice due to the high levels of analyses and accuracy needed. During my analysis, I will consider both descriptive and inferential analyses. Under descriptive analysis, I will run my data into the software to determine measures such as mean, median, percentiles, and frequency distributions. Based on the results, I will decide on the most appropriate descriptive analysis to present. Besides, I will perform chi-square analysis as my inferential statistics on the data set. After that, I will rely on the underlying theoretical basis to decide on the significance of the results. Based on the theoretical analysis, an alpha value of 0.05 is used as a point of reference to determine the relationship and importance of the analyzed variables. For p-values less than 0.05, the interpreted data is statistically significant to all the tested variables. Additionally, any p-value greater than 0.05 indicates insignificances between the chosen variables imply the need to drop the research hypothesis and use the null hypothesis. I will apply this framework to determine the relationship between my variables and find the most appropriate hypotheses between the research and the null hypotheses I identified earlier.

The first process of my analysis will involve determining central tendencies for the data by running it in the SPSS software to generate frequency distribution tables. The frequency distribution tables will be descriptive tests, which I will use to determine the mean, median, standard deviation, and related measures for descriptive statistics. On inferential statistics, I will generate a bivariate table followed by a chi-square analysis to determine the relationship between the variables identified. I will repeat the process for all three independent variables to assess their effects on the dependent variables and their relationship using the p-value.


From the results, I will be able to make relevant inferences from the variables analyzed to determine the relevance of research questions and hypotheses. The results are presented in tables and distribution figures generated from SPSS. The results are generated based on the analysis of the effects of independent variables on the dependent variables shown. The results are analyzed through chi-square to determine the relationships between independent variables and dependent variables. Achieving an accurate analysis has involved a generation of a bivariate table to be used alongside chi-square to predict the significance of the results by comparing it to the p-value.

Ethnicity was my first independent variable considered nominal data since it is a noun with general categorization. Under the variable, I analyzed different ethnicities used in the study, and they included Native Indian American, Asian, Black, Latino, Native Hawaiian, White, Multiracial, other, and I don’t know. For convenience and ease, I removed the category “other” while handling the data by marking it as missing to allow for easy analysis of multiracial data. Ethnicity and IV entailed all these racial subcategories, implying that the researchers used a large sample size during their investigation. Also, they selected the most affected ethnicities in the regions as far as the topic is concerned. Based on the results from my analysis of the variable, I ranked the races based on the highest respondents to the lowest. The order was whites, Latino, Blacks, Asians, multiracial, native Indian American, other, and native Hawaiian.

Results on the first independent variable indicate ethnicity/race involves different responses across the identified races. The outcomes for the analysis of responses by each race are presented in the table in the appendix section. From the table, it is evident that whites were the majority when responding on frequencies of creative encounters and technological use. 69.6% of white participants reported their love for creativity and a positive perception of human creativity. The group showed a frequency of 3231, which is a high frequency indicating their positive response to the variable. This suggests that many white participants who participated in the study believe in the importance of human creativity and also love creativity. Creativity herein included education-based and art-based creativities. The second race was the Latino, which recorded 10.9% of individuals having a positive perception of human creativity and the passion or love for the same. Even though there is a huge gap between the percentage of whites and Latinos, the results show that 10.9% of Latinos in the location of the study area have a positive perception as far as education-based creativity is concerned.

The Latino had a frequency of 507, indicating a positive response of the population to the creative-based activities. The third position from the analysis was the Blacks, with a 7.2% response in support of the hypothesis. According to the respondents, 7.2% of the total participants who responded that they love creativity and have a positive feeling about it were Blacks. The frequency for Blacks as far as the attendance of creativity-based activities are concerned alongside their responses on the same was 387. Asians showed a frequency of 333 and a percentage of 7.2 to become the fourth race on the list. The figure indicates that 333 Asians responded positively to the good side of creativity among human beings in the sample used. Multiracial participants generated 2.1% with a frequency of 98. An implication of this is that individuals’ participants in the study who had mixed races showed up for the responses for a total of 98 participations. Among all the respondents across the sample, only 49 native Indian Americans showed up for the replies, adding up to 1.1% of the total participants. Other races constituted 0.6% of the total respondents, with an absolute number of 30. Lastly, only ten native Hawaiian, comprising 0.2%, participated as respondents in the study.

On the second independent variable, income level, household three used generated results with two frequencies. The two frequencies entailed data of individuals with income below $ 75 000 and individuals with income above $ 75 000. 60.5% of individuals withhold income below $ 75 000, equivalent to 461 participants, and 39.5% of individuals with household income above $ 75 000, equal to 301 participants, were recorded. The data were analyzed by generating a frequency distribution table in figure 2 in the appendix section.

Education’s third independent variable showed different results based on academic levels. Some college level was the leading with a frequency distribution of 1615 constitution, a percentage of 34.8%. Next were college graduates with a frequency distribution of 1354, constitution 29.1%. Next were high school graduates with a frequency distribution of 1054, representing 22.7%. Next was post-graduate high school, with a frequency distribution of 513, representing 11.0%. Lastly, 1-11th grade showed a frequency distribution of 109, representing 2.3% of the total participants.

The bivariate table assisted me in determining the significance of the results by comparing the results to those of the chi-square test. Based on the theoretical framework of p-value, I made relevant conclusions based on level of education as an IV and perception of individuals on creativity as DV. The analysis of Chi-square generated a p-value of 0.000. based on the theoretical framework, any p-value below 0.05 indicates that the relationship between the variables in question is significant. I also conducted a chi-square test for the relationship between race and perception of creativity among individuals. I got a p-value of 0.00, indicating the strong significance of the two variables. Therefore, the relationship between the level of education and the perception of individuals on creativity is significant, hence, the validity of the research hypothesis.


From the results, it is evident that all the independent variables identified affected the dependent variables. Ethnicity is a major factor affecting the level of creativity among individuals. Some ethnic groups are more exposed to technological advancements and positive environments for creativity than others. Ethnic groups with high exposure to technology and a positive perception of the invention are likely to embrace high levels of creativeness compared to others (Assari, 2018). For example, whites are likely to embrace creativity due to the positive environment and perception of creative-based activities they have been brought up. Other ethnicities, such as Blacks and Latino, may have different unconducive settings from varied cultural backgrounds that may hinder their perception of creativity. Multiethnic individuals showed a relatively slower response due to the mixed cultural beliefs hindering their perception of the invention. Race as a social factor is a major determinant of human perception of creativity (Acar et al., 2019). The main reason for this is the cultural perspective of each race across the globe. Like the differences in religion and science, some ethnic groups do not believe in creative innovation since every superior thought is left to beliefs. Therefore, individuals from such ethnicities may find a hard time participating in creative-based practices.

The income level is another factor that greatly influences individuals’ perception and passion for creativity. From the results, individuals with high household income levels are less likely to participate in creative activities than those with low household incomes. The results are based on the fact that individuals from low-income households may have better reasons for involving in creative activities, especially art-based creativity, to boost their income. Art-based creativity, such as music, drawing, and dancing, is used by many youths worldwide as a source of income (Brimhall & Mor Barak, 2018). However, the difference in attendance of creative-based activities between high and low-income individuals may be minimal. The number of individuals from low-income households who are most likely to attend creative-based functions is slightly higher than those from high-income families. The main reason for this observation is that those from high-income households normally participate in such processes is spectators, while those from low-income households attend as participants with the main aim of boosting their income. Participants are more likely to take the events at heart compared to spectators.

Lastly, education also plays a major role in determining individuals’’ perceptions and activities in creative-based events. A high level of education is associated with a positive perception of creative arts and educational-based creativity. The individuals responsible for technological inventions and innovations have probably attained higher educational levels. Creativity also entails an intensive thinking process, implying an active involvement of the brain’s schema. Therefore, the highly educated are more likely to develop creative ideas than the less educated.


Acar, O. A., Tarakci, M., & Van Knippenberg, D. (2019). Creativity and innovation under constraints: A cross-disciplinary integrative review. Journal of Management45(1), 96-121.

Adams, R. L. (2017). Powerful examples of artificial intelligence are in use today. Forbes. artificial-intelligence-in-use today

Assari, S. (2018). Parental education attainment and educational upward mobility; role of race and gender. Behavioral Sciences8(11), 107.

Bakas, F. E., Duxbury, N., Remoaldo, P. C., & Matos, O. (2019). The social utility of small-scale art festivals with creative tourism in Portugal. International Journal of Event and Festival Management.

Brimhall, K. C., & Mor Barak, M. E. (2018). The critical role of workplace inclusion in fostering innovation, job satisfaction, and quality of care in a diverse human service organization. Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance42(5), 474-492.

Christian, C. S., & Scott, C. N. (2022). Characteristics and Use Patterns of Outdoor Recreationists on Public Lands in Alabama—Case Study of Bankhead National Forest and Sipsey Wilderness Area. Resources11(3), 26.

Kassymova, G. К., Tokar, O. V., Tashcheva, A. I., Slepukhina, G. V., Gridneva, S. V., Bazhenova, N. G., & Arpentieva, M. R. (2019). Impact of stress on creative human resources and psychological counseling in crises. International journal of education and information technologies13(1), 26-32.


Table 1

Race Frequency Percent
Native Indian American 49 1.1%
Asian 333 7.2%
Black 387 8.3%
Latino 507 10.9%
Native Hawaiian 10 0.2%
White 3231 69.6%
Multi-Racial 98 2.1%
Other 30 0.6%
Total 4645 100%

Fig. 1

Fig. 1

Table 2: Level of Income

Income Frequency Percent
Below $75,000 461 60.5%
Above $75,000 301 39.5%
Total 762 100%

Fig. 2

Household Incomes

Table 3: Level of Education

Education Frequency Percent
1-11th Grade 109 2.3%
High School Graduate 1054 22.7%
Some College 1615 34.8%
College Graduate 1354 29.1%
Post-Graduate School 513 11.0%

Educational Level

Informatics In Healthcare Essay Example

Executive Summary

Patients can stand to benefit significantly from improved healthcare informatics systems. They can access reliable healthcare information and proper healthcare services. The use of informatics systems improves healthcare accessibility, effectiveness, and safety. Examples of informatics systems include electronic health records (EHRs), remote patient monitoring (RPM), and laboratory information systems (LIS). EHRs are increasingly used in the organization of patient care. However, it creates challenges in the protection of patient privacy and confidentiality. There are applicable laws for EHR users and healthcare organizations to protect patient privacy and confidentiality. The laws ensure that high professional standards are maintained within a healthcare organization. Healthcare organizations implementing informatics systems must train their employees in the appropriate techniques required when using the systems. It will ensure the protection of private and confidential information following institutional policies. The systems developed must meet the regulatory requirements. It should build flexible and robust privacy settings that protect patients’ information.


Healthcare informatics integrates healthcare sciences, information science, computer science, and cognitive science to improve patient care’s safety and quality. Healthcare informatics blends practical concepts with technology (Hoyt & Yoshihashi, 2019). It provides a robust healthcare data infrastructure allowing easy access to patient records. Healthcare is one of the biggest digital industries embracing information technologies. Healthcare informatics has been around for the past three decades. It has experienced rapid growth while incorporating evolving technology within the medical field. There have been improvements in healthcare outcomes, patient education, and care delivery in health systems.

Christiana Care Hospital is the healthcare organization of choice. The hospital adopts healthcare informatics systems to acquire, store, and retrieve information in healthcare and biomedicine. The organization has shifted its focus to quality improvement, evidence-based medicine, and data accessibility and security for its patients (Cowie et al., 2017). The study aims to assess informatics currently used in Christiana Care Hospital. It will further provide recommendations on how the organization improves its informatics systems to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare. The study begins with an executive summary, followed by an introduction, then conducts an analysis of informatics systems and ends with a conclusion.

Informatics Systems

Healthcare informatics organizes theories, knowledge, and information from a computerized system. It focuses mainly on providing support to the well-being of the human population. Through this process, public health becomes highly protected from infectious diseases (Pramanik et al., 2020). The information works with advanced technologies in solving problems related to health system management. It means incorporating data through science and organizing the necessary knowledge appropriate for patient care. Public health interventions are effective just like the data supporting the information (Coiera, 2018). The quality and safety of patient care are offered through various forms of public health informatics intersecting between data, humans, and technology. The informatics systems in public health include electronic health records (EHRs), remote patient monitoring (RPM), or telehealth and laboratory information system (LIS).

Electronic Health Records (EHRs)

Electronic Health Records (EHRs) application at Christiana Care Hospital has replaced the patient paper records. Traditionally, patient information was documented on paper or in medical books. However, the introduction of EHRs in the organization has enabled the collection and storage of medical information on each patient electronically (Evans, 2021). The records include health information, doctor visits, test results, and healthcare treatments. EHRs make patient information secure and available instantly to authorize users. The system is real-time and patient-centered in storing their information. The information about the patient medical history can be shared with other healthcare facilities upon patient authorization. Christiana Care Hospital can share its information with the facility of choice if the patient wants to change to a different healthcare organization. The interlink built with other health facilities allows for easy transfer of patient information (Foxman & Kilcoyne, 2018). No paperwork is required to make information available to the authorized user from another end. Therefore, the organization has eliminated the traditional paperwork.

The radical transformation of the world by digital technology has not left the organization out. Web-enabled devices, tablets, and smartphones have transformed the lives of people and how they communicate (Aziz, 2019). Healthcare is an information-rich industry. It requires a specialist to obtain information from a patient before making laboratory test requests. The information is recorded in a manner that can be retrieved easily. The laboratory department also takes information like the name of the patient, age, sex, and tests requested. The test results are sent to the doctor electronically to minimize errors or loss. The patients will receive improved healthcare services when healthcare providers have access to full and accurate results (Pramanik et al., 2020). Electronic Health Records (EHRs) reduce medical errors, improving the ability to make diagnoses. The healthcare providers at Christiana Care Hospital agree that EHRs allow them to deliver quality services to patients. They can easily access patient information and make diagnostic changes if the patient does not respond well to previous treatments.

Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM)

The organization uses Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) to provide medical sensors for transmitting patient information to healthcare providers. The system is also called telehealth. It uses communication technologies and digital information to manage healthcare remotely (Otokiti, 2019). The commonly used technologies are computers and mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Telehealth may be the technologies being used by healthcare providers or those used by patients at home. Telehealth in the organization aims to make healthcare delivery easier for people living in remote areas. The introduction of the telehealth system has proven that technology meets healthcare. Patients in remote areas have access to healthcare like those in the health facility. Sometimes the patient may find it difficult to travel to the health facility (Cowie et al., 2017). Healthcare providers may also find it difficult to balance their schedules and travel to remote areas. Telehealth will remain one of the best technologies ever in healthcare during an epidemic.

The healthcare providers at Christiana Care Hospital are using RPM for remote monitoring of patients with blood pressure and blood sugar levels. The system benefits patients with hypertension and diabetes. Patients with these chronic conditions may not require moving from home to the health facility (Cowie et al., 2017). Diabetes could be accompanied by swelling of the lower limbs, and such patients only need home care. The data collected by RPM are transmitted to the doctors to make clinical interventions. It helps make quick diagnoses when the pressure is high, or there is an increased sugar level. These dietary conditions must be constantly monitored because the patients can easily go into shock. To easily monitor these patients, the doctors at Christiana Care Hospital have connected their electronic gadgets with the patient (Pramanik et al., 2020). The doctors confirmed that this informatics system has allowed them to monitor chronic conditions from remote areas. The implementation of telehealth has helped the organization during the Covid-19 pandemic as people were forced to work from home.

Laboratory Information System (LIS)

The Laboratory Information System (LIS) allows coordination between doctors and laboratory officers. It helps manage outpatient and inpatient tests for hematology, microbiology, chemistry, immunology, and parasitology (Foxman & Kilcoyne, 2018). The doctor enters the patient information into the software, which reflects in the laboratory. The patient is then sent to the laboratory, where laboratory investigations are conducted. LIS links the laboratory departments apart from the clinical department. The results from different departments are easily merged into the system before they are released to the doctor. For example, the doctor may request a full blood count and malaria tests conducted in the hematology and parasitology departments, respectively (Aziz, 2017). These are independent departments carrying out specified tests. However, once all the results are out, they are merged, and the final copy is sent to the doctor. It makes it easier for the doctor to have a complete copy of the results from the laboratory without logging into the departments independently.

The doctors and laboratory officers at Christiana Care Hospital use the Laboratory Information System (LIS) to coordinate between the clinical and laboratory departments. It is confirmed that the system is making work easier for patient management. The patients do not have to wait for the results in the laboratory after sample collection (Otokiti, 2019). They wait for the results at the clinical department. The results are sent to the doctor directly and cannot be manipulated. A copy of the result remains in the laboratory, where it can be retrieved when needed. The results are available even during the subsequent visits for easy patient follow-ups. The hospital uses a standard information system for the laboratory (Aziz, 2017). The system manages patient demographics, specimen entry and processing, and final results release. Therefore, patient data is protected from loss in the facility and can be accessed by authorized individuals. LIS has promoted effective coordination of doctors and laboratory officers in patient management.

Findings and Recommendations for EHR

Christiana Care Hospital has implemented Electronic Health Records (EHRs) software faster. The hospital has registered for EHR Incentive Programs since its initial implementation. The organization is among the eligible healthcare providers implementing EHRs in the United States (Evans, 2021). The program accounts for over 388,000 practices to which the organization must adhere. However, although the organization has successfully implemented the initial stages, the initial usage is never easy. The resources, time, and cooperation from the entire process have not been easy. Some barriers have been faced in the usage of this informatics system. They have posed a serious threat to the organization in the continued implementation of the system (Pramanik et al., 2020). Also, Christiana Care Hospital does not have to stop its continued implementation since it is one of the outstanding healthcare organizations. Barriers are common in implementing any strategic plan, and EHRs are no exception.

The discussions with healthcare providers have realized some challenges with the system. Firstly, the computer’s technical ability (Coiera, 2015). The ability of computers to retrieve and send information depends on their age and location. The software requires an internet connection to transfer information from one point to another. Sending information to rural areas is stressful due to poor network coverage compared to urban centers. Secondly, some people on board may not know about using EHRs (Cowie et al., 2017). The patients and healthcare providers easily give up on the system when there are technical malfunctions. The patients would even think of visiting the doctor rather than waiting for information to be sent. Thirdly, the cost of use may be expensive (Aziz, 2017). The technological advancements in healthcare information can require additional costs. Investing in training and the physical infrastructure at the initial stages is expensive. Therefore, the following recommendations have been made to the organization’s Electronic Health Records (EHRs) system.

Firstly, Christiana Care Hospital should consider security concerns while implementing electronic health record systems. The security measures should target both the internal environment as well as the external environment. A security officer must be designated to work with a team of experts on health information technology (Iyenga et al., 2018). The team should identify possible threats and weaknesses of the system and address them appropriately. Security, privacy, and confidentiality responsibilities should be assigned to a nurse manager or nursing staff member. Patient information should never leave the healthcare informatics systems without patient authorization. The hospital is tasked with storing data, but full ownership remains with the patient.

Secondly, the organization should use safety experts to advise on the customization, implementation, and use of electronic health records. A customized EHRs system meets the practice’s needs and responds to the practice’s problems more than the generic system (Hoyt & Yoshihashi, 2019). The templates and specialty-specific tools provide an intuitive experience in the system. An organization that prefers dealing without professionals is likely to perform much better. A team of professionals on the same subject has a pool of ideas that can be used in implementing a system. They are experts in a particular area and understand what should be done to achieve desired objectives. They advise on the integrity levels of the system at the initial stages.

Thirdly, the system users should avoid documentation errors at all costs. It would ensure proper data integrity during collection and use. The users of healthcare information systems should be provided with adequate training on its operations (Otokiti, 2019). They have to get equipped with the necessary troubleshooting mechanisms to avoid system failure. The system management must address the gaps that could lead to data manipulation, intentionally or unintentionally. It would ensure that data integrity within the system does not become compromised. An alert has to be created to inform the system manager if an unauthorized person tries to access the patient information.

Fourthly, the organization should be keen on healthcare informatics systems users who misuse their privileges. Some healthcare providers perform unauthorized actions such as browsing through patients’ records. The system should develop mechanisms to protect patient information (Iyenga et al., 2018). Expansion of the healthcare system exposes it to more vulnerable attacks. Thus, the systems have to be continuously updated to prevent easy access. Also, lay-off employees may leave with crucial information on the functionality of the hospital’s systems. Appropriate measures are required to kill individuals with malicious acts in the systems’ operations. It is an area of interest since experts can interfere with the healthcare system information unnoticed. It will need another team of experts to identify such illegalities.

Fifthly, the organization should perform a formal usability assessment of the system. Standard test cases are necessary to understand the systems’ functionality (Evans, 2021). It then provides measures for adverse events. The EHR system can be appraised based on the usability references cataloged and perceived by usability evaluators. There are defined expectations that need to be reached by the system. Standard compliance is valid for the system and users. A manual guide provides the standards of compliance for operating the system. There should be ease of use by the system to show that it meets the usability assessment. It can only be demonstrated when the users are not struggling with the system.

Lastly, it would be more appropriate for the organization to look into the future. Even though electronic health record is a current trend in the healthcare management system, it would be more important to focus on working as a leader with healthcare agencies (Evans, 2021). It calls for the need to lead in improving the quality of care by upholding the professional code of ethics. The healthcare providers will display both technological and healthcare competence while handling patients. The electronic health record systems have full information about the patient. The organization has the sole responsibility of protecting this information from a breach. The organization’s system must guarantee future protection of patient data.

Ethical Issues and Policies

The main ethical issues in healthcare informatics systems are privacy and confidentiality. Ethical issues occur when choices have to be made in healthcare informatics systems (Mason, 2017). The answers may be unclear, and the available options may not be ideal. The result could be reduced quality of care for the patients. Thus, it could also result in challenges in clinical relationships between healthcare providers and patients. Moral distress could also result, defined as knowing the right thing to do without being allowed to do it. Informatics systems’ handlers are more susceptible to legal and ethical issues in information access and moral distress (Foxman & Kilcoyne, 2018). It is because they are entitled to mentoring and leadership roles in healthcare. The information systems experts look to the system managers for reliable, ethical decision-making.

Privacy and confidentiality are fundamental rights that exist in healthcare management. Research showed that it is the responsibility of healthcare providers to safeguard such rights concerning the personal health information of the patients (Mason, 2017). Every informatics systems handler should have the understanding and respect necessary for patient privacy and confidentiality. The connection between medical practitioners and patients relies on the confidence established. Privacy refers to the right of patients to keep their personal health information from being disclosed (Iyenga et al., 2018). They play full control over how other individuals get access to themselves. Confidentiality refers to how the system users treat the private information about the patients once it has been disclosed to them. The patients disclose their personal health information to healthcare providers due to trust. They believe the information disclosed to doctors would remain confidential. The following healthcare policies have been put in place to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of patient information.

Firstly, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) should conform. The policy was implemented to improve communication between healthcare providers and their patients. It also improved communication between healthcare providers and patients’ relatives (Mason, 2017). The effect of this law has been felt in the whole healthcare informatics system. The law provides rights for every patient and safeguards the rights of every employee. Christiana Care Hospital has stressed the significance of ensuring privacy and confidentiality for all patient information since the writing of the Nightingale Pledge took place. Effective communication allows for transparency in providing patient information (Cowie et al., 2017). The patient is also assured that the information provided is protected. All the information is within the hospital’s reach and can only be issued once authorized. The data are stored electronically and are not prone to loss. They are available for future reference during healthcare visits designed by doctors.

Secondly, there should be adherence to Personal Health Information Protection Act (PHIPA) formed in 2004 by the government. The policy was passed due to the sensitive nature of privacy information (Iyengar et al., 2018). It was to provide general guidance to healthcare professionals. It also ensured that the patients had peace of mind while seeking healthcare services. In the recent years following its enactment, it has become a personal health information laws model in the United States. The informatics systems users in the healthcare organization should remain cognizant of the law moving forward (Aziz, 2017). It includes adhering to its requirements and application in this increasingly interconnected digital age. The Personal Health Information Protection Act, 2004, has set rules for collecting, disclosing, and using personal health information. It has been defined as “health information custodians,” encompassing broad categories of individuals and organizations (Mason, 2017). The healthcare providers fall under the custodian and are subject to the Health Information Protection Act.

Thirdly, compliance with the fundamental guiding principles identified by the Information and Privacy Commissioner on patient information collection and use should be compliant. The policy directs the custodian to collect, use and disclose the patient’s personal health information upon being issued with full consent by the patient or unless the Act permits to do so (Iyengar et al., 2018). The custodian should not collect, use, or disclose personal health information if the current information provides the same solution of interest. The custodian must not proceed with collecting, using, and disclosing personal health information if the information does not meet the intended purpose. Besides, there should be express consent before collecting, using, and disclosing personal health information. These refer to personal health information that may be used for fundraising purposes. The Act provides a mechanism for complaints about persons who believe someone else has contravened the Act.


Healthcare informatics is experiencing rapid growth due to technological advancements in healthcare systems. The growth touches every aspect of healthcare organization in modern health systems. Several factors have shaped healthcare informatics, including healthcare reforms, computerized data storage and records, and the urge to improve patient care and safety. The definition and delineation of informatics scope into subspecialties. A focus on Christiana Care Hospital has revealed the use of informatics systems like electronic health records (EHRs), remote patient monitoring (RPM), and laboratory information systems (LIS). An investigation of electronic health record systems (EHRs) has revealed challenges experienced with the system. Privacy and confidentiality are the main ethical issues in informatics systems. It is the responsibility of every healthcare organization to ensure the protection of patient information. Sharing of patient information between users and other healthcare organizations will increase in the future. Thus, the patient demand for transparency and accountability will grow with national benchmarks.


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