Individual Needs Development: The Importance Of Determining The Development Needs Of An Individual And Their Identifying Essay Example For College

Abstract

The purpose of this report is to emphasize the importance of determining the development needs of an individual, to explain the process of identifying individual needs and the methods that may be applied in formalising training for the individual.

Development needs

This may be viewed as any learning activity which is directed towards future needs rather than present ones, thus the purpose is to strengthen future human capital requirements. It is also focused on increasing chances of individual growth. Samples of development needs may include a need for managers to be able to utilise new facilities in the work place, replacement of retiring staff with a new one, and a necessity to prepare employees to accept change (Bigge & Shermis 2003).

Importance of determining the development needs of an individual

Generally, the benefits are that with a well trained and thoroughly oriented workforce; they will turn out a high standard of goods or services, probably in a more cost-effective manner than the others, and, therefore, with a better chance of achieving organisational goals (Bigge & Shermis 2003). An outline of potential benefits of identifying development needs of an individual may include:

Increase in personal repertoire of skills;

  • Increased job satisfaction;
  • Increased value of employee in the labour market which refers to the general view of that employee within the realms of the industry;
  • Improved prospects of internal promotion which refer to high chances of raising up the managerial ladder;
  • Stable labour force which means to have an internal client that is able to counter challenge forces of employee turnover;
  • Updating the quality of manpower, which is achieved through continuous education plan;
  • Developing strength for survival, which is attained through having a team that adopts to change rapidly;
  • Expansion and diversification.
  • Utilisation of production at optimum level.
  • Improving moral of employees, which refers to a positive inward feeling of an individual towards a particular task or duty.
  • Preventing managerial obsolesces, which is achieved by ensuring that the team is up to date with the new changes in the industry.

Systems of identifying individual needs

Every business process training can be very wasteful if not carefully planned and supervised. Without a logical systematic approach, some training may only be a proof of sheer waste of resources (Megginson & Boydell 1984). The systematic approach to identifying the development needs may follow varying programs such as the following ones:

  1. Job is analysed and defined. This may be achieved through counter referencing of job recruitment and specification and outlined job description at the time of induction.
  2. Reasonable standards are established. This may be achieved through contrasting the new expectations versus the experienced employees (Internal clients).
  3. The employees being considered for training are studied to see if the required performance standards are being attained through a probable effective training program. Such programmes are custom made as a result of needs identification (Training gaps).
  4. Identifying the training gaps. Though it may be due to faults in the organization, such as poor materials, defective equipment, compromised job description. It is, however, of vital importance to highlight an answered questions that rise out of the daily operations of the production unit. These questions may be why there is an increase of wastage, increased absenteeism, compromised on quality of the final product. Such questions become the foundations and solutions of training gaps.
  5. Training is given and appropriate records kept. Such records are considered useful in evaluation and validation of the training program conducted. This is further described with mnemonic “APPROACH”.

Management by objective clearly shows a different technique by reviewing measureable performance in job descriptions, any disparities between expected standards and performance levels show possible training needs, also known as training gaps (Mager 2004).

Methods Used to Formalize Training for the Individual

Systematic survey and analysis of training needs will be concluded and revealed by making an effective training program analysis which may be summarized by a training proposal in the form of a training plan. The training plan may be different which is explained by the different results of development needs analysis, but basically the criteria of formulating a training plan that answers solutions to training gaps may take a format that answers concerns under the following headings.

  • Programme Aims: a general statement as to what the intention of the training is. A sample may be: “This programme is to improve the skills of frontline managers in troubleshooting the issues of tetra pack packaging unit, to avoid unexpected breakdown of the machine.”
  • Target groups: identification of those for whom the training is intended (All grade 6 frontline managers and those involved in maintenance of production packaging unit).
  • Programme contents: this may address the topics to be covered, the learning objectives, activities to be employed, and the methods of learning proposed. Ideally, this is what handles solution of training gaps as outlined in the needs analysis.
  • Programme Evaluation: proposals for estimating the relative success of the training in respect to objectives achieved and level of validation done. This dictates weather the programme met its core purpose.
  • Administration and costing: details of timetable for programme, location of activities, release of staff from normal duties, expenses and costs. Ideally, this handles the logistics of the training programme. Though most of the critics are that the expenses of training existing staff are too high as compared to recruiting new employee who are already trained in the field under focus. It is also argued that the time consumed in training the staff is much more than that used to introduce the new staff that is much qualified and that is already experienced.
  • Training staff: his handles identification of staff to be deployed, both specialist trainers and line or departmental staff, as required. This is often in off-job training plans. They may be out sourced or picked form the pool of high performing employees (Tyler 1969).

Conclusion

From the findings of this report, it is evident that every organization is faced with the dilemma of Human resource development, as a key component in any firm. Factor that dictates the ample plan of training is dictated by circumstances around the training gap, degree of change desired, resources available and economic value of the programme to the organization

Works Cited

Bigge ,Morris L. and S. Samuel Shermis. Learning Theories for Teachers. 6th edn. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon, 2003. Print.

Mager, Robert F. Preparing Instructional Objectives. Mumbai: Jaico Publishing House, 2004. Print.

Megginson, David and Tom Boydell. A Manager’s Guide to Coaching. London: British Association for Commercial and Industrial Education, 1984. Print.

Tyler, Ralph W. Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. Print.

How Technology Has Changed Communication?

Introduction

Social networks have made communication simpler, faster and better by enhancing accessibility in both social and business fields. Millions of people use social network sites to carry out financial transactions surf the net as well as carry out financial banking. Unlike use of hi-tech computer programs, social networks require minimal internet knowledge. Such networks have enabled individuals stay in touch with fiends and families and share unlimited information as well as interests.

Additionally, professionals in human services and social workers have greatly benefitted from social networks since it has facilitated exchange of information, exchange of knowledge and access to empirical data (Mika 29). Social networks are also utilized by business people to communicate and to make transactions. In business social networks, entrepreneurs augment their potential profits through online adverts and word of mouth.

However, social networks have quite a number of pitfalls. Even though these networks enable users to relay important data, conduct online conversations, share information on bulletin boards and also retrieve information, it is quite cumbersome to reveal the exact identity of users since personal details may be changed any time based on preferences. Users who conceal their identity during communication may exploit merits of this domain. For instance, such users may opt to post information that is not suitable.

It is imperative to note that social networks are vital for learning. The use of social networks has become a global phenomenon among students. What used to be a technological tool has turned into a popular social tool and a form of electronic communication that many students from various backgrounds have used in institutions of learning, in enhancing family relationships and even among themselves (Grant & Meadows 215).

How technology has changed communication

Thesis statement

Even though social networking is powerful and helpful development in communication bearing in mind that it has made communication simpler and faster, cases of cyber-bullying from users who hide their true identities behind monitors has been on the increase. It is an issue of concern since inasmuch as it does not involve direct physical contact, its effect on individuals preyed upon is grave than actual contact and as such, may lead to suicide and depression.

Analysis

Background

The use of mobile phones, digital and interactive technologies as well as the internet by cyber users to target other people with the aim of making them feel embarrassed, humiliated, harassed, threatened and tormented amounts to cyber-bullying. Research studies indicate that cyber-bullying begun with the introduction of worldwide web. Through this, individuals were able to connect with each other through social networks.

The study on how technology has changed communication is interesting since it touches on all aspects of society especially on how individuals relate. This study attempts to explore how modern communication has been modified by highlighting merits and demerits of social networks as well as other areas of importance affected by social networking.

To begin with, it is imperative to note that social networking has become a favorite method of communication among countless number of people including teenagers and adults. Unfortunatey, the varied groups of users have been and as such, they have been negatively impacted.

Therefore, this study topic is of great interest since it provides an opportunity to learn how contemporary communication has been affected by emergence of social networks bearing in mind that communication is a crucial aspect that any given society cannot do without. For example, one of the important issues of concern that have been brought about by social networks and which this essay has explored in depth is cyber-bullying,

Emotionally distressing issues are common among children and teenagers today and according to sociologists, quite a significant percentage of these individuals find it cumbersome to come face to face or talk frankly about their emotional distress and would rather turn to social networks. It is interesting to observe that social networks provide a channel through which they can overcome fear while presenting their issues.

This has also been seen in schools where shy students who cannot speak in public actively participate in class discussions done online. However, this too plays a role in affecting their relationship with each other since some use it to bully others. Consequently, it negatively impacts on their capacity to interact well with others.

While users tend to enjoy the new approach of communicating through social networks, the latter, as aforementioned, has also led to cyber bullying such that users are more wary when interacting with unfamiliar people. Some users perceive modern communication (social networks) such as use of Facebook and twitter to be unsafe (Bahk et al 73).

There are tendencies towards bullying of children or other adolescents causing them to suffer from fear, anxiety and depression. Recent research studies have indicated that cyber bullying can cause potential harm through serious consequences more than just psychosomatic symptoms or suicide.

Cyber-bullying

Technology is a phenomenon which has transformed our society in both excellent and awful ways. Other than the fact that social networks can be used for communication, to do various assignments, perform educational functions and other diverse functions, it is without doubt that it carries with it threats that most people are not aware of. To start with, before social networks came into place, communication was executed in specific areas like in homes or offices where phones were stationary and attached to a table or a wall.

This has drastically changed, and social network sites are now common in society. Individuals can access their friends and families through social network applications such as Facebook found in their computers and phones (Brynko 11). As such, they are able to use this technology anywhere and at anytime to communicate.

However, children or teens use social networks to target their fellows. Instances of cyber-bullying instigated by a teenager against another are on the rise and some of its grievous and diverse effects on victims include embarrassment, humiliations, harassments, threats and torments (Harris & Harris 292).

This important tool of communication has indeed changed the way individuals relate. Instead of it being a channel of proper communication, it provides a cover where a cyber-bully hides to post embarrassing and rude posts using lewd language.

Communication through social networks has virtually changed modern society and way of life. Preteens, teens or children are able to pass information to friends in terms of online conversations, text messages or e-mail. According to research studies done in the recent past, many people have expressed their like for social network as a means of communication and have lauded it for its efficiency. This could be due to social impacts that this mode has on the society. (Fuery 10).

This greatly affects the well being of individuals. However, this technology has turned a mode of communication into a theatre of war where bullies and victims- since roles keep changing- trade hurtful words (Papacharissi 60). The impact after such an incident has been either children committing suicide or killing each other. Inasmuch as it beneficial to many, it is imperative to underscore the fact that it causes social disorder (Fuery 10).

Another issue posing a problem to communication is threats by social networks. The debilitating and confusing information can be due to effects cyber-bullying children are exposed to and lack of coherent array of information (Anon 2).

Information in form of threats has dangerous effects in the life of children and teenagers as it can cause potential disastrous consequences from ill-founded decisions, misunderstandings that may cause depressions and suicides and other related issues (Kilduff & Tsai 73). Children who like social networks least understand the possible effects of social disorder that cyber-bullying in through social networks can cause.

To sum up, as already mentioned, internet predators that hide behind the safety of a computer screen have preyed on their victims through threats and intimidations (Rizavi et al 907). Individuals send written forms of communication and online voice calls to other members making them anonymous to them and thereby harassing and causing them harm. This can prove to be harmful to the teens that still need guidance and are unaware of the dangers of the predators.

What are the causes of the problem

Research studies have pointed out a myriad of issues and a thread bare analysis of the causes of cyber-bullying among children and adolescents. Among those issues include revenge, the fact that an individual enjoys anonymity, control or power and ignorance. The latter is by all means true since most children and teenagers lack knowledge of the impact their words have on others.

They use lewd language to generate some excitement or to kill dullness. The issue of exercising power and control over others among teens and children is another cause of cyber-bullying aimed at satisfying the ego of bullies.

Additionally, children would be free to post anything on the internet to bully others when they know they are anonymous. The fact that they are not being watched gives them confidence against any chance of being found and of any immediate consequence.

Finally, like adults, children and teenagers also display the nature of revenge. Miserable children often look for means to get back at others who have ostracized them. As a matter of fact, since children don’t maintain friendships for long, there is a high chance that revenge can cause a vicious cycle of cyber-bullying.

Proposed solutions and who can help

Due to the aforementioned problems such as identity theft, harmful conversation from unscrupulous people and cyber bullying from social networks sites such as Facebook and Twitter, it is important that appropriate measures to tackle this problems be put in place by both parents and teachers in learning institutions. Some of the proposed solutions for this study involve the participation of parents, teachers in schools and the young people.

First, children in learning institutions involved in cyber-bullying should be thoroughly disciplined. However, this poses a challenge to learning institutions when children are out of school and as such any form of discipline would be considered violation of children’s right of speech. These call for schools to work hand-in-hand with parents to curb cyber-bullying among children.

Secondly, parents should understand their children. Even though some children could be instigators of cyber-bullying, parents should be there for them when things go wrong. They should not under react, overreact or reject them. Being supportive will shield their children from harm caused by cyber-bullies. It will also provide an avenue for parents to guide their children on what is right.

The most viable is teenagers and children taking a stand against cyberbullying since it originates from them. They should be informed on the need to be careful when interacting with unfamiliar individuals (Rizavi et al 904). In case they feel uncomfortable and suspicious of the other communicator, it would be better to end that communication.

Conclusion

In summing up, it is vital to note that most people who interact through social networks may hide their true identities behind their computers, it is imperative for users not to lay an assumption that other communicators are who they claim to be.

Even though social networks are important for communication, personal information such as surname and location should not be given to strangers. Individuals should investigate social network sites they intend to use and incase of cyber bullying; the same should be reported to appropriate authority.

Works Cited

Alemán, Ana Martínez & Wartman, Katherine Lynk. Online social networking on campus: understanding what matters in student culture. New York: Routledge. 2009.

Anon. Sophos threat report reveals significant increase in social networking security threats. 2011. Web.

Bahk, Mo et al. Digital media dependency, relational orientation and social networking among college students. Communications of the IIMA 10.3 (2010): 69-78.

Brynko, Barbara. Trust in social networking.Information Today, 28.7 (2011): 11.

Fuery, Sean. Three ways merchants and their online social networking habits might cost you. ISO & Agent 7.2 (2011): 10.

Grant, August E. & Meadows, Jennifer Harman. Communication technology update, Volume 10, Part 2006, Oxford: Elsevier, Inc. 2006.

Harris, Richard & Harris, Richard Jackson. A cognitive psychology of mass communication, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. 2009.

Kilduff, Martin & Tsai, Wenpin. Social networks and organizations. California: SAGE Publications. 2003.

Mika, Peter. Social networks and the Semantic Web. Barcelona: Springer- Science+Business Media, LCC. 2007.

Papacharissi, Zizi. A networked self: Identity, community, and culture on social network Sites. New York: Routledge, 2011.

Rizavi, Sayyid et al. User perceived quality of social networking websites: A study of Lahore region. Interdisciplinary Journal of contemporary research in business 2.12 (2011): 902-913.

Physician Assisted Suicide

Physician assisted suicide is a term used to refer to the assistance given to a terminally ill patient by a professional medical practitioner who gives a prescription of a lethal dose that will terminate the life of the patient without suffering, but with request from the patient (Kopelman & De Ville, 2001).

This topic has become a household debate in the world. The term suicide is used conventionally to mean premature death of a person. The debaters have taken a number of standpoints in their arguments such as religious, legal and general moral setting of the society.

The use of this term physician assisted suicide has brought debate on the actual meaning of the term suicide. In physician assisted suicide the term suicide has been defined as the timely death of a person with the assistance of a doctor due to a terminal illness (Kopelman & De Ville, 2001). To some debaters, this has tied the doctors to the actual killing of people. This has raised several ethical questions such as whether doctors should be held responsible for murder.

The argument used to tie doctors to the death of their patients is that terminally ill patients are often incapacitated and thus, they cannot make an informed decision regarding their lives. To ensure that the physicians are not sued for assisting terminally ill patients, the medics came up with a program that included involuntary psychiatric treatment to the patients without their consent. This further leads to another ethical issue surrounding the issue of physician assisted suicide.

As a result of the impression that had been painted on the term physician assisted suicide a number of professional bodies united and they appealed that the word “suicide” be changed. This was because only people who are mentally ill and disturbed are incapable of making competent decisions and as a result they are the only ones who have the capability of committing suicide. The terminally ill patients have full sanity and therefore, they can make rational decisions to end their lives or not.

This led to the adoption of the term physician aid in dying and its practices were mandated by the Washington and Oregon Death Dignity Act, which insisted on elaborating that only decision-competent patients whose disease give them six or less months of living are eligible to ask for a physician aid in dying and not suicide as a number of debaters had tried to imply.

The public opinion of physician assisted death is mixed. In some states, the public supports physician aid in dying. In Washington State for instance, residents voted in favor of physician aid in dying for terminally ill patients who have less than six months of living.

Other countries that have legalized physician aid in dying include the Belgium, Netherlands and Switzerland, however, the ground rules that guide its practice are varies from country to country. All the other countries, the practice of physician aid in death is illegal and is practices illegally.

However, it is important to note that even in countries that physician assistance in dying is legally accepted, the opinions of the populace remain highly divergent. For instance, the residents Washington voted 58% to allow the practice to come into effect and 42% opposed the new legislature. The controversies that come with the debate were based mainly on the definition of life and at what stage does it become important to terminate it.

The opponents of physician assistance in dying process have argued that terminating life leads to a death that is not dignified. This argument has been based on the notion that human life is dignified and no human induced processes should induce it. The proponents of this view assert that people should undergo natural death regardless of the consequences as any assistance in death is considered premature and therefore uncalled for.

I n America, the public is greatly divided on this issue of physician assisted suicide with two thirds of the population being aware that there are certain illnesses that bring a lot of suffering. Some argue that the patient’s suffering should be terminated through the assistance of the doctors especially where the patients suffer from terminally ill infections.

However, the opponents of assistance in dying have stubbornly held that patients should be let to undergo a natural death as opposed to any form of assistance for their death (Beauchamp et al, 2007). This shows the sensitivity of the debate. Physicians too are divided on this issue with individuals giving that the practice is ethically justified, but physician professional organization such as the American Medical Association have argued that physician assisted suicide undermines the integrity of the medical profession (Beauchamp et al, 2007).

The proponent of physician assisted suicide as being ethically justifiable argues that physician assisted suicide is a way of expressing compassion. They argue that most terminal illnesses come with a lot of pain and as a result a lot of suffering to the patients. The patients need people to take care of them which lead to loss of independence and lowering of dignity of the patients. In other cases, the patient could be in a coma and they do not have functional capability of their bodies.

They have to be taken care of. Being dependent could put the self-esteem of the patient in danger. This means that physician assisted suicide could be the only compassionate way of relieving the patient the pain. After all, why jeopardize the confidence of a person and who will eventually die? (Beauchamp et al, 2007)

Secondly, they argue on the basis of individual liberty versus the state interest. The state is mandated to protect life. It is mandatory that every state safeguards the life of its citizens. The society is mandated to protect life and thus, it takes it as its duty to ensure that there are minimal deaths especially from quarters that are mandated to protect life (Braddock, 2011).

The third reason that motivates the proponents of physician assisted suicide is their argument that the practice is rampant, but continues to happen in secrecy. Since the practice has been happening and will continue to happen, it should be made in a transparent manner.

Despite being outlawed in all states of the United States apart form two, physician assisted suicide continues to be practiced in secrecy. The fact that it is practiced in secrecy makes it a crime equivalent to madder. This leads to the ethical question whether it is sound for people entrusted to protect life to prematurely end it. (Beauchamp et al, 2007).

The fourth argument advanced by the proponents of physician assisted suicide is that matters pertaining life should be left to be personal opinion. They reckon that a person is self autonomous and therefore, should be left to make his or her own decision independently.

They argue that the disease ailing an individual causes pain to him or her only and therefore, when death beckons and the circumstances that result in their death are personal. They propose that people with the right frame of mind should be left to choose the timing and the way that they are going to die (Beauchamp et al, 2007).

On the other hand, people who oppose physician assisted suicide have advanced several arguments in favor of their views. Firstly, is the sanctity of life. Life is sacred, it is given by God and only God has the power to take it from a person. They vehemently prohibit any method that can be used to terminate human life. They hold that physician assisted suicide is morally wrong because it puts an end to human life and, therefore, should not be practiced regardless of the case (Beauchamp et al, 2007).

Secondly, they hold that once physician assisted suicide is legalized; there are possibilities of it being abused. They argue that not all people have access to quality healthcare and as a result, those who lack that power will be forced into using assisted suicide as the alternative. Bed ridden patients are dependent and at times the cost of ensuring that their well being is upheld can be very high which my result to relatives opting to use physician assisted death as an alternative to ease themselves from the financial burden.

According to the opponents, this represents one of the possible cases of abuses that this legislation may bring about. Another issue of ethical concern would be the legal cover that may be given to people who may induce this practice to patients who may not be willing to undergo an assisted death, but have no capacity to influence the decision of the decision makers concerning the patient’s life.

Legalizing assisted suicide therefore would be equivalent to snatching the power of self will towards a patient’s life from the patient (Braddock, 2011).

Another possible abuse may be related to property crimes where the patients with vast property are assisted to have quick deaths probably to benefit from the property left behind. The system that advocates for the adoption of physician assisted suicide fails to recognize the possible abuse loopholes that may be utilized to for the benefit of the supposed beneficiaries.

Thirdly is tarnishing of professional integrity. The opponents argue that medicine from the beginning was held with safeguarding life and not taking it. This means that the implementation of physician assisted suicide will harm the professional integrity of medical practitioners (Braddock, 2011).

According to Braddock, Medical practitioners are trained to support life as opposed to assisting towards its end. When the practitioners are allowed to concentrate on ending life, they may loose the public confidence as life savers which would lead to deteriorated medical standards.

In conclusion, my personal opinion regarding this subject is that the overall wellbeing of the society is the most important thing and thus, there are specific incidences where physician assisted suicide should be applied. In my informed opinion, people who are terminally ill and are willing to undergo an assisted death to end their suffering should be given a dignified sendoff.

Forcing such people to undergo pain and suffering waiting for natural death should be an uncalled for trouble that ought to be avoided. Therefore, under exceptional circumstances, this practice should be encouraged.

Reference

Kopelman, L. M. & De Ville, K. A. (2001) Physician-assisted suicide: what are the issues? New York: Springer

Beauchamp, T., L., Walters, L. & Kahn, J., P. (2007). Contemporary Issues in Bioethics. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company

Braddock, C., H. (2011). Ethics in Medicine; Physician Aid-in-Dying. University of Washington School of Medicine. Web.

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