Prior to the age of the Renaissance in Europe, people were taught to think about enjoying their afterlife to come rather than finding happiness in their daily life on Earth. In Christopher Marlowe’s Doctor Faustus, the age of the Renaissance was in full bloom, enabling the character to become consumed with individualism. Because the Renaissance enabled people to worry about their own happiness, Marlowe was able to create a character who in his quest for happiness takes extreme measures. Marlowe’s character is a complex one that taught the people of Marlowe’s time to think about how far they went to achieve happiness.
Though the use of symbols, foreshadowing, and character description, Marlowe paints the picture of a man tormented by his quest for individualism. In Doctor Faustus, symbols play a rather large role in helping to show the consumption of individualism in Faustus. In Faustus’s quest for happiness and knowledge he makes many choices that are seen as extreme and outlandish because of how far Faustus is willing to go to get what he desires most in life. In order to gain all of the knowledge and power he wants, Faustus signs his soul away to the Devil; “MEPHASTOPHILIS.
That I shall wait on Faustus whilst he lives, so he will buy my service with his soul. FAUSTUS. Already Faustus, thou must bequeath that for thee. MEPHASTOPHILIS. But Faustus, thou must bequeath it solemnly, and write a deed of gift with thine own blood, for that security craves great Lucifer. If thou deny it, I will back to hell. FAUSTUS. Stay, Mepahstophilis, and tell me, what good will my soul do thy lord? MEPHASTOPHILIS. Enlarge his kingdom FAUSTUS. Is that the reason he tempts us thus? MEPHASTOPHILIS. Solamen miseris socios habuisse doloris FAUSTUS.
Have you any pain that tortures others? MEPHASTOPHILIS. As great as have the human souls of men. But tell me Faustus, shall I have thy soul? And I will be thy slave and wait on thee, and give thee more than thou hast wit to ask. FAUSTUS. Ay Mephastophilis, I give it thee. MEPHASTOPHILIS. Then stab thine arm courageously, and bind thy soul, that at some certain day Great Lucifer may claim it as his own, and then be thou as great as Lucifer. FAUSTUS. Lo Mephastophilis, for the love of thee, I cut my arm, and with my proper blood assure my soul to be great Lucifer’s.
Chief Lord and regent of perpetual night. View here the blood that trickles from mine arm, and let it be propitious for my wish. MEPHASTOPHILIS. But Faustus, thou must write it in manner of a deed of gift. FAUSTUS. Ay, so I will; but, Mephastophilis, My blood congeals and I can write no more. MEPHASTOPHILIS. I’ll fetch thee fire to dissolve it straight. FAUSTUS. What might the staying of my blood portend? Is it unwilling I should write this bill? Why streams it not, that I may write afresh: “Faustus gives to thee his soul”? Ah, there it stayed! Why should’st thou not?
Is not thy soul thine own? Then write again: “Faustus give to thee his soul” (1. 5. 31-69). The one symbol that becomes rather clear that is important is blood. As Faustus signs away his soul to the Devil, his blood congeals, making it impossible for him to sign away his soul. As a reader it should become apparent that Faustus should have stopped when his blood would not allow him to physically sign away his soul. The blood also symbolizes the permanence of what Faustus has done on his quest for individualism. This symbol also becomes important in the final days of Faustus’s life.
Because Faustus signed his soul away to the Devil for what he considers to be his ultimate happiness, his pride gets in the way as he lays on his deathbed, seeing the blood of Jesus Christ run across the sky, which symbolizes sacrifice, and Faustus, blinded by his individualism and fear, is unable to repent and save his soul from damnation. During the play, foreshadowing is used in excess in order to show how Faustus’s quest for individualism will lead to his ultimate damnation. While blood plays a part as a symbol, it also plays a part in the foreshadowing for Faustus’s damnation.
Blood normally only congeals after a person has died, however Faustus’s blood was congealed as he went to go sign away his soul, foreshadowing his death and damnation. Another sign of foreshadowing appears on Faustus’s arm, after he signs his soul away. The words Homo Fuge which mean “Fly, man! ” appear on Faustus’s arm after selling his soul, which to any other human would mean that the situation they are in is not a beneficial one, however to Faustus, he is determined to achieve knowledge and power, thus he ignores the sign.
The last piece that completes Faustus as an individualist has to do with his descriptions and background. In the beginning of the play, the introduction tells the audience about how Faustus’s swelling pride will eventually lead to his downfall. Faustus is different than most characters of the time however, he is different because he is described as well educated and versed in many areas of society. Doctor Faustus is one of the first plays that truly focused on the plight of the individual rather than the plight of society as a whole.
Overall, Marlowe’s play was an epic piece that advanced the society because it enabled the people of the time that could read of course, to see how individualism can be both good and bad in society. In this case, it was mostly a horrible situation because Faustus was so consumed with his quest for knowledge, that he let his pride get the better of him, and that was eventually his downfall. ? Works Cited David, Alfred, and James Simpson. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York City: W. W. Norton and Company, 2006. Print.
Response On War By Luigi Irony And Comments
1. b) The conflict in the story War is an internal conflict within the fat traveler. The fat traveler lost his son and tried to hide his lamentation by being judicious. In the story he gave a speech to the other parents who travelled on the train informing them how their sons were born not only for the parent’s benefits. “If country is a natural necessity like bread, of which each of us must eat in order not to die of hunger, somebody must go to defend it. ” Here the fat man advises the parents that if they really do love their country sending their sons out to protect it should make them feel proud. Everyone should stop crying: everyone should laugh, as I do… or at least thank God, as I do, because my son….. the best way he could have wished. ” But this is very odd in a sense. Yes for sure till this point in the story we can say that this man is wise and open minded. He is very proud how his son fought for the country and the sacrifice of his son is very worthy and something he can recover from. This is why, as you see I do not even wear mourning” and “and our sons go, when they are twenty…. they die inflamed and happy” makes it very clear that the man has pride for his son.
However, the conflict is presented when the woman bundled in corner asked “Then…is your son really dead? ” and the fat traveler “[fixed] his great, bulging, horribly watery eyes” and “broke into harrowing, heart-rending, uncontrollable sobs. ” The fat traveler realized how his son is dead and gone forever. He feels just like all the other passengers, he regrets that his son took part in the cruel war that took away his son’s life. He does not think that giving birth to his son was for the country’s good and not his own.
The fat man cannot possibly allocate himself anymore. This is why throughout his journey on the train he was just trying to cover up his true feelings and mourning. This father finally stripped off his mask and faced with reality. As all walls tumble down for him, the internal conflict is not resolved it is only weaved deeper in his heart. He tries to express himself to others how he wants himself to be like: a proud father who thinks that his son’s sacrifice is worthy and to comfort himself through his own words.
This is why the internal conflict of the story is how the fat traveler or any parent is in deep love with the country it is not possible for them to let go the parental bond and not wear mourning for the loss of their children. The irony in the story is interconnected with the conflict. The irony in the story is where this fat traveler is comforting everyone and being a wise and an understanding parent. But actually he is the one who needs help the most as he is the one who cannot recover his wounds in his heart about the loss of his son.
As all the other parents are just complaining and being depressed of how their children are in the war and they have no idea when they will return or not. But the fat man is forcing himself to put on a false mask and seemingly act how he feels pride that his son fought for the country and the sacrifice of his son was because he was protecting the country which is something that should be treated dignity and respect. The fat traveler also says that his son is glad how he ended his life in such a way.
By acting prudent he tries to comfort himself and transform the sadness into proudness. In the end he fails as he starts “uncontrollable” sobbing and became “horribly distorted” as he realizes “his son was really dead…gone forever… forever…” This is an irony because it is exactly the opposite how the situation would be like. This man should not be crying he should be thanking God how he described earlier about how his son “ended his life in the best way he could” and hot knowing “the ugly sides of life…. bitterness of disillusion”.
The man is the one who understands all the other parents and the one who offers valuable words for them because he apprehends them and is trying to convert them in thinking that their son is fighting for a better country, a country that the parents and the children love. He should not be the one needing the comfort and bursting into tears as when others ask about his son’s death when he is already over the stage of mourning. 2. This story is about war but it does not talk about the battle field or soldiers who are fighting for the war. To me the comment that I would make is a war can change everything.
War is as small as a sound of a gunshot, or as big as the damage Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion can make. In the story “War” by Luigi Pirandello what I can understand is that the changes that a war can make to individuals are ineradicable and very hard to forget. The fat traveler tried so hard to forget about the sorrow he has about losing his son. He put on a fake mask and pretended to comfort the others when he needed comforting and compassion the most. In the end he finally expressed the pain by bursting into tears that could not be controlled.
In other words human nature is to deny information that will create negative effects (in the story the loss of son) and deny certain truth (in this case the fat man’s son as he finally realizes is gone forever). As another example the bitterness that the Jews suffered from the Germans or the cruel crucifixion that the Chinese endured in the Second World War from the Japanese is ingrained into history and everyone nation/worldwide. Some of the pains are carried through generations of people and are impossible to forget.
A loss of a child is a loss of everything to many parents and the fat man is just one normal dad. The joy of waiting for the birth of your child, giving care and watching them walk then go to school, find a job, get married ,start a family and your child watching you passing away is what a parent would expect. However, a father who did not even see how his son die or say goodbye is now trying to not mourn but be optimistic, this is very hard and in a short period of time it is very hard to achieve. Moreover, his son is only twenty.
This is the period of your life where you should be enjoying everything and experiencing everything. However, the fat traveler’s son spent his best ages and last times in a war. No one would call that a nice memory in your early adulthood. Nonetheless, as parents this is a truth that is unacceptable. Other comments that the story makes is the point of how a sudden insight or realization of the truth is very hurtful and devastating (the loss of a son is not easily recovered). The fat man thought by being optimistic and wise he could relieve some of the grief of losing his son. But this proves to be a mistake.
The fat man tries so hard to persuade himself into believing that “our children do not belong to us, they belong to the country…” and”… they die inflames and happy. Now, if one dies young and happy without having the ugly sides of life…. ” Nevertheless he did not succeed. A “fat, red-faced man with bloodshot eyes” whose “bulging eyes seemed to spurt inner violence of an uncontrolled vitality…” transformed immediately into a man whose “missing teeth was trembling” and “ bulging, horribly watery light grey eyes” suddenly “broke into harrowing, heart rending, uncontrollable sobs. He cannot believe that his son was gone forever. And the realization of this fact completely turned him down and beat him hard to the ground. This father has poured tremendous energy in constructing the facade that he hides his grief behind. In the end he turned to look at these people before whom he has so strongly defended the war. This shows that it is extremely challenging to extricate oneself from the mourning of the loss of a family member in particularly one’s child. And the sudden realization of a truth that you are unwilling to accept the aftermath is too dreadful to contemplate.
Bmw Npd Case Analysis
The text describes BMW’s concept-to-production strategy, which involved hand-building and assembling prototype cars in its in-house prototype shop.
BMW faced a crucial decision regarding whether or not to explore a new method of constructing cockpits. This involved outsourcing the fabrication of cockpit prototypes to external suppliers who would utilize more advanced tools. In addition to this decision, BMW identified three overarching strategic issues: increasing product variety, enhancing the frequency of product introductions, and improving the quality of newly launched models. By examining the pertinent details of the case, we can further categorize these problems into specific challenges, which are outlined below.
Prototypes were manually constructed with common tools.
The prototypes and mass-produced vehicles differed greatly in construction. Therefore, any design problems that arose during the prototype phase were not detectable until pre-production testing. However, this issue could be avoided by constructing the prototypes using the same tools as those employed in pre-production.
The production tools and final engineering details were obtained when the final design was settled 16-18 months before the planned product launch. As a result, the suppliers had less time to resolve any issues encountered during pre-production.
BMW’s quality complaints in comparison to competitors may be due to not allocating enough time for suppliers during the pre-production phase. To address this issue, BMW should freeze the final design well in advance of the scheduled product introduction.
During the ramp-up phase, both the old and new models were being manufactured, which created a challenge in implementing dual quality norms. This situation prolonged the ramp-up time, consequently causing delays in the launch.
The reason for implementing the mixed model ramp up was to offset the high fixed costs of the plant in the initial phase when production of the new model was not very high. However, this ramp up strategy resulted in confusion and increased complexity in logistics, making the products more susceptible to defects. Exhibit 7 of the case shows that the mixed model approach took 1.5 months longer than the sudden changeover approach to achieve full volume production during ramp-up. To address this issue, it is evident that BMW should discontinue the use of the mixed model ramp up strategy.
If avoiding it is not possible, there should be dedicated manpower for producing old and new models separately to prevent any confusion in terms of quality standards and logistics.
BMW used to take approximately two years to perfect their styling, while the Japanese luxury car manufacturers only took six months. However, BMW has recently altered their design strategy to prioritize faster product development. In order to meet their new objective of releasing a new engine, series, or redesigned series annually, BMW will need to reevaluate their current two-year styling timeline.
Upon close analysis of exhibit 2, it is evident that in 1989, there were 511,476 units of automobiles produced and 523,021 units were sold. This indicates that there was a surplus inventory of at least 11,545 units, which is notably excessive for a luxury car manufacturer. The statistics for 1990 show similar patterns. It is perplexing why such considerable inventory levels persisted despite offering personalized products.
Key characteristics of BMW cars as perceived by the customers are:
- High Performance Engineering
- Latest Technology High Style Quotient
The customizability of BMW is crucial in maintaining its perceived image. This will greatly impact the strategy to be implemented by the company. The analysis focuses on the process of prototype development, specifically hand-built prototyping.
- Useful where design is not frozen
- Better Inter-functional co-ordination
- Lower lead times
- Design changes are cheap and quick
- Allows greater creativity
- No specialized tooling costs
- Masked design and manufacturing problems
- Defects hinder the high volume production.
- Takes six months to ramp up production instead of three.
- Suppliers unable to foresee production problems
- Requires Highly skilled labor
The cost for this option used to be approximately DM 1.8 million. The proposal suggests outsourcing the final stage of prototyping to an external vendor who will utilize “pre-production” tools to create the prototype. This will result in a more automated and production-like prototype production process.
- Design and manufacturing issues, which earlier cropped up only in the latter parts of the production cycle, would be obvious in the prototyping phase
- High savings for each product launch after commercial production
- Assembling the cockpits into prototype cars in the pilot plant would give final assembly workers firsthand experience
- The design needs to be frozen 12 months in advance – thus less flexibility. High initial costs – thus design changes very costly
- Coordination between design team and prototype vendor can be a bottleneck
- High-skill culture of BMW may get hit
The cost for cockpit prototyping is estimated to be DM 8.5 million, with DM 7 million allocated for tools and the remaining amount dedicated to materials, labor, and overheads. The development of the 7-Series cockpit prototype presents a significant challenge for BMW due to the extended lead time and the high number of customer-reported defects. This has resulted in low quality rankings in the J.D. Power survey.
The use of hand-made prototypes in BMW’s design process may be the main reason for these problems. Although this strategy offers more flexibility, it also leads to longer development time for creating pre-production and production tools. Moreover, any issues at the production level are only discovered later on, which prolongs the ramp-up period and allows hidden problems to emerge during production. Therefore, by using pre-production tools during the prototyping phase, many of these problems could be avoided.
The use of pre-production grade tools in all car parts can result in savings of up to DM 100 million per model launch. This strategy is cost-effective but also carries significant risks. Late-stage design changes would require a complete redesigning of numerous pre-production tools, limiting flexibility for design engineers who must freeze the design 32 months before launch.
Moreover, the potential failure of this approach could have significant financial implications for both the E7 series project and the overall brand reputation of the company. In addition, if the suggested new prototyping strategy is not effectively implemented, it will lead to irreversible damage. Nevertheless, BMW is already facing challenges in keeping up with other high-end car makers. The purpose of revamping the cockpit using advanced precision techniques was to address this competition by providing a distinctive product in their 7-series model.
After the above discussion, it is evident that there are advantages and disadvantages to the proposed change. Since it is a drastic change that may take time to be fully implemented, our suggestion is to continue with the current methodology while also attempting to integrate the new strategy. Keeping the regular strategy in place would provide a fallback option without significant time constraints. Additionally, BMW customers are eagerly anticipating the release of the 7-series.
Any disruption in the successful launch of the company would severely harm its reputation, especially considering that customer satisfaction was already below market expectations. However, if the cost to maintain both processes is excessive, it is not wise to proceed with the new prototyping strategy. Instead, BMW should concentrate on reducing lead time and enhancing customer satisfaction by addressing quality complaints. Suggestions for enhancing launch quality.
BMW should establish a freeze on design changes, enabling the determination of quality standards before the production ramp up. It is crucial to define technical specifications well in advance during the product development cycle. This approach not only aids in freezing design alterations early on but also helps in cost-saving. BMW should employ production tools during the prototyping stage for parts that have historically encountered issues, allowing for early identification of quality and design problems associated with the production line. Integrating prototyping activities within the pilot production plant at BMW would further enhance the learning process.
Following are a few additional recommendations to reduce development lead times and improve production quality. One suggestion is to co-locate prototyping and pilot production runs. Currently, these processes are conducted in different locations. To ensure the prototype is made using pre-production grade tools, both processes should occur at the company’s main pilot plant. This will accelerate the development of production tools and enable early identification of any car design-related production problems.
Modularity is a concept that BMW should embrace, as mentioned in the case. It entails contracting an external vendor to supply fully assembled sub-assemblies such as the cockpit, thus enabling efficient identification and resolution of errors. Furthermore, individual models can be upgraded or substituted as needed. BMW can delegate the construction of specific functional modules to trusted suppliers/vendors while focusing on critical design modules internally.