Inflation: Causes, Impact, And Policy Strategies For Reduction

The paper examines the concept of inflation and explains why it is seen as a critical government goal. It employs relevant economic analysis to determine if monetary policy is the appropriate technique for the central bank to utilize to lower inflation. As a result, the paper attempts to defend the idea of inflation and why it is today seen as a vital government goal. Compared to alternative inflation-reduction approaches, the report contends that monetary policy is the most excellent choice for controlling inflation.

Inflation is an essential objective for the government.

Inflation is defined as a general increase in the pricing of goods and services over time. Costs of goods and services are tracked throughout time to determine inflation rates. Because of its effect on the economy, inflation is a primary policy goal for the government. There are a few different ways that inflation may manifest itself: demand-pull, cost-push, and built-in. When the public’s demand for goods and services rises faster than the economy’s ability to deliver them, a condition known as demand-pull inflation sets in (Bank rate increased to 2.25%, 2023). Rising input costs drive up overall production costs, a phenomenon known as cost-push inflation. Furthermore, adaptive prospects, or the idea that people believe present inflation rates will persist in the future, are linked to built-in inflation.

Cost-push

Cost-push

Source: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/05/012005.asp

The accompanying graph shows the maximum possible production at each pricing point. Since when it falls from AS1 to AS2, when production costs go up, the price goes up from P1 to P2. This is because corporations will have to raise the selling price reimbursed by consumers to maintain or grow profits, leading to inflation.

Demand-pull inflation

Demand-pull inflation

Source: https://www.investopedia.com/articles/05/012005.asp

The accompanying graph illustrates a connection between AD and available resources. When AD increases from AD1 to AD2, it will not immediately affect the AS. Consequently, there is a change in the AS curve’s undertaking, representing the quantity abundant (OECD Economic Outlook, interim report September 2022, no date). AS has evolved because AD has historically been more responsive to economic changes than AS (Bernanke, 2020, p.973). Companies cause inflation when they charge consumers more than they can afford to cover their increased manufacturing expenses.

The growing cost of goods and services is an issue when dealing with inflation. When inflation occurs, prices increase everywhere and disrupt the economy. This issue hampers consumers’ ability to spend money, and actual income loss is inflation’s major drawback. Inflation also reduces savings and a decline in available goods and services. Therefore, actions are required to address the rising inflation affecting our global economy. The main difficulty now is picking the most effective strategy for the central bank to adopt in its fight against inflation. However, monetary policy may provide central banks with the most effective means of addressing the issue.

The use of Monetary Policy to reduce inflation

What “monetary policy” means is the central banks’ overarching approach to the economy. State governments use this demand-side economic approach to attain macroeconomic goals, including liquidity, inflation, development, and consumption. In the UK, for instance, the MPC determines monetary policy to achieve the 2% inflation target in a way that safeguards employment and growth. To accomplish its goal, the MPC uses interest rates. To determine whether the economy is overheating and whether or not inflation is imminent, the MPC first examines a variety of economic indicators. Inflation over the goal will likely cause MPC to increase interest rates.

Diagram displaying fall in Aggregate Demand (AD) to minimize inflation

Diagram displaying fall in Aggregate Demand (AD) to minimize inflation

Source: https://www.economicshelp.org/macroeconomics/economic-growth/aggregate-demand/

Raising interest rates in monetary policy to reduce inflation, as indicated in the figure above, will help to limit the increase of aggregate demand (AD) in the economy. As the picture shows, a fall in AD leads to decreased inflation—lower inflation results from slower growth (Ridwan, 2022, p. 5). High-interest rates reduce consumer spending by boosting the exchange rate value, resulting in more imports and fewer exports. Higher interest rates increase the cost of borrowing, deterring consumers from spending and borrowing; higher interest rates reduce persons with mortgages’ disposable income; and raised interest rates to make it simpler to conserve money.For example, in the UK in 2022, interest rates rose somewhat in reaction to the fast growth in inflation (as illustrated in the graphic below). Raised interest rates limit aggregate demand, resulting in lower CPI inflation.

UK inflation rates

Source: https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/171249/economics/increasing-interest-rates-in-the-time-of-a-recession/

One area for improving the monetary policy strategy to lower inflation is how difficult it is to deal with cost-push inflation. In addition, faith is essential to the policy’s success. If confidence is strong, companies and individuals will keep spending despite high-interest rates. The benefits, conversely, include that central banks may put the policy into effect without prejudice since they are independent of politics (Bartsch et al., 2019, p. 14). It also implies that unpopular monetary policy may be enacted before or after elections without raising political hackles. Since monetary policies maintain economic stability, they are the most robust tool for reducing and halting rising inflation. The price and production levels are both stabilized by monetary policy. The policy controls the amount of money in the economy, and a drop in the money supply causes a decrease in demand for goods and services, lowering prices.

The use of Tight Fiscal Policy to reduce inflation

The state may influence the AD rate by adjusting its tax and expenditure policies. The government may increase taxes and reduce expenditures to reduce inflationary pressures. That will happen when AD cases drop (Sriyana, 2022, p. 85). Though politically costly due to widespread distaste for high taxes and reduction in state expenditure, fiscal policy may help keep government indebtedness to a minimum.

Diagram displaying the impact of expansionary policy

Diagram displaying the impact of expansionary policy

Source: https://www.economicshelp.org/macroeconomics/fiscal-policy/fiscal_policy/

Specifically, it entails elevating AD, as seen above. As a result, the government plans to reduce expenditure and increase revenue. Customers have a lot of discretionary income (C); thus, lowering taxes on them will increase their spending. It generally worsens the state’s budget gap, necessitating a higher level of borrowing (Yakubova & Raimova, p. 659). For instance: In 2009, the government in the UK lagged in its use of expansionary fiscal policy. The state reduced VAT in response to a severe decrease (GDP fell 6%) to encourage more consumer expenditure. As a consequence, government borrowing skyrocketed in the years following. When the new coalition government took office in May of 2010, they argued about how large the gap was before announcing their intention to reduce public borrowing as much as possible. Budget constraints were involved (What is the UK inflation rate, and why is the cost of living rising? 2023). Less economic growth occurred in 2011 and 2012 due to these strenuous efforts.

UK Government net borrowing

Source: https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/7072/economics/how-important-is-the-budget-deficit/

One of the benefits of using fiscal policy is that it can be used to allocate funds toward particular objectives, whether they are projects, regions, or sectors. By placing a monetary cost on those who cause pollution, the fiscal policy seeks to discourage the practice. Among the drawbacks of budgetary policy are Government-mandated tax breaks for purchasing imported goods. It also results in fiscal deficits when government spending exceeds annual revenue (Stupak, 2019, p. 6). Fiscal policy is preferable to interest rate rises in the battle against inflation because it reduces government financing costs.

The use of Supply-side policies to reduce inflation

When the government works to increase economic production and efficiency, it pursues a “supply-side” policy. They would shift AS to the right, promoting sustained, robust economic growth if viable. Supply-side policies may be classified into two broad categories: interventionist and free-market. Interventionist procedures include governmental involvement to overcome market failure, whereas free-market policies aim to increase market competence and competitiveness.

Profit of supply-side policies

Profit of supply-side policies

Source: https://www.economicshelp.org/macroeconomics/economic-growth/supply-side-policies/

According to the theory of demand and supply, supply-side measures should increase productivity and shift LRAS (long-term aggregate supply) to the right. Lower inflation via rightward AS fluctuation will result in a lower price level, lower unemployment, increased economic growth through an increase in LRAS, and improved trade and balance payments are all advantages of the supply side.

One of the supply side’s many benefits is that it helps reduce inflationary pressure over the long term by encouraging more excellent skill and productivity in the marketplace. The increased efficiency and productivity that results in helpful in fostering economic growth and sustainable development. Supply-side policies have several drawbacks, including high implementation costs, slow economic effects, and opposition from special-interest organizations since they weaken their influence. Since Supply-side measures are costly, there are better choices for reducing inflation.

In conclusion, inflation is a major policy priority for the government due to its effect on the economy. Inflation affects almost every part of the economy, from consumers’ purchasing power to the cost of borrowing money. Monetary policy is the most effective in lowering inflation compared to fiscal and supply-side policies.

References

OECD Economic Outlook, interim report September 2022 (no date) OECD iLibrary. Available at: https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/oecd-economic-outlook/volume-2022/issue-1_ae8c39ec-en (Accessed: 18 June 2023).

Bank rate increased to 2.25% – September 2022 (2023) Bank of England. Available at: https://www.bankofengland.co.uk/monetary-policy-summary-and-minutes/2022/september-2022 (Accessed: 18 June 2023).

What is the UK inflation rate, and why is the cost of living rising? (2023) BBC News. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-12196322 (Accessed: 18 June 2023).

Bernanke, B.S., 2020. The new tools of monetary policy. American Economic Review, 110(4), pp.943-83.

Ridwan, M., 2022. DETERMINANTS OF INFLATION: Monetary and Macroeconomic Perspectives. KINERJA: Jurnal Manajemen Organisasi dan Industri, 1(1), pp.1-10.

Bartsch, E., Boivin, J., Fischer, S., Hildebrand, P. and Wang, S., 2019. Dealing with the next downturn: From unconventional monetary policy to unprecedented policy coordination. Macro and Market Perspectives, 105, pp.1-16.

Stupak, J.M., 2019. Fiscal policy: economic effects. Congressional Research Service, pp.1-8.

Yakubova, S.S. and Raimova, M.D., 2022. Peculiarities of inflation targeting in our country. ISJ Theoretical & Applied Science, 3(107), pp.655-661.

Sriyana, J., 2022. Fiscal and monetary policies to reduce the inflation rate in Indonesia. Jurnal Kebijakan Ekonomi dan Keuangan, pp.82-91.

IT Strategic Plan For IBM

Introduction

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is a United States-based global technology organization. The organization has its headquarters in Armonk, New York. In this instance, the business has businesses in over 150 nations globally. It is important to remember that the firm opened for business in 1911 under the name Computing-Tabulating and Recording Company (CTR) before changing its name to IBM in 1924. Global business services (GBS), technology and cloud platforms, cognitive solutions, and global financial systems are the five divisions that make up this industry. According to Cortada (2018), these elements comprise a competitive advantage in the technology industry structure. Additionally, IBM is focused on software and hardware for computers, advisory services, and cloud computing services in the coming years with sophisticated artificial intelligence (AI) features (“IBM,” n.d.). Like any other company, IBM has to create strategic plans that enhance long-term viability, longevity, and efficiency. In essence, businesses such as IBM can establish the necessary funding for IT infrastructure and develop novel items to meet customers’ needs. Thus, this essay offers an extensive examination of IBM’s IT strategic plan from a wider standpoint.

Mission/ Vision of IBM

Since the company’s launch in 1911, IBM’s mission and vision have stayed unaltered. However, given advances in technology, the mission for the IT strategic plan, in this case, entails.

  • Adapt to new technologies and enterprises that have the potential to stimulate business expansion.
  • Earn a competitive advantage over rival companies.
  • Improve customer satisfaction

SWOT analysis

As noted by Roy (n.d.), an IT strategic plan must incorporate a SWOT assessment to quickly determine internal and external variables that impact the IT’s capability to bring value to the achievement of the business. One component of an IT strategic plan is a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, which looks at how far the IT department is from where it needs to be to reach the company’s goals. Typically, the IT department of a company facilitates identifying obstacles and providing the required IT resources for the previously mentioned divide. As suggested in the previous context, IBM constitutes one of the world’s biggest and strongest technology companies. Therefore, a SWOT analysis aids in scrutinizing the business’s assets, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats from a broader point of view (Erol et al., 2023).

Strengths

IBM’s reputation and brand identification are among its most valuable assets (Mengxi, 2021). IBM has been considered a technological enterprise champion for many years. Additionally, the name “IBM” is now synonymous with professionalism and creativity. The company additionally invested much in R&D, which is essential to remember. This has resulted in creating and actualizing an array of groundbreaking innovations and solutions. Thus, it is important to acknowledge that the business’s image and recognition is a strength that motivates it to invest in other IT initiatives worldwide. An extensive and global clientele is an additional property in this case. The business has an advantage over rivals in the sector due to its global and vast customer base. With an extensive clientele, the business can expand into other markets and boost customer satisfaction.

Weakness

Notably, IBM’s dependence on conventional goods and services constitutes a few of its weaknesses. Despite its attempts to adjust and embrace novel technologies, the business keeps making income from its conventional hardware and software offerings (Binns, 2022). This vulnerability is because many of these conventional technologies are obsolete, affecting the company’s general IT performance. In this case, the company’s comparatively sluggish implementation of cloud computing is another region for improvement. In essence, IBM has been implementing the cloud computing system more slowly than other businesses, such as Microsoft and Amazon, which embraced it more rapidly upon its worldwide introduction. This deficiency has caused IBM to fall behind rivals like Microsoft and Amazon. Because of this, the assertion mentioned will continue to be a deficiency in the IT strategic plan moving forwards.

Opportunities

Arguably, IBM is in an advantageous position to grow and prosper because of various opportunities. The opportunities in this setting are centered in the cloud computing arena, especially for developing new machine learning and artificial intelligence solutions (Petiwala et al., 2021). Especially since IBM recently purchased Red Hat. When it pertains to open-source software, Red Hat is a market leader. IBM’s purchase of Red Hat will bolster its standing in the rapidly expanding hybrid cloud industry. Due to its extensive clientele, IBM has the opportunity to break into new markets, especially in China and India.

Threats

IBM’s greatest obstacle is rivalry from rival companies in the same sector. Competition in information technology is intense as multiple companies, such as Amazon and Microsoft, offer services comparable to IBM’s (Mengxi, 2021). Furthermore, they ought to understand that rivalry has been heating up. This is caused by an influx of successful innovators in the technology industry. Traditional competitors like IBM have been compelled to react by stepping up their attempts in new markets, such as solutions based on artificial intelligence (AI) and cloud computing. The other threat here is the cyber security threat. The business’s brand and bottom line are susceptible to cybersecurity and data breach problems (Perera et al., 2022).

IBM has multiple benefits and opportunities in its information technology (IT) strategic plan. However, there are also dangers and challenges involved. In this regard, the business’s long-term success will heavily rely on its ability to adapt to changing circumstances in the market and embrace new technologies. Thus, to be relevant in the constantly changing technology industry, IBM must keep expanding its offerings in artificial intelligence and cloud computing, devote resources to research and development, and maintain its worldwide reputation for quality and innovation.

The Technology Investments Needed for IT Infrastructure.

International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is, in other businesses, the world’s leader in technology. IBM, therefore, needs to make investments in its IT infrastructure to support its company’s operations. Furthermore, IBM has an international IT infrastructure that is highly complex. Thus, it must regularly upkeep and improve its IT infrastructure. This is to guarantee that it stays relevant and serves the ever-changing demands of its clientele. Notably, IBM’s IT infrastructure needs hardware as its main investment. IBM manufactures and designs, undoubtedly, an array of hardware items. These products contain devices for storage, servers, and mainframe systems. Globally, organizations and governments use the stated hardware to facilitate their everyday activities. Consequently, hardware investments are essential to IBM’s success, particularly in keeping and growing its clientele. The development of software is an important additional investment for IBM’s information technology (IT) system. The Watson artificial intelligence system, in particular, has assisted IBM in achieving an excellent track record among software builders (Bini, 2018). Furthermore, it is renowned for its cloud computing services and company apps. IBM’s capability to stay on top of rivals such as Amazon and Microsoft is made possible by its considerable investment in software development. Furthermore, applications and cloud computing empower the company to meet customers’ demands. Considering the IT strategic plan in this context, IBM must keep investing in software development to guarantee that its items remain useful and relevant to consumers and high-end clients.

Spending on network infrastructure is another essential technology investment for IT infrastructure. Following Tate et al. (2018), IBM has global data centers requiring trustworthy, fast Internet access. It is also noteworthy that the business offers its customers networking services. VPNs and controlled network services belong to these network services. Therefore, the business must invest significantly in the network’s foundation to offer effective and efficient services. This needs robust Wi-Fi networks that guarantee customer safety, speed, and dependability (Tate et al., 2018). Furthermore, this will benefit the company’s growth, especially regarding online networking. Additionally, IBM must invest in cybersecurity to protect its computer systems and client information. Since the business is a leader in the field of technology, it is susceptible to cyber-attacks and threats and is an ideal target (Tao et al., 2019). As a result, IBM has to constantly invest money into technological advances and safeguards to safeguard its IT infrastructure and consumers’ data. This requires money on various innovative security infrastructures and structures, including AI-powered detection and response to threats and continuous staff training and growth.

The Reasons (justifications) for the IT as mentioned above Investments.

Notably, IBM has to invest extensively in its IT infrastructure for various reasons. In this instance, the first reason is that business activities heavily depend on technology, and the IT infrastructure is at the heart of these activities (“IBM,” n.d.). With an adequate or absent IT infrastructure that is reliable and robust, the company can efficiently provide its goods and services to consumers. From a wider perspective, the clarification above matches the justification for the IT expenditures described previously. The second rationale is that establishing an IT infrastructure allows IBM to stay competitive or acquire an advantage over related companies. As suggested in the previous context, the technological industry keeps growing. In this scenario, IBM must invest in innovative software, hardware, and network technology to stay competitive. By purchasing innovative software, hardware, and network technologies, the business can offer innovative solutions in technology to its clients. This will enable the business to remain a technology industry leader.

The rising need to satisfy client demands is likely the third incentive for the business to invest in IT infrastructure. There are no disputing governments and corporations’ expanding dependence on technology for everyday tasks. Businesses and governments have to employ cutting-edge technology techniques that can manage more data, process it more quickly, and keep it secure. Spending on IT infrastructure allows IBM to fulfill the requirements of companies and governments by providing technological alternatives to the previously mentioned clients. Moreover, expenditures in cybersecurity are crucial if they are likely to protect IBM’s systems and customer information (Tao et al., 2019). In recent years, internet attacks have grown as hackers obtain customer data unlawfully. Examples of online crime and scams have also risen in recent years. To avoid deceit and cyberattacks, IBM must invest in sophisticated safety technologies. Refusal to do so always leads to considerable financial and damage to reputation. Furthermore, it can result in legal obligations and increased dispute resolution. Consequently, IBM has to make investments in cybersecurity to protect customer data.

How IT can enable or drive the IBM business

IBM’s (International et al. Corporation) business depends significantly on Information Technology (IT) to function and progress. In this way, IT allows IBM to create and create new products and services that perfectly address customer requirements. IBM utilizes IT in various methods, one of which is data analytics. Consider IBM’s Watson AI platform as just one of the many data-analysis tools the business has developed. These devices drive IBM’s business forwards by enabling the business’s efficient evaluation of enormous amounts of data (Bini, 2018). Due to this, the company can unearth patterns and insights that would be extremely laborious or impossible to identify with manual analysis alone.

Notably, IT can improve or encourage the company’s operations by enabling the company to offer innovative technological solutions in fields like blockchain and cloud computing. IBM’s blockchain systems provide users with secure and open transfer of information and assets (Sunny et al., 2020). As a consequence, businesses keep getting more productive and free of risk. On the other hand, IBM’s cloud computing services offer users flexible and scalable IT assets. The result is a more cost-effective and efficient company operation. In addition, IT is the vitality of IBM, guaranteeing the company’s longevity. As a technology business, IBM must always be at the forefront of technological advances. This guarantees the company’s ongoing relevance in the technology field. It helps IBM develop new, technologically sophisticated, creative goods and services that continually improve current regulations. Furthermore, the previous description facilitates IBM in distinguishing itself from comparable rivals in the technology sector, thereby safeguarding its position as a leader in the field of technology. It could be claimed that IT allows IBM to run effectively and affordably in a manner that implies that the business’s computer systems and structure are mechanized (“IBM,” n.d.). This has improved the company’s productivity and reduced expenses by simplifying its operations. Ultimately, this permits the business to provide customers with high-quality solutions and services available on the market.

What IT innovations are planned?

In this case, the planned IT advances and innovations consist of the invention of quantum computing technological advances, improvements in cloud computing abilities, and the implementation of blockchain technology. When creating quantum computing systems, the business has traveled quite a way (MacQuarrie et al., 2020). Such machines can carry out computations and calculations that would require a lot longer than a standard computer. IBM’s addition of quantum computing into its range of services suggests the business’s cloud infrastructure will shortly supply customers with access to the IBM Quantum Experience. Another planned advancement in IT aims to improve the characteristics of cloud computing. Over the past few years, IBM has dedicated many resources to furthering its cloud computing abilities. This is why the business offers many forms of cloud computing, such as software as a service (SaaS), infrastructure as a service (IaaS), and platform as a service (PaaS). IBM’s recent purchase of Red Hat provided them with an important head-up in cloud services, enabling it to steadily broaden its services in this field. This will boost the business’s capacity to use hybrid clouds. Notably, blockchain technology is a prime instance of intentional IT development; it is a system of distributed ledgers that allows for open and secure money transfers. “(Sunny et al., 2020). IBM’s Blockchain Platform will allow the rapid development and distribution of blockchain-based applications for businesses and other groups.

What are the strategic IT projects?

The business’s main strategic IT responsibility is IBM’s hybrid cloud strategy creation. The company in question has been spending money on infrastructure for cloud computing in recent years, including the 2019 purchase of Red Hat (Tavakoli et al., 2017). In simple terms, the business gives hybrid cloud solutions that make it simple for companies to connect their physical infrastructure with services offered by the cloud. This approach was created to satisfy retailers and customers of exceptional quality. Public and personal cloud services, as well as on-premises infrastructure, are frequently needed to satisfy the requirements of these consumers and high-end customers. The other strategic IT initiative is the development of IBM’s artificially intelligent (AI) and machine learning (ML) abilities. IBM has made major investments in AI and ML, particularly with the Watson AI platform. One of the most sophisticated and extensive AI platforms is IBM’s Watson. IBM sees the creation of cutting-edge artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) as strategic IT importance because of the possible advantages they might have for companies and governments worldwide. IBM’s other strategic IT strategy is centered on cybersecurity. Cybersecurity is an essential requirement for organizations and organizations globally. The mentioned business created the IBM Security Intelligence Platform to offer enhanced detection and response to threats abilities. More generally, this shields companies and governments from possible cyber-attacks and threats.

Why Strategic IT projects have Strategic Importance

IBM must utilize a hybrid cloud tackle to offer clients an array of cloud service solutions that can be customized to their particular needs. Using this approach, IBM can assist businesses that need a mix of public and private cloud services in addition to physical infrastructure. In contrast with competitors like Amazon and Microsoft, the business may stand out by giving consumers an extensive selection of customized alternatives. On the other hand, IBM has made the creation of machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) one of its top IT priorities since these skills will aid businesses in effectively handling and analyzing enormous amounts of data. Due to this, businesses can make decisions with greater certaintyConsequently, integrating AI and ML allows the business to offer creative answers to complex issues facing the company (Marr, 2019). Furthermore, this expenditure gives IBM an unfair advantage in the technology industry. Notably, organizations and governments across the globe necessitate cybersecurity. Thus, the creation of safeguards protects customers of IBM from cyber attacks and risks, which are growing more frequent and difficult to identify (Tao et al., 2019). With its security capabilities, IBM will be able to satisfy the growing need for cybersecurity solutions, particularly in the context of recent prominent cyber attacks.

Cost and budget for each project

Notably, as a publicly traded company, IBM is obligated to release annual financial reports to the public. These reports outline expenses for strategic IT projects in an easy-to-understand way. Regardless of this, it is crucial to keep in mind that the budget for every undertaking is subject to shifting as the project grows and as novel needs are identified. The strategic IT initiatives stated in the context previously, such as the widening of the hybrid cloud strategy and the creation of AI and machine learning abilities, will likely demand more money. In this case, an important amount of money is also needed for cybersecurity.

Strategic IT Project Budget and cost for each project
Extension of a hybrid cloud approach $35 billion
Creation of machine learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence capabilities $25 billion
Cybersecurity system $15 billion

The short-term goals and the long-term goals and Timelines

Considering industry trends and the performance of the business, IBM’s short-term purpose is expected to be to create and enhance its existing goods and services while growing into fresh markets. For example, the business may exist to broaden its cloud products and raise its market share in the extremely competitive cloud computing business internationally. Furthermore, IBM’s immediate goals include creating new machine learning and artificial intelligence applications to provide creative solutions for companies and governments. IBM’s future goals will likely center on keeping its technology industry leadership status. Constant expenditures in innovative technologies such as quantum computing, blockchain, and cybersecurity will contribute. This can additionally be completed by broadening its reach into new developing markets, boosting client satisfaction, and extending the company’s global reach from a wider point of view. Regarding schedules, it is vital to know that short-term objectives will have a duration of three years, while long-term objectives will entail a timeframe of six years. In addition, because of the size and scope of the initiatives outlined in the previous context, the mentioned timeframes may be prone to variation.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this paper offers a comprehensive examination of IBM’s IT strategic plan from a wider point of view. The article starts by addressing the mission and vision of the company. The context then covers the study of IBM’s SWOT (strengths, vulnerabilities, opportunities, and threats). The paper emphasizes and builds upon the technological investments needed to build IT infrastructure. The setting additionally offers the justifications for picking the outlined investments in technology for IT infrastructure. Particularly the paper additionally addresses how IT may power IBM’s operations and its planned innovations for the business. The paper examines strategic IT projects and their tactical importance in more detail. From a broader point of view, the paper stresses the cost and budget for each commitment. The previous context ends by delineating IBM’s long- and short-term goals with its strategic IT projects, along with their relative timelines.

References

Bini, S. A. (2018). Artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, and cognitive computing: What do these terms mean, and how will they impact health care? The Journal of Arthroplasty, 33(8), 2358–2361.

Binns, A., O’Reilly, C. A., & Tushman, M. (2022). Corporate Explorer: How Corporations Beat Startups at the Innovation Game. John Wiley & Sons.

Erol, I., Ar, I. M., & Peker, I. (2022). Scrutinizing blockchain applicability in sustainable supply chains through an integrated fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making framework. Applied Soft Computing116, 108331.

IBM – United States. Www.ibm.com. https://www.ibm.com/us-en?utm_content=SRCWW&p1=Search&p4=43700050478421002&p5=e&gclid=CjwKCAiAmJGgBhAZEiwA1JZolu2GcCPikvx_9a4k5ybM9BiQhvTjoFZ_uWm2mWmAfG4pltJBW-R6ZBoCpfkQAvD_BwE&gclsrc=aw.ds

MacQuarrie, E. R., Simon, C., Simmons, S., & Maine, E. (2020). The emerging commercial landscape of quantum computing. Nature Reviews Physics, 2(11), 596–598.

Marr, B. (2019). Artificial intelligence in practice: How 50 successful companies used AI and machine learning to solve problems. John Wiley & Sons.

Mengxi, W. (2021). Business Culture and Strategy–Take IBM as an example. Journal of Sociology and Ethnology, 3(5), 124–130.

Petiwala, F. F., Shukla, V. K., & Vyas, S. (2021). IBM Watson: Redefining artificial intelligence through cognitive computing. In Proceedings of International Conference on Machine Intelligence and Data Science Applications: MIDAS 2020 (pp. 173-185). Springer Singapore.

Sunny, J., Undralla, N., & Pillai, V. M. (2020). Supply chain transparency through blockchain-based traceability: An overview with demonstration. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 150, 106895.

Tao, H., Bhuiyan, M. Z. A., Rahman, M. A., Wang, G., Wang, T., Ahmed, M. M., & Li, J. (2019). Economic perspective analysis of protecting big data security and privacy. Future Generation Computer Systems, 98, 660-671.

Tate, J., Beck, P., Ibarra, H. H., Kumaravel, S., & Miklas, L. (2018). Introduction to storage area networks. IBM Redbooks.

Tavakoli, A., Schlagwein, D., & Schoder, D. (2017). Open strategy: Literature review, re-analysis of cases, and conceptualization as a practice. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 26(3), 163-184.

Legal Issues Relating To Employment, Labor, Or Employment Law

Part 1. Employee Monitoring 

Define and explain wrongful termination.

When employers unlawfully dismiss employees, it becomes a wrongful termination case. This happens when laws protecting workers’ labor rights, policies set by authorities, and agreed terms within the employment contract are violated by employers. This situation may include discrimination based on age, race, or gender; retaliation for reporting employer misconduct and violations regarding contractual commitments; breach regarding related state and federal laws protecting employee rights.

Discrimination-based wrongful termination happens when employers fire employees based on race, gender identity or expression, religion, age, disability status, and other traits legally protected by employment laws. For example, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination. At the same time, The Americans with Disabilities Act protects disabled individuals from being discriminated against at workplaces hence firing someone based on these grounds is considered illegal and unfair. Firing employees who engage in legally protected activities such as reporting criminal activity or filing grievances without cause constitutes retaliatory termination, hence unallowed.

In addition, if one has an employment contract that outlines conditions required before a proper termination of their terms, violating these guidelines leads to wrongful termination. When faced with such situations, one can resort to legal action tools available, including recourse measures like reinstatement and compensation. For leading advice concerning workplace violations, it is advisable to consult workplace violence experts or seek professional legal guidance.

Explain and support your conclusion using only Arizona employment laws. 

We must analyze pertinent legal principles to assess whether John was wrongfully terminated following the Arizona employment law procedures. First and foremost, it is essential to highlight that Arizona follows at-will employment guidelines, which facilitate either party(employer/employee) to end their work relationship without reason, provided they do not break any laws without employment contracts or collective agreements existing in question. The outcome of this phenomenon offers companies a considerable amount of discretion.

Secondly, despite companies having relatively immense autonomy concerning firing their employees through the doctrine of at-will employment, there are certain exceptions created by law in light of public policies and infringement upon protected activities (Aroyewun, 2021). Protected workplace rights may include reporting suspicious situations like online-linked discrimination allegations and lodging anti-discrimination complaints, among many others. In John’s situation, his critical post linked with the company’s CEO, Elon Money, on Instagram was the driving reason behind his ensuing termination (Buchanan, 2019). We must validate if John’s social media post indeed comes under protected territory and if not legal.

Social media posts regarding workplace policies and criticisms do not come under any particular statutes within Arizona’s labor regulations. Being an un-contracted at-will worker gives employers broad powers over employees like John, who alleged that Instagram posts prompted dismissal for events besides illegal discrimination and retribution-related actions that are well-protected overall from termination. Hence & after examining all the available data about John’s situation, representative findings suggest that his dismissal does not comply with any discriminatory/retaliatory features discriminating against exceptional traits/activities. Regardless of what seems in compliance with Arizona labor regulations, Terminating John falls within their legal purview. Verifying our specific requirements requires consultation with an experienced counsel in employment law for your unique situation.

Part 2. Ethics 

Explain and support your response using Christian Worldview and biblical ethics. 

Determining whether termination is ethical after an employee posts sensitive content online necessitates considering various perspectives and morals involved. Within a Christian perspective guided by Biblical standards guiding morality, several ethical principles exist that may guide decision-making while tackling matters like these:

Initially, Christian ethics fosters a belief in inherent worth possessed by each person as a creation in God’s image, calling for displaying respect towards employees alongside dignity and fairness. Employees’ respectful treatment is vital to maintain such dignity that might be jeopardized when employers rush to terminate employment for posting dissenting opinions online.

The second principle respected within Biblical ethics stipulates valuing honesty and truthfulness in human interactions (Combe & Robson, 2021). If John conveyed his honest opinion reflecting shifts noticed within the office via Instagram or other platforms, terminating his employment might lead to an atmosphere where honesty is curtailed and transparent communication is stifled.

Thirdly Christianity emphasizes forgiveness and grace, regarded as crucial concepts encouraging growth and reconciliation. Personnel management could consider initiating a dialogue on alternative solutions rather than jumping into immediate termination. An interaction aimed at understanding concerns raised by employees would work better.

Lastly, the Biblical commandment guides loving neighbors as oneself while seeking justice throughout employee-employer relationships. Employers should consider the overall approach reflecting their decision’s impact on personnel facing workplace critique before making decisions (Zonder & Houghton, 2022). Firing someone consequences due to expressing views through social media may be viewed as insensitive punitive measures without providing comprehensive responses satisfactory addressing raised grievances.

From a Christian worldview and biblical ethics standpoint, terminating John solely due to his social media post could conflict with ethical considerations. A better alignment with Christian values would involve encouraging open dialogue, seeking understanding and forgiveness, and pursuing just resolutions that maintain the employee’s dignity. Acknowledging diverse ethical perspectives alongside organizations’ internal policies and standards concerning social media use is essential. Guaranteeing mutual respect between employers and employees while safeguarding respective interests necessitates establishing explicit expectations about communication conduct.

References

Aroyewun, M. (2021). Wrongful Termination of Employment in Nigeria: A Case for Reinstatement of Private Sector Employees. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.4228254

Buchanan, D. D. (2019). Defining Wrongful Dismissal: The Alberta Schism. Alberta Law Review57(1), 95. https://doi.org/10.29173/alr2567

Combe, M. M., & Robson, P. (2021). A review of the first wrongful-termination orders made under the Private Housing (Tenancies) (Scotland) Act 2016: Do they sufficiently protect those misled into giving up a tenancy? Juridical Review, 88–102. https://strathprints.strath.ac.uk/76675/

Zonder, E. J., & Houghton, E. J. (2022). Terminated ASU Women’s Lacrosse Coach Files Retaliation and Wrongful Termination Lawsuit. Cornerstone: A Collection of Scholarly and Creative Works for Minnesota State University, Mankato. https://cornerstone.lib.mnsu.edu/hp-fac-pubs/24/